+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

1.  conduct a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis for State Farm. 

2.   student will develop and describe a Mintzberg diagram of the current organizational structure, and also develop and defend a Mintzberg diagram of the desired organizational structure.

3. Organizational Biography.

4.  Descriptor from each of the 4 Bolman & Deal Frameworks- Structural, Human Resources, Political, Symbolic

APA Format, 8 pages, 10 references (I do not need cover page). 

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Reframing Organizations, Sixth Edition is also available in WileyPLUS Learning Space—an interactive and collaborative learning environment that provides insight into learning strengths and weaknesses through a combination of dynamic and engaging course materials. With WileyPLUS Learning Space, students make deeper connections and get better grades by annotating course material and by collaborating with other students in the course.

With WileyPLUS Learning Space, you will find:

• A restructured digital text that features interactive content, videos, assignments, and social networking tools that enable interaction with instructors and encourage discussion between students

• Interactive features include a gradable test bank, videos to engage students with differing organizational scenarios, interactive graphics, practice questions to reinforce key concepts, exercise assignments, and a Leadership Orientations Self-Assessment to help students understand the way they instinctively think about and approach leadership

• The course also includes a full Instructor’s Manual, including chapter-by­ chapter teaching notes, lecture slides, sample syllabi, and other support materials

For more information and to request a free trial, visit http://www.wiley.com//college/ sc/wpls/

An updated online Instructor’s Guide with lecture slides and a Your Leadership Orientations Self-Assessment is also available at http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/ WileyTitle/productCd-1119281814.html

WEBFFIRS 05/26/2017 12:59:13 Page iii

6th Edition






WEBFFIRS 05/26/2017 12:59:13 Page iv

Cover art/image: © traffic_analyzer/Getty Images Cover design: Wiley

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In Memory of Warren Bennis

Exemplar, Mentor, and Friend

With Appreciation for All He Gave Us

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Preface ix Acknowledgments xv

PAR T ON E Making Sense of Organizations 1

1 Introduction: The Power of Reframing 3

2 Simple Ideas, Complex Organizations 25

PAR T TWO The Structural Frame 43

3 Getting Organized 45

4 Structure and Restructuring 71

5 Organizing Groups and Teams 93

PAR T T H R E E The Human Resource Frame 113

6 People and Organizations 115

7 Improving Human Resource Management 135

8 Interpersonal and Group Dynamics 157


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PAR T FOU R The Political Frame 179

9 Power, Confl ict , and Coalit ion 181

10 The Manager as Polit ic ian 201

11 Organizations as Polit ical Arenas and Polit ical Agents 217

PAR T F I V E The Symbolic Frame 235

12 Organizational Symbols and Culture 239

13 Culture in Action 265

14 Organization as Theater 279

PAR T S I X Improving Leadership Practice 295

15 Integrating Frames for Effective Practice 297

16 Reframing in Action: Opportunities and Peri ls 313

17 Reframing Leadership 325

18 Reframing Change in Organizations 359

19 Reframing Ethics and Spirit 385

20 Bringing It Al l Together: Change and Leadership in Action 399

Epilogue: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership 419 Appendix: The Best of Organizational Studies 423 Bibliography 427 The Authors 467 Name Index 469 Subject Index 481

viii Contents

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This is the sixth release of a work that began in 1984 asModern Approachesto Understanding and Managing Organizations and became Reframing Organizations in 1991. We’re grateful to readers around the world who have

told us that our books gave them ideas that make a difference—at work and

elsewhere in their lives.

It is again time for an update, and we’re gratified to be back by popular demand. Like everything else, organizations and their leadership challenges continue to evolve rapidly, and scholars are running hard to keep pace. This edition tries to capture the current frontiers of both knowledge and art.

The four-frame model, with its view of organizations as factories, families, jungles, and temples, remains the book’s conceptual heart. But we have incorporated new research and revised our case examples extensively to keep up with the latest developments. We have updated a feature we inaugurated in the third edition: “Greatest Hits in Organization Studies.” These features offer pithy summaries of key ideas from the some of the most influential works in the scholarly literature (as indicated by a citation analysis, described in the Appendix at the end of the book). As a counterpoint to the scholarly works, we have also added occasional summaries of management bestsellers. Scholarly and professional litera­ ture often run on separate tracks, but the two streams together provide a fuller picture than either alone, and we have tried to capture the best of both in our work.

