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1.Compare social work in England and in the United States advantages and disadvantages in both systems

2.discuss case work process  in details

3.compare casework, family services and group work. advantages and disadvantages in each serving approach

4.when servicing underserved population what needs to be the Priorities in addressing the social/human problems

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use book also u can use one reference 

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Introduction to Social Work

Second Edition

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Introduction to Social Work An Advocacy-Based Profession

Second Edition

Lisa E. Cox Stockton University

Carolyn J. Tice University of Maryland

Dennis D. Long Xavier University

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FOR INFORMATION:

SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Copyright © 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Cox, Lisa E., author. | Tice, Carolyn J., author. | Long, Dennis D., author.

Title: Introduction to social work : an advocacy-based profession / Lisa E. Cox, Stockton University, Carolyn J. Tice, University of Maryland, Dennis D. Long, Xavier University.

Description: Second edition. | Los Angeles : SAGE, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017030913 | ISBN 9781506394534 (hardcover : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Social service.

Classification: LCC HV40 .C69 2019 | DDC 361.3—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017030913

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Joshua Perigo

Editorial Assistant: Alexandra Randall

Production Editor: Andrew Olson

Copy Editor: Cate Huisman

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Annette Van Deusen

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Indexer: Kathy Paparchontis

Cover Designer: Gail Buschman

Marketing Manager: Jennifer Jones

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Brief Contents

1. Preface 2. Acknowledgments 3. About the Authors 4. Part 1 Understanding Social Work

1. 1. The Social Work Profession 2. 2. The History of Social Work 3. 3. Generalist Social Work Practice 4. 4. Advocacy in Social Work

5. Part 2 Responding to Need 1. 5. Poverty and Inequality 2. 6. Family and Child Welfare 3. 7. Health Care and Health Challenges 4. 8. Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges 5. 9. Mental Health 6. 10. Substance Use and Addiction 7. 11. Helping Older Adults 8. 12. Criminal Justice

6. Part 3 Working in Changing Contexts 1. 13. Communities at Risk and Housing 2. 14. The Changing Workplace 3. 15. Veterans, Their Families, and Military Social Work 4. 16. Environmentalism 5. 17. International Social Work

7. Epilogue: Social Work and Self-Care 8. Appendix: Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers: Summary of Major Principles 9. Glossary

10. References 11. Index

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Detailed contents

Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors Part 1 Understanding Social Work

1: The Social Work Profession Learning Objectives Mary Considers Social Work The Professional Social Worker

Social Work’s Unique Purpose and Goals Social Work and Human Diversity

Diversity and Social Justice Intersections of Diversity

Theory and Practice Social Work Values

The NASW Code of Ethics Professionalism Advocacy

Social Work Education Social Work Degrees

Bachelor of Social Work Master of Social Work Doctor of Philosophy in Social Work or Doctor of Social Work

Field Education Certificates and Certifications

Social Work Practice Social Work Roles and Settings Levels of Practice Social Work as a Career Opportunity

Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

2: The History of Social Work Learning Objectives Brian Organizes Farmworkers Social Welfare

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Social Welfare Policy Conservative and Liberal Ideologies Social Control Social Justice

The Intertwined History of Social Welfare Policy and Social Work Colonial America: 1607 to 1783 Nineteenth Century America: 1784 to 1890 The Progressive Era: 1890 to 1920 World War I: 1914 to 1918 The Great Depression: 1929 to Early 1940s Rank and File Movement World War II: 1939 to 1945 America’s War on Poverty: 1960 to 1967 Reaganomics: 1981 to 1989 Partisan Gridlock

The Limitations of Social Welfare Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

3: Generalist Social Work Practice Learning Objectives Layla Intervenes at All Levels to Help People Who Are Homeless Knowledge Base for Generalist Social Workers Theoretical Foundations of Generalist Practice

Systems Theory Ecological Perspective Empowerment Theory Strengths Perspective Evidence-Based Practice

Roles for Generalist Social Workers Levels of Generalist Practice

Social Work With Individuals (Micro Level) Social Work With Families and Groups (Mezzo or Meso Level) Social Work With Organizations, Communities, and Society (Macro Level)

The Change Process Engagement Assessment Planning

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Implementation Evaluation

Advocates for Change Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

4: Advocacy in Social Work Learning Objectives Nancy Advocates to Professionalize Social Work in Her State The Need for Professional Advocates

