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September 19, 2021


Heart disease is the leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in the United States, about 600,000 Americans die of heart disease annually. According to the center of disease control and prevention (CDC), this represents almost 25% of all United States deaths. The disease is also responsible for one in four deaths occurring in the United States. The disease is most prevalent among African Americans when compared to other ethnic groups. The reason for such disparities is attributed to many factors. Nearly, half of African American women (48%) are affected by some form of heart disease. When compared to African American males that have some form of heart disease are at 44%. According to Guy -Walls and long, (2017) social and economic factors such as education, high uninsured rates are key reasons why African Americans are at high rate for heart disease. This research paper will focus on the detailed information on heart disease, causes while specifically targeting the African American community. The risk factors, it’s prevalence among African American and the best practices for addressing the issue. In this paper, I present the thesis statement that African Americans are at higher risk for heart disease when compared to other ethnic groups due to poor economic, environmental and social factors associated with the group which exposes them to high-risk factors for heart disease. African Americans has the highest risk of developing heart disease.

Next, the major risk factors for heart disease include obesity, hypertension. Diabetes, and sleep disorders (Cunning Ham et al.,2017). There are also lifestyle factors, such as alcohol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity can easily put people at a higher risk of developing heart disease. The tendency of developing heart disease can also come from the history of the family. Therefore, family medical history plays a very significant role for identifying risk in individuals. When the history of a family is known, it can easily help in knowing the environmental factors and effects that can lead to heart disease in the family and the risk of premature heart attacks. Another thing that leads to increased risk of premature heart attacks is Genetic disorder. An example is a heart disorder called familial hypercholesterolemia that causes high levels of cholesterol especially beginning at birth. In the near future, in order to determine personal risk estimates for heart disease, genetic testing can be used but this approach has not been scientifically certified. About one out of 500 inherit this condition in the United States. The above risk factors are high among African American groups when compared to other ethnic groups. Some of the risk factors that have directly or indirectly led to a higher rate of heart disease among the African American Communities include higher poverty rates. This places cost barriers in front of their way that prevents them from accessing the necessary care services as compared to other ethnic groups. According to Guy – walls and long, (2017), African Americans also have the highest uninsured rates when compared to their white’s counterpart which may prevent them from accessing the necessary care services. The group is also associated with low level of education, lower level of exercise, poor diet among other environmental barriers. For instance, majority of the African Americans in the United States resides in lower-income neighborhoods which are likely to lack safe green spaces or facilities that encourage physical activity. This, in turn promotes sedentary lifestyle in such neighborhoods which increases the risk for heart disease. Such neighborhoods are also associated with a lack of or few food stores or supermarkets which translates to limited availability of healthy and fresh foods. Even when made available such foods are usually expensive hence pushing such groups to consume traditional foods that have higher levels of calorie, fat, and sodium content which increases the risk of diabetes, hypertension or obesity.

In addition, the evidence of the impact of heart disease and statistics can be seen with this supporting facts and details. According to the American Journal of public Health they did research to examine the impact of neighborhood conditions resulting from racial residential segregation on heart disease risk in a socio-economically diverse African American group. The study included 4,096 African American. They assessed neighborhood disadvantage with a composite measure of 8 indicators from the 2000 United States census. The results shows that statistically among African Americans there is a standard deviation increase in neighborhood disadvantage was associated with a 25% increased risk of heart disease. After the studies, they concluded that neighborhood economic and social conditions may contribute to increased risk of heart disease among African Americans. Policies directly addressing these issues may alleviate the burden of heart disease in African American communities. Heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality among African American communities in the United States. The research also examined the role neighborhood environments play in influencing heart disease risk factors and subsequent disease on set provides strong evidence linking socio economically and disadvantaged residential environments to greater disease risk. For instance, limited access to affordable and healthy foods such as diet and physical activity. There are other statistics that tell a compelling story. For instance, over the years the rate of death regarding heart disease has declined among other ethnic groups except for African Americans, whose rate is 20% higher when compared to the white counterparts the CDC (2019). Further estimates proves that African Americans aged 18-49 are twice likely to succumb to heart disease when compared to their white counterparts.