Life in organizations has produced many stories and examples, and there is new material throughout the book. At the same time, we worked zealously to minimize bloat by tracking down and expunging every redundant sentence, marginal concept, or extraneous example. We’ve also tried to keep it fun. Collective life is an endless source of vivid examples as entertaining as they are instructive, and we’ve sprinkled them throughout the text.


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We apologize to anyone who finds that an old favorite fell to the cutting-room floor, but we hope readers will find the book an even clearer and more efficient read.

As always, our primary audience is managers and leaders. We have tried to answer the question, what do we know about organizations and leadership that is genuinely relevant and useful to practitioners as well as scholars? We have worked to present a large, complex body of theory, research, and practice as clearly and simply as possible. We tried to avoid watering it down or presenting simplistic views of how to solve managerial problems. This is not a self-help book filled with ready-made answers. Our goal is to offer not solutions but powerful and provocative ways of thinking about opportunities and pitfalls.

We continue to focus on both management and leadership. Leading and managing are different, but they’re equally important. The difference is nicely summarized in an aphorism from Bennis and Nanus: “Managers do things right. Leaders do the right thing.” If an organization is overmanaged but underled, it eventually loses any sense of spirit or purpose. A poorly managed organization with a strong, charismatic leader may soar briefly—only to crash shortly thereafter. Malpractice can be as damaging and unethical for managers and leaders as for physicians.

Myopic managers or overzealous leaders usually harm more than just themselves. The challenges of today’s organizations require the objective perspective of managers as well as the brilliant flashes of vision that wise leadership provides. We need more people in managerial roles who can find simplicity and order amid organizational confusion and chaos. We need versatile and flexible leaders who are artists as well as analysts, who can reframe experience to discover new issues and possibilities. We need managers who love their work, their organizations, and the people whose lives they affect. We need leaders who appreciate management as a moral and ethical undertaking, and who combine hardheaded realism with passionate commitment to larger values and purposes. We hope to encourage and nurture such qualities and possibilities.

As in the past, we have tried to produce a clear and readable synthesis and integration of the field’s major theoretical traditions. We concentrate mainly on organization theory’s implications for practice. We draw on examples from every sector and around the globe. Historically, organization studies has been divided into several intellectual camps, often isolated from one another. Works that seek to give a comprehensive overview of organiza­ tion theory and research often drown in social science jargon and abstraction and have little to say to practitioners. Works that strive to provide specific answers and tactics often offer advice that applies only under certain conditions. We try to find a balance between misleading oversimplification and mind-boggling complexity.


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The bulk of work in organization studies has focused on the private or public or nonprofit sector but not all three. We think this is a mistake. Managers need to understand similarities and differences among all types of organizations. All three sectors increasingly interpenetrate one another. Federal, state and local governments create policy that shapes or intends to influence organizations of all types. When bad things happen new laws are promulgated. Public administrators who regulate airlines, nuclear power plants, or phar­ maceutical companies face the problem of “indirect management” every day. They struggle to influence the behavior of organizations over which they have very limited authority. Private firms need to manage relationships with multiple levels of government. The situation is even more complicated for managers in multinational companies coping with the subtleties of governments with very different systems and traditions. Around the world, voluntary and nongovernment organizations partner with business and govern­ ment to address major social and economic challenges. Across sectors and cultures, managers often harbor narrow, stereotypic conceptions of one another that impede effectiveness on all sides. We need common ground and a shared understanding that can help strengthen organizations in every sector. The dialogue between public and private, domestic and multinational organizations has become increasingly important. Because of their generic application, the four frames offer an ecumenical language for the exchange. Our work with a variety of organizations around the world has continually reinforced our confidence that the frames are relevant everywhere. Translations of the book into many languages, including Chinese, Dutch, French, Korean, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish, provide ample evidence that this is so. Political and symbolic issues, for example, are universally important, even though the specifics vary greatly from one country or culture to another.

The idea of reframing continues to be a central theme. Throughout the book, we show how the same situation can be viewed in at least four unique ways. In Part VI, we include a series of chapters on reframing critical organizational issues such as leadership, change, and ethics. Two chapters are specifically devoted to reframing real-life situations.

