+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Answer all questions and subquestions fully and include at least two outside sources.

Question # 1: Person-Centered Chapter 7 (answer all parts of the question)

Think about Roger’s view of human nature and how it influences the practice of counseling. 

Questions:

  1. In your own words, explain the concept, “actualization tendency.”
  2. How does the actualization tendency influences the practice of Person-Centered Therapy?                (See link to video below)

https://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vpvid=b2b15faf-1871-47c3-a569-61bb8e097d83

Make sure to make reference to the text to support your points.

Question # 2: Behavioral Therapy Chapter 9 (answer all parts of the question)

Put yourself in the place of a client and think of a particular problem you might have that involves some form of fear or avoidance.

As the client, would you want your therapist to use in vivo (gradual) exposure OR flooding to treat the fear?

  1. Identify the fear
  2. Select a treatment (exposure or flooding)
  3. Explain the specific steps to applying the treatment 
  4. Explain why you selected the particular method of treatment over the other option. 

 Person‐Centered Therapy

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

             

               
   

       

           
               

 At their core, humans are trustworthy and positive

 Humans are capable of making changes and living
productive, effective lives

 Humans innately gravitate toward self‐actualization

 Given the right growth‐fostering conditions, individuals
strive to move forward and fulfill their creative nature

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (1)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

             
   

           

             
   

               
         

         

 A reaction against the directive and psychoanalytic
approaches, PCT challenges:

 The assumption that “the counselor knows best”

 The validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching,
diagnosis, and interpretation

 The belief that clients cannot understand and resolve
their own problems without direct help

 The focus on problems over persons

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (2)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

   
               

         

                   
   

           

                   
 

 This approach emphasizes:
 Therapy as a journey shared by two fallible people

 The person’s innate striving for self‐actualization

 The personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of
the therapeutic relationship

 The counselor’s creation of a “growth‐promoting” climate

 People are capable of self‐directed growth if involved in a
therapeutic relationship

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (3)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

           
                 

         

     

         

              
           

 Three therapist attributes create a growth‐promoting
climate in which individuals can move forward and become
what they are capable of becoming:

 Congruence: Genuineness or realness

 Unconditional positive regard: Acceptance and caring

 Accurate empathic understanding: The ability to deeply
grasp the subjective world of another person

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (4)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
     

         

             

                 
     

Six conditions that are necessary and sufficient for
personality changes to occur:

1. Two persons are in psychological contact

2. The first, the client, is experiencing incongruence

3. The second person, the therapist, is congruent or
integrated in the relationship

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (5)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

           
           

               
             

       

                   
 

4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive
regard or real caring for the client

5. The therapist experiences empathy for the client’s
internal frame of reference and endeavors to
communicate this to the client

6. The communication to the client is, to a minimal
degree, achieved

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (6)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               

                 

             
               

                   
 

 Focuses on the quality of the therapeutic relationship

 Does not find traditional assessment and diagnosis to be
useful

 Provides a supportive therapeutic environment in which
the client is the agent of change and healing

 Serves as a model of a human being struggling toward
greater realness

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (7)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               

                 
         

                     
         

 Is genuine, integrated, and authentic, without a false front

 Can openly express feelings and attitudes that are present
in the relationship with the client

 Is invested in developing his or her own life experiences to
deepen self‐ knowledge and move toward self‐actualization

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (8)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

           

   

   

           

     

               

 Therapist takes on the role of facilitator

 Creates therapeutic environment

 Techniques are not stressed

 Exhibits deep trust of the group members

 Provides support for members

 Allows group members set the goals for the group

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (9)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
           

                   
                   

 

 The group setting fosters an open and accepting
community where members can work on self‐acceptance

 Individuals learn that they do not have to experience the
process of change alone; they grow from the support of
group members

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (10)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

       
     

             

                   
        

           

Person-Centered Expressive
Arts Therapy

 Various creative art forms
 promote healing and self‐discovery
 are inherently healing and promote self‐awareness and
insight