Furthermore, some of the best practices that has to be put in place to address heart disease in African American communities is to involve environmental approaches, community programs linked with clinical services, epidemiology, and surveillance (McGonagle et al,2020). Using structural and policy changes desired environments that promotes health and quality of life can be realized in African American Communities. Programs linked to clinical services are leveraged to bring educational programs in African American communities to raise awareness regarding heart disease. Surveillance programs are crucial for detecting, controlling, or preventing heart disease. Epidemiology and surveillance programs can be instrumental in data collection, tracking and monitoring trends regarding heart disease. Another practice to address this issue of heart disease in African American communities is encouraging individuals to go for screening. This is an important intervention that can be leveraged in lowering the risk for heart disease among African American communities. Through screening those at a higher risk for heart disease can be identified and given early guidance on how to proceed. Early identification of risk factors for the condition is crucial to managing such risk factors before further complications develop. Individuals above the age of 18 years should be encouraged to go for screening. Also through partnering with non-governmental institutions and faith organizations more screenings programs can be set up in African American communities.

Another practice is that individuals can also be encouraged to adhere to engage in physical activity. Current research suggests that adults ought to engage in at least minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity each week. This will greatly reduce the risk of the disease. The majority of African communities who can’t engage in exercise due to busy work schedules or lack of enough funds to enroll in gym subscriptions. Such populations ought to be targeted and reminded of the importance of physical and how it reduces weight, high cholesterol and risk of diabetes or hypertension. Those who cannot afford to enroll in gyms should be encouraged to exercise from home or just walking 30 minutes a day equates 150 minutes of moderate intensity. Those that at risk can also be encouraged to eat a healthy diet encompassing vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy products. Whole grains, legumes, fish and poultry. On the other hand, intake of food with high calories intake should be discouraged. Those undergoing treatment should be encourages to fully adhere to medication and recommended therapies. Adherence to therapies is a critical factor in determining whether or not a treatment is successful (cunning et al, 2017). Noncompliance with a treatment regime is a serious issue that impacts not just the patients but also the health care systems. Patients who do not adhere to their prescription’s regimes experience a considerable deterioration of their disease, increased mortality and higher healthcare costs. A variety of factors are likely to have an impact on adherence. Characteristics of the patient, the provider, and the health- care system as well as interactions between them, could all be regarded as potential adherence hurdles. It will be necessary to identify specific hurdles that each patient has and to execute suitable tactics to overcome those barriers in order to improve medication adherence among African Americans.

Moreover, one of the initiatives that was put together to create awareness on the dangers of heart disease in the African American communities is the Heart of Hypertension project. It is a community-based intervention prevention program designed to help young African Americans men become more aware of their health and learn how they could prevent or delay heart disease. The program focuses on the early onset of hypertension which is a major contributor to shortened life expectancy of African American men. Since lifestyle changes are known to reduce blood pressure; however, there are a lot of interventions tailored for young African American men have not been developed. What they did was to engage with a community partner, they developed and assessed a early onset of hypertension education and lifestyle intervention for young African American men. Also in their program a revised plan (health screening and 6 week intervention was tested on a focal group. So basically, the heart of hypertension project holds promise for early – onset hypertension among young African American men. They also incorporate feedback from participates into the approach and evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on lifestyle change and blood pressure in young African American men with pre-hypertension.


Heart disease is most common among African Americans when compared to other ethnic groups. The reason for such disparities is attributed to many factors. African Americans are at a higher risk for heart disease when compared to other ethnic groups due to poor economic, environmental and social factors which is associated with the group. In addressing the issue of environmental approaches, community programs linked with clinical services, epidemiology and surveillance targeting the community ought to be intensified. This will ensure the group is more educated on the issue and a healthy lifestyle promoted to initiate change in behavior.