We also continue to emphasize artistry. Overemphasizing the rational and technical side of an organization often contributes to its decline or demise. Our counterbalance emphasizes the importance of art in both management and leadership. Artistry is neither exact nor precise; the artist interprets experience, expressing it in forms that can be felt, understood, and appreciated. Art fosters emotion, subtlety, and ambiguity. An artist represents the world to give us a deeper understanding of what is and what might be. In modern organizations, quality, commitment, and creativity are highly valued but often

Preface xi

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hard to find. They can be developed and encouraged by leaders or managers who embrace the expressive side of their work.


As its title implies, the first part of the book, “Making Sense of Organizations,” focuses on sense-making and tackles a perplexing question about management: Why is it that smart people so often do dumb things? Chapter 1, “The Power of Reframing,” explains why: Managers oftenmisread situations. They have not learned how to usemultiple lenses to get a better sense of what they’re up against and what they might do. Chapter 2, “Simple Ideas, Complex Organizations,” uses well-known cases (such as 9/11) to show how managers’ everyday thinking and theories can lead to catastrophe. We explain basic factors that make organizational life complicated, ambiguous, and unpredictable; discuss common fallacies in managerial thinking; and spell out criteria for more effective approaches to diagnosis and action.

Part II, “The Structural Frame,” explores the key role that social architecture plays in the functioning of organizations. Chapter 3, “Getting Organized,” describes basic issues that managers must consider in designing structure to fit an organization’s strategies, tasks, and context. It demonstrates why organizations—from Amazon to McDonald’s to Harvard University—need different structures in order to be effective in their unique environments. Chapter 4, “Structure and Restructuring,” explains major structural pathologies and pitfalls. It presents guidelines for aligning structures to situations, along with cases illustrating successful structural change. Chapter 5, “Organizing Groups and Teams,” shows that structure is a key to high-performing teams.

Part III, “The Human Resource Frame,” explores the properties of both people and organizations, and what happens when the two intersect. Chapter 6, “People and Organi­ zations,” focuses on the relationship between organizations and human nature. It shows how managers’ practices and assumptions about people can lead either to alienation and hostility or to commitment and high motivation. It contrasts two strategies for achieving effectiveness: “lean and mean,” or investing in people. Chapter 7, “Improving Human Resource Management,” is an overview of practices that build a more motivated and committed workforce—including participative management, job enrichment, self-manag­ ing workgroups, management of diversity, and organization development. Chapter 8, “Interpersonal and Group Dynamics,” presents an example of interpersonal conflict to illustrate how managers can enhance or undermine relationships. It also discusses emo­ tional intelligence and how group members can increase their effectiveness by attending to

xii Preface

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group process, including informal norms and roles, interpersonal conflict, leadership, and decision making.

Part IV, “The Political Frame,” views organizations as arenas. Individuals and groups compete to achieve their parochial interests in a world of conflicting viewpoints, scarce resources, and struggles for power. Chapter 9, “Power, Conflict, and Coalition,” analyzes the tragic loss of the space shuttles Columbia and Challenger, illustrating the influence of political dynamics in decision making. It shows how scarcity and diversity lead to conflict, bargaining, and games of power; the chapter also distinguishes constructive and destructive political dynamics. Chapter 10, “The Manager as Politician,” uses leadership examples from a nonprofit organization in India and a software development effort at Microsoft to illustrate basic skills of the constructive politician: diagnosing political realities, setting agendas, building networks, negotiating, and making choices that are both effective and ethical. Chapter 11, “Organizations as Political Arenas and Political Agents,” highlights organizations as both arenas for political contests and political actors influencing broader social, political, and economic trends. Case examples such as Walmart and Ross Johnson explore political dynamics both inside and outside organizations.

Part V explores the symbolic frame. Chapter 12, “Organizational Symbols and Culture,” spells out basic symbolic elements in organizations: myths, heroes, metaphors, stories, humor, play, rituals, and ceremonies. It defines organizational culture and shows its central role in shaping performance. The power of symbol and culture is illustrated in cases as diverse as the U.S. Congress, Nordstrom department stores, the U.S. Air Force, Zappos, and a unique horse race in Italy. Chapter 13, “Culture in Action,” uses the case of a computer development team to show what leaders and group members can do collectively to build a culture that bonds people in pursuit of a shared mission. Initiation rituals, specialized language, group stories, humor and play, and ceremonies all combine to transform diverse individuals into a cohesive team with purpose, spirit, and soul. Chapter 14, “Organization as Theater,” draws on dramaturgical and institutional theory to reveal how organizational structures, activities, and events serve as secular dramas, expressing our fears and joys, arousing our emotions, and kindling our spirit. It also shows how organizational structures and processes—such as planning, evaluation, and decision making—are often more important for what they express than for what they accomplish.