 Creative expression connects us to our feelings which are a
source of life energy
 Feelings must be experienced to achieve self‐awareness

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (11)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                 
           

                 
          

                 

Person-Centered Expressive
Arts Therapy

 Individuals explore new facets of the self and uncover
insights that transform them, creating wholeness
 Discovery of wholeness leads to understanding of how we
relate to the outer world

 The client’s inner world and outer world become unified

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (12)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

     

   

 

 Acceptance of the individual

 A non‐judgmental setting

 Empathy

 Psychological freedom

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (13)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

     

           
               

   

               
             

 Stimulating and challenging experiences

 Individuals who have experienced unsafe creative
environments feel “held back” and may disengage from
creative processes

 Safe, creative environments give clients permission to be
authentic and to delve deeply into their experiences

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (14)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

           
             
                 

               
                  

               
           

 MI is a humanistic, client‐centered, psychosocial,
directive counseling approach that was developed by
William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick in the early 1980s

 Initially designed as a brief intervention for problem
drinking, MI is now applied to many clinical problems

 Both MI and person‐centered practitioners believe in the
client’s abilities, strengths, resources, and competencies

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (15)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                   
           

 

                     

                   
       

               
           

 MI is deliberately directive and is aimed at reducing client
ambivalence about change and increasing intrinsic
motivation

 It is important for therapists using MI to honor the “MI
Spirit”

 Reluctance to change is viewed as a normal and expected
part of the therapeutic process

 Ultimately, therapists help clients commit to change and
assist them in implementing a change plan

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (16)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

 

 

 

 

 

 Precontemplation stage

 Contemplation stage

 Preparation stage

 Action stage

 Maintenance stage

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (17)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

         

               
           

           
             

     

                 
   

 Evidence‐based approach developed by Leslie Greenberg

 Is rooted in a person‐centered philosophy, but it
synthesizes aspects of Gestalt and existential therapies

 EFT emphasizes the importance of awareness,
acceptance, and understanding of emotion and the
visceral experience of emotion

 Emotional change can be a primary pathway to cognitive
and behavioral change

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (18)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                     
       

                 
               

                 
           

               

Strengths From a Diversity
Perspective

 PCT has had a major impact on the field of human
relations with diverse cultural groups

 Carl Rogers’ work has reached more than 30 countries,
and his writings have been translated into 12 languages

 The therapist is viewed as a “fellow explorer” who
attempts to understand the client’s phenomenological
world in an interested, accepting, and open way

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (19)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                     
             

                 
         

               
                 

       

Limitations From a Diversity
Perspective

 Clients who expect a directive counselor can be put off by
a professional who does not provide sufficient structure

 It is difficult to translate the core therapeutic conditions
into actual practice in certain cultures

 The focus on development of individual autonomy and
personal growth may be viewed as “selfish” in cultures
that stress the common good

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (20)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
                   

             

               
       

               
                  

         

Contributions of the Person­
Centered Approach

 Extensive research supports the effectiveness of PCT with
a wide range of clients and problems of all age groups

 Carl Rogers literally opened the field to research

 The philosophy and principles of this approach permeate
the practice of most therapists

 Natalie Rogers’ use of nonverbal methods and expressive
arts to enable individuals to heal and develop has
expanded her father’s pioneering work

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (21)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                   
         

                 
       

                   
       

Limitations of the Person­
Centered Approach

 PCT does not focus on the use of specific techniques,
making this treatment difficult to standardize

 Beginning therapists may find it difficult to provide both
support and challenges to clients

 Limits of the therapist as a person may interfere with
developing a genuine therapeutic relationship

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 7 (22)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

  • Structure Bookmarks

 Behavior Therapy

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

   
             
                   

   
                 
 

1. Classical Conditioning
 In classical conditioning certain respondent behaviors, such
as knee jerks and salivation, are elicited from a passive
organism

2. Operant Conditioning
 Focuses on actions that operate on the environment to
produce consequences

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (1)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

   
               

       

     
               

             