REFRENCES CDC. (2018, March 2). Guide: Best Practices for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/pubs/guides/best-practices/index.htm

CDC – Heart Disease Home – DHDSP. (2019). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/index.htm

Cunningham, T. J., Croft, J. B., Liu, Y., Lu, H., Eke, P. I., & Giles, W. H. (2017). Vital Signs: Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans — United States, 1999–2015. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 66(17), 444–456. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6617e1

Dubbin, L., McLemore, M., & Shim, J. K. (2016). Illness Narratives of African Americans Living with Coronary Heart Disease. Qualitative Health Research, 27(4), 497–508. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316645319

Guy-Walls, P., & Long, J. G. (2017). African Americans and Heart Disease. Health & Social Work, 42(4), 247–249. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hlx033

McGonagle, D., Plein, S., O’Donnell, J. S., Sharif, K., & Bridgewood, C. (2020). Increased cardiovascular mortality in African Americans with COVID-19. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(7), 649–651. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600(20)30244-7

Accommodating Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

Al Souma,

Disability Support Services

Seattle Central Community College

DO-IT, University of Washington

What is Mental Illness?

  • Mental illness is a term that refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders causing severe disturbances in thinking, feeling, relating and functional behaviors. These disorders result in substantially diminished capacity for coping with the ordinary demands of life.

Postsecondary Students with Disabilities

  • More than 400,000 students enrolled in U.S. postsecondary institutions report having a mental illness or emotional disturbance.
  • (National Center for Education Statistics, 1999)





The Emphasis is on ACCESS
NOT on outcome

Laws Requiring Reasonable Accommodations

  • 1973 Rehabilitation Act, Section 504
  • 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act

Symptoms of a Mental Health Problem

  • Chronically missing class
  • Assignments consistently late
  • Extreme highs or lows in mood, anxieties
  • Problem concentrating, remembering
  • Marked personality change
  • Confused or disorganized thinking
  • Thinking or talking about suicide
  • Denial of obvious problems

Major Depression

  • Mood disorder
  • Depressed mood over long period
  • Lack of pleasure in activities
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Sleep and appetite changes
  • Low self esteem
  • Feeling guilty and/or worthless

Bipolar Affective Disorder

  • Previously Manic Depressive Disorder
  • Mood disorder
  • Revolving periods of mania and depression
  • Either grandiose, euphoric, highly productive/creative, or depressed, withdrawn, hopeless

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

  • Anxiety Disorder
  • Exposure to traumatic event
  • Flashbacks
  • Dissociations


  • Thought Disorder
  • Delusions, hallucinations, paranoia
  • Difficulty with daily functional tasks
  • Poor interpersonal relationships
  • Concrete thought processing
  • Need for structured routine

Anxiety Disorders

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Excessive worry in general

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Consuming fixation and ritualistic behaviors

  • Panic Disorder

Overwhelming physiological event

  • Social Phobias

Incapacitating fear of social interactions

  • Specific Phobias

Intense fear of specific object, event

Medication Side Effects

  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue
  • Excessive thirst
  • Blurred vision
  • Hand tremors
  • Initiating Interpersonal contact

Functional Limitations

  • Screening out environmental Stimuli
  • Sustaining concentration
  • Maintaining stamina
  • Handling time pressures and multi-tasks
  • Interacting with others
  • Fear of authority figures
  • Responding to negative feedback
  • Responding to change
  • Severe test anxiety

Strategies for Inclusion in College

  • Teach to various learning styles–visual, auditory, kinesthetic
  • Increase experiential learning activities
  • Increase knowledge and acceptance of mental illness
  • Be prepared to set behavioral limits
  • Know campus mental health resources
  • Work cooperatively with students
  • Assist students with time management

Principles of Accommodation

  • Address individual needs
  • Respect student’s desire for confidentiality
  • Engage in joint problem solving
  • Make all accommodations voluntary
  • Review accommodations periodically
  • Be flexible in enforcing policies
  • Identify accommodations clearly