Part VI, “Improving Leadership Practice,” focuses on the implications of the frames for central issues in managerial practice, including leadership, change, and ethics. Chapter 15, “Integrating Frames for Effective Practice,” shows how managers can blend the frames to improve their effectiveness. It looks at organizations as multiple realities and gives guide­ lines for aligning frames with situations. Chapter 16, “Reframing in Action,” presents four

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scenarios, or scripts, derived from the frames. It applies the scenarios to the harrowing experience of a young manager whose first day in a new job turns out to be far more challenging than she expected. The discussion illustrates how leaders can expand their options and enhance their effectiveness by considering alternative approaches. Chapter 17, “Reframing Leadership,” discusses limitations in traditional views of leadership and proposes a more comprehensive view of how leadership works in organizations. It summarizes and critiques current knowledge on the characteristics of leaders, including the relationship of leadership to culture and gender. It shows how frames generate distinctive images of effective leaders as architects, servants, advocates, and prophets.

Chapter 18, “Reframing Change in Organizations,” describes four fundamental issues that arise in any change effort: individual needs, structural alignment, political conflict, and existential loss. It uses cases of successful and unsuccessful change to document key strategies, such as training, realigning, creating arenas, and using symbol and ceremony. Chapter 19, “Reframing Ethics and Spirit,” discusses four ethical mandates that emerge from the frames: excellence, caring, justice, and faith. It argues that leaders can build more ethical organizations through gifts of authorship, love, power, and significance. Chapter 20, “Bringing It All Together,” is an integrative treatment of the reframing process. It takes a troubled school administrator through a weekend of reflection on critical difficulties he faces. The chapter shows how reframing can help managers move from feeling confused and stuck to discovering a renewed sense of clarity and confidence. The Epilogue describes strategies and characteristics needed in future leaders. It explains why they will need an artistic combination of conceptual flexibility and commitment to core values. Efforts to prepare future leaders have to focus as much on spiritual as on intellectual development.

Lee G. Bolman Brookline, Massachusetts

Terrence E. Deal San Luis Obispo, California

July 2017

xiv Preface

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We noted in our first edition, “Book writing often feels like a lonelyprocess, even when an odd couple is doing the writing.” This odd couple keeps getting older (ancient, to be more precise) and—some would

say—even odder and grumpier. It seems like only yesterday we were young,

vibrant new authors, but that was 40 years ago. To our amazement, we’re still

at it and have remained close friends. The best thing about teaching and book

writing is that you learn somuch from your readers and students, and we have

been blessed to have so many of both.

Students at Stanford, Harvard, Vanderbilt, the University of Missouri–Kansas City, the University of La Verne, and the University of Southern California have given us invaluable criticism, challenge, and support over the years. We’re grateful to the many readers who have responded to our open invitation to write and ask questions or share comments. They have helped us write a better book. (The invitation is still open—our contact information is in “The Authors.”) We wish we could personally thank all of the leaders and managers who helped us learn in seminars, workshops, and consultations. Their knowledge and wisdom are the foundation and touchstone for our work.

We want to thank all the colleagues and readers in the United States and around the world who have offered valuable comments and suggestions, but the list is very long and our memories keep getting shorter. Bob Marx, of the University of Massachusetts, deserves special mention as a charter member of the frames family. Bob’s interest in the frames, creativity in developing teaching designs, and eye for video material have aided our thinking and teaching immensely. Conversations with Dick Scott and John Meyer of Stanford University have helped us explore the nuances of institutional theory. Ellen Harris, of