3. Social‐Learning Approach
 Gives prominence to the reciprocal interactions between an
individual’s behavior and the environment

4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy
 Emphasizes cognitive processes and private events (such as
a client’s self‐talk) as mediators of behavior change

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (2)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
     

               

                 
         

          
       

 A set of clinical procedures relying on experimental
findings of psychological research

 Based on principles of learning that are systematically
applied

 Focus is on the client’s current problems and on
assessing behavior through observation or self‐
monitoring

 Largely action‐oriented and educational – therapist
teaches clients skills of self‐management

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (3)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

             
                 

           

               
               

                 
                 

         

 Behavior is something that can be operationally defined;
it includes overt actions as well as internal processes
such as cognitions, images, beliefs, and emotions

 Change can take place without insight into underlying
dynamics and the origins of a psychological problem

 Behaviorists ask: “What treatment, by whom, is the most
effective for this individual with that specific problem and
under which set of circumstances?”

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (4)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

  A‐B‐C model
 Antecedent(s)
 Behavior(s)
 Consequence(s)

Antecedent Behavior Consequence

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (5)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               

 

 

 

 

 The following techniques are used in applied behavior
analysis

 Positive reinforcement

 Negative reinforcement

 Extinction

 Positive punishment

 Negative punishment
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (6)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
                   

             
           

                 
               

 Progressive muscle relaxation is a popular method of
teaching people to cope with the stresses produced by daily
living

 Relaxation becomes a well‐learned response, which can
become a habitual pattern if practiced daily

 Relaxation procedures have been applied to a variety of
clinical problems ranging from chronic pain to panic disorder

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (7)
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                     
         

                   
             

             

               
               
             

 Based on the principle of classical conditioning, SD is a basic
behavioral procedure developed by Joseph Wolpe

 SD is an effective treatment in the reduction of maladaptive
anxiety and the treatment of anxiety‐related disorders,
particularly in the area of specific phobias

 DS entails relaxation training, development of a graduated
anxiety hierarchy, and DS proper (the presentation of
hierarchy items while the client is deeply relaxed)

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (8)
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

   
                 

 

               
                 

     

 In Vivo Desensitization
 Brief and graduated exposure to an actual fear situation
or event

 Flooding
 Prolonged and intensive in vivo or imaginal exposure to
stimuli that evoke high levels of anxiety, without the
opportunity to avoid them

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (9)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

         
           

               
               

             

 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
 An exposure‐based therapy that involves imaginal
flooding, cognitive restructuring, and the use of rhythmic
eye movements and other bilateral stimulation to treat
traumatic stress disorders and fearful memories of clients

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (10)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               

             
           

     

               
                     

           

 Helps clients develop and achieve skills in interpersonal
competence

 May involve various behavioral procedures such as
assessment, direct instruction and coaching, modeling, role‐
playing, and homework assignments

 The feedback and reinforcement clients receive assists them
in conceptualizing and using a new set of social skills that
enables them to communicate more effectively

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (11)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
               

                   
                     

       

             
         

         

 One specialized form of social skills training consists of
teaching people how to be assertive in varied situations

 One goal of AT is to increase people’s behavioral repertoire
so that they can make the choice of whether to behave
assertively in certain situations

 Most AT programs focus on clients’ negative self‐
statements, self‐defeating beliefs, and faulty thinking

 Often used in a group format

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (12)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
           

         
     

               
               
         

 In S‐M programs people make decisions concerning specific
behaviors they want to control or change

 S‐M strategies include self‐monitoring, self‐reward, self‐
contracting, and stimulus control

 The process includes selecting goals, translating goals into
target behaviors, self‐monitoring, working out a plan for
change, and evaluating an action plan

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (13)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

           
           

     

                 
         

 A comprehensive, systematic, holistic approach to
behavior therapy developed by Arnold Lazarus

 Grounded in social‐cognitive theory

 Applies diverse behavioral techniques to a wide range of
problems; it encourages technical eclecticism

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (14)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
             

   
     
   
     
   
     
                