Power and Social Inequality The Ethics of Advocacy

Client Self-Determination Self-Interest and Advocacy Individual Benefit Versus Community Benefit Pathways to Community Benefit

Human Aspects of Helping Social Workers and Social Change

Cause and Function Responses to Hard Times Cause Advocacy Today

The Cost of Advocacy A Model for Dynamic Advocacy

The Cycle of Advocacy The Advocacy Model in Action

Tenets of Advocacy Practice and Policy Model Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

Part 2 Responding to Need 5: Poverty and Inequality

Learning Objectives

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Steve Sees the Face of Poverty Poverty

Measures of Poverty Poverty and Inequality The Face of Poverty

Women People of Color Children People Who Are Homeless

Social Service Programs for The Those Who Are Poor Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Medicaid Supplemental Security Income Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Earned-Income Tax Credit Public Housing

Diversity and Poverty Advocacy on Behalf of the People Living in Poverty

Current Trends in Advocacy With People Who Are Poor Dynamic Advocacy and Poverty

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

The Cycle of Advocacy Your Career and Poverty Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

6: Family and Child Welfare Learning Objectives Rosa Works to Strengthen Families for the Sake of Children Today’s Families

Diverse Family Forms Divorce Separation Blended Families

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Single-Parent Households Same-Sex Marriage and Parenting Marriage Equality Cohabitation

Family Problems Domestic Violence Child Maltreatment

Child Welfare Services History of Child and Family Services Parental Versus Child Rights A Global Context for Child Protection Key Child and Family Services

Social Policy and Legislation Supporting Child and Family Services Public Attitudes Toward Services for Children and Families Social Workers’ Attitudes Toward Child and Family Services

Social Work in Schools Challenges Facing School Social Workers

Violence and Bullying Economically Disadvantaged and Homeless Students Students With Physical and Mental Challenges Teen Pregnancy

Improvements in Education to Help Parents and Children Diversity and Family and Child Welfare Advocacy on Behalf of Families and Children

Current Trends in Advocacy for Child and Family Services Dynamic Advocacy and Family and Child Welfare

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Family and Child Welfare Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

7: Health Care and Health Challenges Learning Objectives Gayle Practices Social Work in a Teaching Hospital Health Challenges and the American Health Care System

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Threats to Americans’ Health Chronic Illness Heart Disease Stress

Health Disparities and the Uninsured Health Care Policy in the United States

Health Insurance Affordable Care Act

Health Care Trends Integrative Medicine Slow Medicine Prevention and Wellness Recovery, Rehabilitation, and Resilience Inflammation Managed Care Electronic Medical Records

Health Care and Social Work History of Health Social Work Social Workers’ Roles in Health Care Practice Health Care Settings

Emergency Rooms and Trauma and Urgent Care Centers Hospitals and Acute Care Veterans Affairs Hospitals Home Health Care Long-Term Care Hospice, End-of-Life, and Palliative Care Rehabilitation Services Clinics Public Health Services

Diversity and Health Care Advocacy on Behalf of People With Health Care Challenges

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Health Care Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises

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Online Resources 8: Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Learning Objectives Joe Advocates for People With Intellectual Challenges Definitions of Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Types of Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Developmental Challenges Physical or Mobility Challenges Mental/Cognitive Challenges

Stigma and Discrimination Against People With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Social Work With People Living With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Historical Background of Services for People Living With Physical, Cognitive, or Developmental Challenges Deinstitutionalization Americans With Disabilities Act Social Work Practice With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Person-First Language Services for Persons With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Diversity and Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Advocacy on Behalf of People With Physical, Cognitive, or Developmental Challenges

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career Working With People Who Have Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

9: Mental Health Learning Objectives Joyce Seeks Knowledge to Help With Her Broad Caseload at a Mental Health Center Mental Health and Mental Illness

Definitions of Mental Health Status Normal Versus Abnormal Mental Health Mental Health Disorders and the DSM

Evolution of the Mental Health System

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Institutionalization and Deinstitutionalization Medicalization of Mental Illness Social Work Perspectives Mental Deficits Versus Personal Assets Mental Health Parity and the Affordable Care Act