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Harvard and Outward Bound, provided many thoughtful comments on the manuscript. Susan Griggs, of the University of Denver, offered a provocative critique of our handling of issues related to gender and leadership. Elena Granell de Aldaz, of the Institute for Advanced Study of Management in Caracas, collaborated with us on developing a Spanish-language adaptation of Reframing Organizations as well as on a more recent project that studied frame orientations among managers in Venezuela. We are proud to consider her a valued colleague and wonderful friend. Azarm Ghareman, a clinical psychologist, deepened our understanding of Carl Jung’s view of the important role symbols play in human experience. Captain Gary Deal, USN, at the Eisenhower School, National Defense Institute, teaches leadership and the frames to high-ranking officers from all branches of the military and government services. Dr. Peter Minich, a transplant surgeon, now brings the world of leadership to physicians. Major Kevin Reed, of the United States Air Force, and Jan and Ron Haynes, of FzioMed, all provided valuable case material. Richard and Sharon Pescatore have been a valuable source for insights into Hewlett- Packard. The irrepressible Charlie Alfano and co-owner Audrey of Alfano Motorcars (San Luis Obispo) have provided us a glimpse of key ingredients for success in a sales organization (the Alfanos also own a dealership in Phoenix). Angela Schmiede of Menlo College has broadened our views of the ways the frames can contribute to undergraduate education.

A number of friends and colleagues at the Organizational Behavior Teaching Confer­ ence have given us many helpful ideas and suggestions. We apologize for any omissions, but we want to thank Anke Arnaud, Carole K. Barnett, Max Elden, Kent Fairfield, Cindi Fukami, Olivier Hermanus, Jim Hodge, Earlene Holland, Scott Johnson, Mark Kriger, Hyoungbae Lee, Larry Levine, Mark Maier, Magid Mazen, Thomas P. Nydegger, Dave O’Connell, Lynda St. Clair, Mabel Tinjacá, Susan Twombly, and Pat Villeneuve. We can only wish to have succeeded in implementing all the wonderful ideas we received from these and other colleagues.

Lee is grateful to all his Bloch School colleagues and particularly to Nancy Day, Pam Dobies, Dave Donnelly, Doranne Hudson, Jae Jung, Tusha Kimber, Sandra Kruse-Smith, RongMa, Brent Never, Roger Pick, Stephen Pruitt, Laura Rees, David Renz, Marilyn Taylor, and Bob Waris. Terry’s colleagues Carl Cohn, Stu Gothald, and Gib Hentschke, of the University of Southern California, have offered both intellectual stimulation and moral support. Sharon Conley, Professor at the University of Santa Barbara, is a constant source of ideas and feedback. Her work keeps us attuned closely to the world of education. Terry’s recent (2013) team-teaching venture with President Devorah Lieberman and Professor Jack Meek of the University of La Verne showed what’s possible when conventional boundaries

xvi Acknowledgments

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are trespassed in a class of aspiring undergraduate leaders. This experience led to the founding of the Terrence E. Deal Leadership Institute.

Others to whom our debt is particularly clear are the late Chris Argyris, Sam Bacharach, Cliff Baden, Margaret Benefiel, Estella Bensimon, Bud Bilanich, Bob Birnbaum, Barbara Bunker, Tom Burks, Ellen Castro, Carlos Cortés, Linton Deck, Patrick Faverty, Dave Fuller, Jim Honan, Tom Johnson, Bob Kegan, James March, Grady McGonagill, Judy McLaughlin, John Meyer, Kevin Nichols, Harrison Owen, Regina Pacheco, Donna Redman, Peggy Redman, Michael Sales, Joan Vydra, Karl Weick, Jilie Wheeler, Roy Williams, and Joe Zolner. Thanks again to Dave Brown, Phil Mirvis, Barry Oshry, Tim Hall, Bill Kahn, and Todd Jick of the Brookline Circle, now in its fourth decade of searching for joy and meaning in those lives devoted to the study of organizations.

Outside the United States, we are grateful to Poul Erik Mouritzen in Denmark; Rolf Kaelin, Cüno Pumpin, and Peter Weisman in Switzerland; Ilpo Linko in Finland; Tom Case in Brazil; Einar Plyhn and Haakon Gran in Norway; Peter Normark and Dag Bjorkegren in Sweden; Ching-Shiun Chung in Taiwan; Helen Gluzdakova and Anastasia Vitkovskaya in Russia; and H.R.H. Prince Philipp von und zu Lichtenstein.

Closer to home, Lee also owes more than he can say to the recently retired Bruce Kay, whose genial and unflappable approach to work, coupled with high levels of organization and follow-through, had a wonderfully positive impact while he took on the challenge of bringing a modicum of order and sanity to Lee’s professional functioning. We also continue to be grateful for the enduring support and friendship of Linda Corey, our long-time resident representative at Harvard, and Homa Aminmadani, a delightful character and irreplaceable assistant, who now …