 The complex personality of human beings can be
divided into seven major areas of functioning:

B = behavior
A = affective responses
S = sensations
I = images
C = cognitions
I = interpersonal relationships
D = drugs, biological functions, nutrition, and exercise

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (15)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
         

 

         
     

             
         

 

 DBT is a promising blend of behavioral and
psychoanalytic techniques for treating borderline
personality disorders

 DBT treatment strategies include both acceptance‐
oriented and change‐oriented strategies

 Skills are taught in four modules: mindfulness,
interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and
distress tolerance

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (16)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                   
                 
             

                 
         

           
       

Mindfulness-Based Stress
Reduction

 The program assists people in learning how to live more
fully in the present rather than ruminating about the
past or being overly concerned about the future

 The skills taught in MBSR include sitting meditation and
mindful yoga, aimed at cultivating mindfulness

 Didactic instruction is minimized and experiential
learning and self‐discovery are emphasized

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (17)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
             

 

                   
               
         

         
           

   

Mi ndfu I ness-Based Cognitive
Therapy

 MBCT is an 8‐week group treatment program adapted
from MBSR that includes components of cognitive
behavior therapy

 The primary aim is to change clients’ awareness of and
relation to their negative thoughts, rather than on
merely challenging the content of thoughts

 Experiential learning, in‐session and out‐of‐session
practice, learning from feedback, and homework
assignments are emphasized

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (18)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

             
       

                   
                 

     

                   

             
         

 ACT involves fully accepting present experience and
mindfully letting go of obstacles

 In ACT there is little emphasis on changing the content
of a client’s thoughts. Instead, the emphasis is on
acceptance (nonjudgmental awareness) of cognitions

 The goal of ACT is to allow for increased psychological
flexibility

 There is evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of
ACT for a variety of disorders

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (19)
©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

 
               

         

 
         

   

 Treatments
 rely on empirical support and tend to be brief
 emphasize self‐management skills and thought
restructuring

 Leaders
 use a brief, directive, psychoeducational approach
 conduct behavioral assessments

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (20)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

     
       
                 
 

     

 Leaders and members
 create collaborative, precise treatment goals
 devise a specific treatment plan to help each member
meet goals

 objectively measure treatment outcome

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (21)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

             
     
               

               
               

 

             
               

Strengths IFrom a Diversity
Perspective

 Behavior therapy may appeal to diverse client
populations due to its:
 specificity, task orientation, focus on objectivity, focus on

cognition and behavior, action orientation, brevity, emphasis on
the present, commitment to teach coping strategies, and
problem‐solving orientation

 Behavior therapy focuses on environmental, social, and
political conditions that contribute to a client’s problems

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (22)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                 
           

                 
               

               
              

Limitations IFrom a Diversity
Perspective

 Some behavioral counselors may focus on using a variety
of techniques in narrowly treating specific behavioral
problems

 Therapists who fail to conduct a thorough assessment of
the interpersonal and cultural dimensions of the client’s
problem may not adequately prepare him/her for the
possible consequences of newly acquired social skills

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (23)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

               
             

               
       

             
                 

 

       

 The specificity of the behavioral approaches helps clients
translate unclear goals into concrete plans of action

 Behavior therapists have a wide variety of specific
behavioral techniques at their disposal

 Behavioral interventions have been subjected to more
rigorous evaluation than those of any other form of
psychological treatment

 Behavior therapy emphasizes ethical accountability

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (24)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                  
   

                 
             

 

             

 Heavy focus on behavioral change may detract from client’s
experience of emotions

 Some counselors believe the therapist’s role as a teacher
deemphasizes the important relational factors in the client‐
therapist relationship

 Behavior therapy does not place emphasis on insight

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (25)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

                 
         

                   
   

                 
 

 Behavior therapy tends to focus on symptoms rather than
underlying causes of maladaptive behaviors

 There is potential for the therapist to manipulate the client
using this approach

 Some clients may find the directive approach imposing or
too mechanistic

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (26)

©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning

  • Structure Bookmarks