Social Work Practice in Mental Health Social Work Roles in Mental Health Services Mental Health Literacy Mental Health Settings Digital Mental Health Information and Therapy

Diversity and Mental Health Advocacy on Behalf of People With Mental Health Issues

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Mental Health Social Work Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

10: Substance Use and Addiction Learning Objectives Clayton Uses His Addiction Experience in Community Outreach Substance Use as a Mental Disorder

Causes of Substance Use Codependency Addictive Substances and Behaviors

Alcohol Prescription Drugs Illegal Drugs and Marijuana Anabolic Steroids Tobacco and Nicotine Food and Caffeine Gambling Sex Addiction

Policies Related to Substance Use Social Work Practice in Substance Use and Addiction

Prevention of Substance Use Disorder

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Treatments and Interventions for Substance Use and Addiction Detoxification and Recovery Motivational Interviewing Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous Needle-Exchange Programs Methadone Treatment Programs

Diversity and Substance Use and Treatment Advocacy and Substance Use Disorder

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Substance Use and Addictions Certifications in Substance use: cadc and ladc

Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

11: Helping Older Adults Learning Objectives Emilee Adores Gerontological Social Work Aging and Older Adults

Meanings of “Aging” and “Old” Stages of Older Adulthood Longevity An Aging Populace

Gerontological Social Work Practice Evolution of Gerontological Practice Social Work Roles in Gerontology and Geriatrics Resources for Successful Aging

Living Options Day Programs Benefit Programs Culturally Competent Care of Older Adults

Issues of Aging and Old Age Biological and Physiological Aspects of Aging Cognitive and Psychological Aspects of Aging

Neurocognitive Disorders (Dementias) Depression, Mental Health, and Other Emotional Problems

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Substance Use/Addictions Sexual Activity Loneliness Suicide

Social Aspects of Aging Ageism Aging in Place Caregiving Long-Term Care Elder Abuse

Spiritual Aspects of Aging Benefits of Spirituality and Religion in Old Age Illness, Death, and Faith

Policies Affecting Older Adults Diversity and Aging

Age Class Ethnicity and Race Gender Sexual Orientation Ability Intersections of Diversity

Advocacy and Aging Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Gerontology Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

12: Criminal Justice Learning Objectives Michelle Combats Racial and Ethnic Imbalances in the Juvenile Justice System Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Types of Crimes The Contextual Nature of Crime The Correctional System

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Juvenile Justice and Corrections Conflicting Attitudes About Those Who Commit Crimes

Attitudes Toward Punishment Attitudes Toward Rehabilitation

Social Workers and the Criminal Justice System Forensic Social Work Social Work Values Regarding Criminal Justice Interactions With the Criminal Justice System

Police Courts Attorneys Corrections Officers

Victim Assistance Programs Deviant Behavior and Social Status Mental Health and Criminal Justice Issues Affecting Children and Youth

Exposure and Desensitization to Violent Behavior Parental Imprisonment

Diversity and Criminal Justice Specific Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

Racial Women

Advocacy and Criminal Justice Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Criminal Justice Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

Part 3 Working in Changing Contexts 13: Communities at Risk and Housing

Learning Objectives Tonya Supports Residents of Federally Subsidized Housing Central Concepts Regarding Communities and Housing

Community Practice At-Risk Communities

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Housing Homeownership Rental Housing Subsidized Housing Shared Housing Halfway Houses Shelters Residential Treatment Centers and Hospitalization

Social Work Practice in Housing and Communities Clients’ Housing Issues

Foreclosure Landlords Eviction Substandard Housing

Social Work With At-Risk Communities Segregated Communities Equal Opportunities for Housing Transportation and Connectivity Community Development and Resources

Policy Issues Related to Communities and Housing Homelessness Affordable Housing Community Asset Building Segregation

Diversity and Housing Advocacy and Housing

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Housing Services and Community Practice Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

14: The Changing Workplace Learning Objectives Deidre Experiences Firsthand the Realities of the Contemporary Workplace The History of Work

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Traditional Societies Agricultural Era: 1630 to 1760 Industrial Revolution: 1760 to 1840 Urbanization: 1860 to 1950 Information Age: 1960 to Present

Current Social Trends Related to Work Work-Related Issues

Unemployment Underemployment Minimum Wage Gender Inequality Harassment Lack of Union Participation Occupational Health Hazards