Accommodations are NOT Reasonable if they…

  • Pose a direct threat to the health or safety of others
  • Make substantial changes in essential elements of the curriculum
  • Require substantial alteration to educational opportunities/course objectives
  • Pose undue financial or administrative burden

Possible Classroom Accommodations

  • Preferential seating, near door
  • Assigned classmate as assistant
  • Beverages permitted
  • Prearranged or frequent breaks
  • Tape recorder, note taker
  • Early availability of syllabus, text
  • Text, assignments in alternate formats
  • Personal and private feedback

Possible Examination Accommodations

  • Change in test format

(Written to oral and vise versa, dictation, scripted, typed)

  • Permit use of computer software
  • Exams in alternate format (portfolio, demo)
  • Extended test taking time
  • Individual proctoring
  • Separate, quiet room for testing
  • Increased test frequency.

Possible Assignment Accommodations

  • Substitute assignments in specific circumstances
  • Advance notice of assignments
  • Allow assignments hand written
  • Written rather than oral, or vise versa
  • Change format: drama, role-play, sculpture
  • Assignment assistance–ask
  • Extensions on assignments


  • ADA: American Disability Association (1-800-514-0303 (voice) TTY 1-800-514-0383)
  • Anxiety Disorder Association of America (http://www.adaa.org/)
  • AHEAD (http://www.ahead.org)
  • Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (http://WEB.bu.edu/sarpsych)
  • DO-IT The Faculty Room (http://www.washington.edu/doit/faculty/)
  • Judge Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law (http://www.bazelon.org/)
  • Office of Civil Rights: Region 10 (206-220-7900)
  • National Alliance for the Mentally ill (NAMI) (http://www.nami.org)
  • National Institute of Mental Health (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/)

HLE 1150: Health Research Project Guidelines (Parts 1-3)

This is a group project. Please choose 3-5 classmates to work with.

Health Research Project

Part I: Literature Review

Your literature review should be 4-6 pages long.

The total amount of points you can earn for this paper is 100 points.

APA Style Requirement: Your paper should be written in APA style. APA style includes a typed paper that is double spaced, on standardized paper (8.5 x 11) with 1” margins on all sides and written in 12 point Times New Roman Font. Details about citing various sources will be given in detail separately.




Do not write in first person

Introduction: (30 Points)

The introduction of your paper should introduce the health topic that you have researched. Your introduction should include the following:

1. A thorough general overview about your and your chosen health topic and target group.

2. Make sure that your introduction includes a thesis statement.

Example Thesis Statement: Smoking cigarettes has been one of the greatest risk factors in developing lung cancer.

Thesis Statement Guidelines:

Body of Paper: (50 Points)

The body of your paper should include the following:

1. Detailed information about your chosen health topic.

2. Target Group: What group of people is this health issue affecting (ex: African Americans, Asians, Caucasians, Elderly, Children, Teenagers or College Students)?

3. Statistics/Prevalence – (Evidence of the impact of the issue): Include supporting facts and details about the health topic (include at least one statistic about your health topic).

4. Best Practices: What is being done to address this health issue? Discuss at least one program, organization or initiative that addresses your health issue and target group.

Conclusion: (20 Points)

The conclusion of your paper should include the following:

1. Summarize your findings.

2. Do you have any suggestions about how to address this issue? Is there a need for more programs or initiatives to address this issue?


You are required to have at least five peer reviewed articles as references. Retrieve five peer reviewed health articles about your chosen health topic and target group from the PGCC library research database. You are not limited to only five references. You can also include books and other scholarly references that will help you write your paper.

Grading Rubric: Health Research Literature Review

Reference: http://deoracle.org

Quality and Criteria

(Literature Review)





1.Presentation of the text

2.Structuring of text 3. Follows requirements of length, font and style

4. Introduction

(10 Points)

Follows poorly the requirements related to format and layout.