Social Welfare and the Changing Workplace Social Insurance Programs

Unemployment Insurance Workers’ Compensation Social Security

Social Welfare Policies Affirmative Action Americans With Disabilities Act

Diversity and the Changing Workplace Age Class Gender Sexual Orientation Intersections of Diversity

Advocacy and the Changing Workplace Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in the World of Work Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

15: Veterans, Their Families, and Military Social Work

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Learning Objectives Veteran Javier Experienced Military Life and Now Counsels Families The Armed Services and Military Culture

What It Means to Be a Soldier How War Affects Soldiers How the Military Takes Care of Its Own

Social Work With the Military and Veterans A History of Military Social Work Behavioral Health Problems of Service Members and Veterans

Traumatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Substance Use Disorders Suicide

Issues Affecting Wounded Military Veterans Issues Affecting Military Families Programs and Policies for Military Personnel, Veterans, and Their Families Social Work Assessment and Intervention Skills

Common Types of Therapy Multidisciplinary Team Approach

Diversity and Military Social Work Age Class Ethnicity/Race Gender Sexual Orientation Intersections of Diversity

Advocacy for Veterans and Members of the Military Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Military Social Work Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

16: Environmentalism Learning Objectives Betty Confronts a Natural Disaster

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Environmentalism and Social Work Social Work Leadership in Environmentalism

Mary Richmond Jane Addams National Association of Social Workers Council on Social Work Education

Ecological Social Welfare and Practice Sustainability Ecological Justice Ecological Ethics

Environmental Issues Overpopulation Pollutants Climate Change Environmental Disasters

Flooding Drought Hurricanes Famine

Diversity and Environmentalism Age Class Gender Sexual Orientation Intersections of Diversity

Advocacy and Environmentalism Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Environmentalism Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

17: International Social Work Learning Objectives Teresa Applies Her Multicultural Background to Social Work International Social Work

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Level of National Development Social Work Principles for International Practice

Transnational Identities Cultural Competence Bilingualism and Multilingualism Comparative Social Policy Principles of Ethics Charity and Empowerment Social Development

Current Issues Facing International Social Workers HIV/AIDS Child Welfare Poverty Refugees Safety and Self-Care

Diversity and International Practice Age Class Ethnicity Race Gender Sexual Orientation Intersections of Diversity

Advocacy and International Social Work Economic and Social Justice Environmental Justice Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in International Social Work International Job Opportunities Volunteering, Experiential Learning, and Field Education

Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

Epilogue: Social Work and Self-Care Appendix: Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers: Summary of Major Principles Glossary References

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Index

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Preface

When the idea of writing a book was first proposed, our thoughts turned to those people with whom we wanted to work over a long period of time. Said another way, we recognized that successful writing partnerships are built on trust, honesty, and commitment. We feel fortunate that those essential elements culminated not only in lasting friendships but in dedication to a profession that is very much part of our lives. The completion of this second edition of our book further confirms the worth of highly valued relationships, lasting friendships, and collective professional commitment.

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Our Impetus for Writing This Book

We think the second edition of Introduction to Social Work continues to be a timely new text for adoption in introductory social work courses. Why? Because our book has been crafted to align with the profession’s historical roots of advocacy for human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice. We know through our practice and community involvement with social service agencies that many social workers have been urging and taking a much more active approach in client and community-based advocacy. Throughout our book, advocacy is described at a clinical/client level and also at organizational, community, national, and international levels. We encourage readers to connect the needs of individuals with those of society by linking direct practice to policy development. Engaging in such analytical thinking integrates micro and macro practice into a holistic perspective of practice underpinned by human needs and rights.

A unique aspect of Introduction to Social Work continues to be its advocacy framework for understanding the historical development of social work, important figures influencing social work history, multiple practice settings, and the types of practice performed. The advocacy practice and policy model comprising four interlocking components—economic and social justice, supportive environment, human needs and rights, and political access—provides a lens for viewing social issues of the day. Additionally, the model serves as a vehicle to place special emphasis on human diversity, cultural competence, and intersections of diversity.