Follows, for the most part, some of the requirements related to format and layout. Many requirements are not followed.

Closely follows all the requirements related to format and layout.


1. All elements of the

topics are addressed

2.The information is

technically sound

3. Information based on

careful research

4. Coherence of


5. Body and

Conclusion of paper

(35 Points)

The essay addresses poorly the issues referred in the proposed topic. The provided information is not necessary or not sufficient to discuss these issues.

The essay for the most part addresses with an in-depth analysis most of the issues referred in the proposed topic. The provided information is, for the most part, necessary and sufficient to discuss these issues.

You provide a lot of valuable information about your topic. However, a lot of the information in this paper is not cited.

The essay addresses with an in-depth analysis all the issues referred in the proposed topic. The provided information is necessary and sufficient to discuss these issues.

Quality of Writing

1.Clarity of sentences

and paragraphs

2.No errors and

spelling, grammar and

use of English

3.Organization and

coherence of ideas

(35 Points)


The essay is not well written, and contains many spelling errors, and/or grammatical errors and/or use of English errors. The essay is badly organized, lacks clarity and/or does not present ideas in a coherent way.

The essay is fairly written for the most part, with minimum spelling, grammar and use of English errors. The essay is for the most part organized, clear and presents ideas in a coherent way.

The essay is well written from start to finish, without spelling, grammar or use of English errors. The essay is well organized, clear and presents ideas in a coherent way.

References and use of references

1.Scholarly level of references

2.How effective the references are used in the essay

3.APA style in reference list and for citations

(20 Points)

Most of the references used are not important, and/or are not of good/scholarly quality. There is not a minimum of 5 scholarly resources, and/or they are not used effectively in the essay. Some references are not effectively used, and/or correctly cited and/or correctly listed in the reference list according to APA style.

Most of the references used are important and are of good/scholarly quality. There is a minimum of 5 scholarly resources that are for the most part used effectively in the essay. Most of the references are effectively used, correctly cited and correctly listed in the reference list according to APA style.

All the references used are important and are of good/scholarly quality. There is a minimum of 5 scholarly resources that are used effectively in the essay. All the references are effectively used, correctly cited and correctly listed in the reference list according to APA style.

Part II: Health Research Project – PowerPoint Presentation

Your PowerPoint presentations should include (15 slides):

· Total of 10-15 slides

· Give a brief overview of your research paper

· You can include a video that is related to your topic (videos should be no longer than 2-3 minutes)

1. What group of women is this health issue affecting (ex: African Americans, Asians, Caucasians, Elderly, Children, Teenagers or College Students).

2. Discuss in detail the health effects regarding the health topic you researched.

3. Include supporting facts and details about the health topic (include at least one statistic about your health topic).

4. Discuss what is happening at the local/state or federal level in order to address your health topic.

Success Tips

· Be Creative: Make your presentation colorful and include pictures.

· Avoid typing too many words on one slide.

· Utilize bullet points to organize the information in your slides.

· Make sure that your presentation is concise and well organized.

· Avoid Plagiarism: Cite all information that you get from different sources (online, articles, books etc.).

· Reference Page: Include a reference page if you use information from information from different sources (online, articles, books etc.).

Part II- Power Point Presentation Rubric:


Scoring Criteria

Total Points


Organization & Writing

(10 points)

The presentation is well organized. Slides do not have too many words.


Presentation does not contain spelling and grammatical errors.



(15 points)

Discuss in detail the health effects, regarding the health topic you researched.


Discuss in detail how the health effects impact your chosen target group


Discuss statistics regarding the health issue and target group.


Discuss what is happening at the local/state or federal level in order to address your health topic.


Pictures are informative, effective, and not distracting


Length of presentation is within the assigned time limits.



Total Points


Part III: Health Research – Public Health Service Announcement

You are a member of the PGCC Health Club. Your group assignment is to create a chronic disease prevention Public Service Announcement (PSA) idea that will be aired on PGCC TV.  Your target group is the PGCC college student population. In two minutes, you will need to effectively bring awareness of the importance of healthy eating and exercise in order to prevent chronic diseases. 

Your PSA can focus on your chosen health topic. Please answer the questions below. 

1. What will be the title of your PSA? Be creative (10 Points). 

2. What will be the three main educational awareness goals for this PSA (20 Points)?

3.  Create a slogan for your PSA ad that will be a catchphrase in your broadcast. Be Creative (10 Points). 

Putting It all together

4. PSA Message Summary (50 Points): Summarize your PSA message. What is the name of your PSA? What issue are you addressing? Why is this issue important? What resources available to PGCC college students? Include how you will use your slogan and catchphrase in your PSA summary. 


Working Together: Faculty and Students with Disabilities

John Pedraza

Disability Resource Coordinator for Employees

120 Bessey Hall

East Lansing, MI 48824

517 432-4240

[email protected]

Elaine High

Learning Disabilities and ADHD Specialist

120 Bessey Hall

East Lansing, MI 48824

517 432-2466

[email protected]

Michigan State University Resource Center for Persons with Disabilities, DO-IT Prof and North Central Michigan College.




  • Welcome and Introductions
  • Legal Responsibilities
  • Video
  • Accommodations and Solutions
  • Test Time!
  • Campus Resources
  • Case Studies
  • Veronika’s Activity
  • Q & A


The Americans with Disabilities Act

  • No otherwise qualified individual with a disability shall, solely by reason of such disability, be excluded from participation in or be denied the benefits of the services, programs, or activities of a public entity, or be subjected to discrimination by any such entity.


Who is a Person with a Disability?

  • Anyone with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities
  • Anyone with a record of such an impairment
  • Anyone who is regarded as having such an impairment
  • Individuals associated with persons with disabilities (i.e. spouse, child, etc.)


  • Substantial limitations must now consider with or without mitigating measures, as ruled by the Supreme Court.
  • Last point – non-discrimination for their association.


Definition of Disability

  • Nature of impairment
  • Duration of impairment
  • Limitations of major life activities

Substantially limiting

What is the evidence

Unable to work in broad range of jobs or class of jobs


  • Nature of impairment that results from the condition.
  • Temporary disabilities not covered, must be long-term.
  • Substantially limiting – how much?
  • Carpal tunnel is being considered a temporary disability, correctable by surgery, as viewed by the courts.


Major Life Activities

  • Breathing
  • Sleeping
  • Seeing
  • Hearing
  • Working
  • Taking care of Oneself
  • Procreation
  • Stooping
  • Bending
  • Walking
  • Learning


Court decisions continue to add to this list. List not finite.

Regarding learning it is the ability to learn not the capacity to learn (I.e. mental retardation).


Otherwise Qualified

  • A person must be able to meet the technical and academic qualifications for entry into the school, program, or activity in order to be considered otherwise qualified.


Otherwise Qualified Continued

  • A qualified individual with a disability is one who meets the skill, experience, education, and other job-related requirements of a position held or desired and who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of a job.


Substantial Impairment

  • Impairment is substantial when the limitation for individual is greater than that experienced in the general population.

Example: Experience pain after walking a mile which prohibits individual from doing other activities (debilitating)

Example: Unable to lift 10 pounds without significant pain


Examples of Disabilities

  • Spinal cord injuries
  • Loss of limbs
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Hearing Impairments
  • Visual Impairments
  • Speech Impairments
  • Specific Learning Disabilities
  • Head Injuries
  • Psychiatric Disorders
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer
  • AIDS


With or Without Reasonable Accommodation

  • Reasonable modifications to rules, policies or practices
  • Removal of architectural, communication or transportation barriers
  • Provision of auxiliary aids and services
  • Modification or adjustment to a job, the work environment, or the way things usually are done
  • Making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities



  • Must be effective – producing the intended or expected effect


Hearing Impairments

  • Interpreters, real-time captions, FM systems, note-takers
  • Face student when speaking
  • Written directions, assignments, lab instructions
  • Visual aids, visual warning systems
  • Repeat questions and statements from others
  • Electronic mail for communicating



Psychiatric Disabilities

  • Changes in schedules, instructions, job tasks or other procedures and ways of interacting with the employee or student
  • Know the person’s functional limitations and the symptoms of the illnesses and the medications


Low Vision

  • Large print handouts, signs, equipment labels
  • TV monitor connected to microscope to enlarge images
  • Directions, notices, assignments in electronic format
  • Computers with enlarged screen images
  • Seating where the lighting is best



  • Audio-tape, Braille, electronic notes, handouts, texts
  • Describe visual aids
  • Raised-line drawings and tactile models of graphic materials
  • Computers with optical character readers, voice activated computers, voice output, Braille keyboards and printers


Mobility Impairments

  • Group assignments, note-takers/scribes, lab assistants
  • Extra exam time, alternative testing arrangements
  • Classrooms, meetings, labs, field trips in accessible locations
  • Adjustable tables, equipment located within reach
  • Materials in electronic formats
  • Computers with special input devices (e.g., voice, alternative keyboards)


Health Impairments

  • Note-takers, audio-taped class sessions
  • Flexible attendance requirements
  • Extra exam time, alternative testing arrangements
  • Assignments in electronic formats
  • Electronic mail


Specific Learning Disabilities

  • Note-takers and/or audio taped class sessions
  • Extra exam time; alternative testing arrangements
  • Visual, aural, and tactile demonstrations incorporated into instruction
  • Course and lecture outlines
  • Spelling checkers and grammar checkers


Student Obligations

  • Self identify that he or she has a disability
  • Indicate the need for accommodation
  • Provide appropriate documentation at the student’s expense to establish the existence of the disability and the need for accommodation


Institutional Obligations

  • Provide reasonable accommodations for the student’s known disabilities
  • Afford student equal opportunity to participate in programs, activities and services (including extracurricular activities)
  • May not discriminate based on disability
  • Provide auxiliary aids and services


HEATH Resource Center

  • National survey results on freshmen with disabilities:

One in 11 first-time, full-time freshmen entering college in 1988 self-reported a disability.

This translates to about 9 percent of the total, or about 154,520 students who reported disabilities.


In 1998, freshmen who self-reported disabilities were more likely than their peers to:

  • Be male
  • Be 20 years or older
  • Have chosen a particular college because it offered a special program or because of advice from counselors/teachers
  • Rate themselves lower in self-esteem, emotional health, & academic or physical ability


What changes have occurred in the past few years?

  • Percentage of freshmen reporting disabilities remained stable at 9 percent between 1991 and 1998
  • Students with learning disabilities continued to be the fastest growing group (25% to 41%)
  • Higher proportions of students with disabilities were enrolling in four-year colleges and universities in 1998


1. True or False?

You should change your vocabulary when speaking to a person with a disability. Use words like “when you roll in the room…” to someone who uses a wheelchair.



2. True or False?

One should ask the companion of the person with a disability what they will need.



3. True or False?

You should always pet a guide dog to show that you intend no harm to its master.



4. True or False?

The majority of persons who are deaf are better lip readers than hearing people.



5. True or False?

Persons who are deaf and use American Sign Language (ASL) are unable to speak.



6. True or False?

American Sign Language (ASL) is English conveyed through signs.



7. True or False?

Sign language is universal.



8. True or False?

A person can be cured of a learning disability.



Please read the following aloud.



This si wdat a leaming bi sadleb qerson frepuehtly hasto conteub with when attemqting ot nead a dook.



Rocker buy bay bee inner tree hops

Turnip out fir play

Ronald’s tone gadders nome hoss

Sinkers honkers sick spentz

Law tent britches full in town

Diamond died weight fur Nome Ann

My tea hoax farm ladle egg horns grow