Pertinent information is provided regarding professional use of self and contemporary applications to practice settings to adapt to a changing digital workplace and world. These applications view social workers as professional practitioners and client and community advocates, thereby offering a clear alternative to the perspectives of competing books. Features such as Time to Think boxes, Social Work in Action, Spotlight on Advocacy, and Current Trends provide examples of social work’s dynamic force and contribution to confronting complicated life situations on individual, group, local, state, national, and international levels. Vignettes appear across all chapters and are modeled after real-life situations faced by professional social workers. Perhaps more important, the book’s features prompt readers to pause in thought and consider their opinions, perspectives, reactions, and strategies related to events often far from their own reality. Our book encourages readers to stretch and think beyond, to connect the dots, and to critically analyze issues, beliefs, concepts, and environments. These aspects of cognitive discourse set our book apart from other introductory textbooks.

In this second edition of our book, special attention was given to feedback from readers and reviewers of our first edition. Noteworthy changes contained in our second edition are captured below:

Areas for advocacy in social work shift over time. With the election of President Trump and a republican Senate and House of Representatives, contemporary topics involving social work advocacy and political action at the federal level have been added and updated, especially in the area of health care reform. Increased attention has been given to ethics and the need to apply ethical considerations in social work practice.

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A concerted effort has been made to include additional person-first language throughout the text. Content involving the intersections of diversity and multicultural practice has been enriched. Additional attention has been given to substance use and addiction services.

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Structure of the Book

Introduction to Social Work is organized into three parts. Part I introduces readers to a definition of social work, reviews the history of the profession, and describes advocacy as a major aspect of social work. In this section of the book, the advocacy practice and policy model is defined through examples and applications. Throughout the book, the elements of the model serve as themes for exploring practice and policy content areas and connecting them to vignettes that highlight critical features of each chapter.

In Part II, the chapters examine how social workers respond to human needs—poverty and inequality, family and child welfare, health care and health challenges, physical and mental challenges, mental health, substance use and addiction, helping older adults, and criminal justice. The chapters in this section assess the strengths of people and communities in support of possible advocacy strategies. At every juncture, social workers are seen as leaders, experts, cofacilitators, and innovators who understand complexities, value diversity, appreciate the role of culture, and address ethical dilemmas.

We are pleased to write that Part III of Introduction to Social Work goes beyond the standard text coverage by including chapters on communities at risk and housing; the changing workplace; veterans, their families, and military social work; environmentalism; and international social work. Each of these chapters introduces material especially selected to stimulate intellectual curiosity about current topics of relevance, such as climate change and posttraumatic stress disorder. Additionally, the role of housing is examined in reference to quality of life and opportunity, the culture of the military is defined so as to better frame the needs of service personnel and their families, and environmental issues are described innovatively to encourage social work professionals to be more involved in all forms of life and service.

Each chapter ends with a list of online resources that correspond to the chapter’s content and offer readers the option to explore multiple topics in more detail. Discussion questions and key concepts are also provided to support class discussions and possible in-class and out-of-class assignments. A high-interest end-of-chapter feature titled “Your Career . . .” introduces possible career paths in social work related to the chapter content, along with thought-provoking questions and/or applications.

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Making Course Content Come Alive

Although we now primarily identify as educators, we have been molded by our social work practice experiences, current service endeavors, and the evolving world around us. No matter our work responsibilities, the classroom remains our playing field where we hope to convey the important role social workers play in society and people’s lives. We contend that advocacy is critical to teaching, research, and service. Consequently, Introduction to Social Work is designed to generate critical thinking and discussion, encourage interactive learning and reflective thinking, and expand horizons. The text will be in e-book format, and ancillaries are also available. In other words, we took a multisensory approach to teaching and learning that extends the walls of the classroom to the community and well beyond.

To facilitate teaching, Introduction to Social Work is closely aligned with the Council on Social Work Education’s new Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards and incorporates reflective practice, encouraging students to engage in critical thought and reflection and to contemplate a professional social work career. As suggested by the butterfly on the cover, life is precious, colorful, fragile, and ever changing. We hope this book will contribute to each reader’s transformation as a person and aspiring professional.

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SAGE edge

SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on demand. Learning and teaching has never been easier!

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment. Here is a list of features:

Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts. Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material. Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video links and multimedia content enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics. Interactive exercises and meaningful web links facilitate student use of Internet resources, further exploration of topics, and responses to critical thinking questions. EXCLUSIVE! SAGE edge for Students includes access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter.

SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality con