+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Answer the following questions

What is the importance of exercise and proper dieting?

What are nutritional concerns in middle adulthood?

Do you need to make any changes to your exercise, nutrition and health? If so; why?

Read Pages 178-198 

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Content Attribution
Except where expressly noted otherwise, the contents of this course are based on materials published in the
Open Course Library by Laura Overstreet. These materials were originally published freely under a Creative
Commons Attribution License (you can review the license at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). The
original version of the materials as published as Psyc 200 Lifespan Development may be accessed for free
at http://opencourselibrary.org/econ-201/.

Lifespan Development

Lifespan Development

Lumen Learning

Lifespan Development Copyright © 2017 by Lumen Learning.

CONTENTS

Module 1: Lifespan PsychologyModule 1: Lifespan Psychology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
• Introduction to Life Span, Growth and Development …………………………………………………………………………….. 5
• The Cohort Effect…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
• Culture …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
• Periods of Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
• Research Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
• Video: 49 Up …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
• Video: Meet Neil ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
• Lecture: Introduction to Life Span, Growth and Development ………………………………………………………………. 21
• PowerPoint: Introduction to Life Span Development …………………………………………………………………………… 25
• Discussion: Life Stages ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Module 2: Developmental TheoriesModule 2: Developmental Theories……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2727
• Introduction to Developmental Theories ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
• Psychodynamic Theory ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
• Psychosocial Theory………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
• Exploring Behavior…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
• Exploring Cognition………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
• Research Designs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
• Lecture Transcript: Developmental Theories……………………………………………………………………………………… 41
• Slideshow: Developmental Theories ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
• Essay: Lifespan Psychology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47

Module 3: Prenatal DevelopmentModule 3: Prenatal Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4848
• Introduction to Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth…………………………………………………………………… 48
• Prenatal Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
• Environmental Risks ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
• Pregnancy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
• Childbirth………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
• Maternal Mortality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
• Video: “Life’s Greatest Miracle” ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
• Lecture: Prenatal Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
• Slideshow: Prenatal Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
• Study Guide: Introduction and Prenatal Development…………………………………………………………………………. 68

Module 4: InfancyModule 4: Infancy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7070
• Introduction to Infancy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
• Physical Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
• Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
• Language Development………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
• Psychosocial Development and Attachment ……………………………………………………………………………………… 79
• Temperament ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
• Lecture: Infancy …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
• Slideshow: Infancy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86

Module 5: Early ChildhoodModule 5: Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8888
• Introduction to Early Childhood………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
• Physical Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
• Family Life ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

• Childhood Stress and Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
• Lecture: Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
• Slideshow: Early Childhood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
• Discussion: Labeling and Children …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
• Essay: Childhood…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107

Module 6: Middle ChildhoodModule 6: Middle Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108108
• Introduction to Middle Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
• Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
• Developmental Problems………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
• Learning and Intelligence………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 119
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
• Lecture: Middle Childhood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
• Slideshow: Middle Childhood…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
• Study Guide: Childhood………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
• Practice Test: Childhood……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136

Module 7: AdolescenceModule 7: Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 139139
• Introduction to Adolescense ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
• Social Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
• Lecture: Adolescence …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
• Slideshow: Adolescence……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151

Module 8: Early AdulthoodModule 8: Early Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152152
• Introduction to Early Adulthood………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
• Types of Love ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
• Activity: Love Attitude Scale ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
• Assignment: Love Styles ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
• Lecture: Early Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
• Slideshow: Early Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 173
• Essay Assignment: Adolescence and Early Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………… 174
• Study Guide: Adolescence and Early Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………. 174
• Practice Test: Adolescence and Early Adulthood……………………………………………………………………………… 175

Module 9: Middle AdulthoodModule 9: Middle Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178178
• Introduction to Middle Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 181
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
• Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
• Work and Personality……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
• Lecture: Middle Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
• Slideshow: Middle Adulthood…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198

Module 10: Late AdulthoodModule 10: Late Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199199
• Introduction to Late Adulthood……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 210
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 211

• Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
• Listen: Treating Delirium……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
• Lecture: Late Adulthood………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
• Slideshare: Late Adulthood……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
• Additional Links……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221

Module 11: Death and DyingModule 11: Death and Dying ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222222
• Introduction to Death and Dying …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
• Most Common Causes of Death…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
• The Process of Dying …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
• Five Stages of Loss ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
• Palliative Care and Hospice…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
• Euthanasia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
• Bereavement and Grief…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
• Lecture: Death and Dying ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
• Slideshow: Death and Dying………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235
• Additional Links……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
• Essay: Middle and Late Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
• Study Guide: Middle and Late Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
• Practice Test: Middle and Late Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 237

MODULE 1: LIFESPAN PSYCHOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO LIFE SPAN, GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT

Learning Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

1. Explain the study of human development.
2. Define physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development.
3. Differentiate periods of human development.
4. Analyze your own location in the life span.
5. Judge the most and least preferable age groups with which to work.
6. Contrast social classes with respect to life chances.
7. Explain the meaning of social cohort.
8. Critique stage theory models of human development.
9. Define culture and ethnocentrism and describe ways that culture impacts development.

10. Explain the reasons scientific methods are more objective than personal knowledge.
11. Contrast qualitative and quantitative approaches to research.
12. Compare research methods noting the advantages and disadvantages of each.
13. Differentiate between independent and dependent variables.

Welcome to life span, growth and development. This is the
study of how and why people change or remain the same over
time.

This course is commonly referred to as the “womb to tomb”
course because it is the story of our journeys from conception to
death. Human development is the study of how we change over
time. Although this course is often offered in psychology, this is
a very interdisciplinary course. Psychologists, nutritionists,
sociologists, anthropologists, educators, and health
care professionals all contribute to our knowledge of the life
span.

We will look at how we change physically over time from early
development through aging and death. We examine cognitive
change, or how our ability to think and remember changes
over time. We look at how our concerns and psychological state
is influenced by age and finally, how our social relationships
change throughout life.
There are several goals of those involved in this discipline:

1. Describing changeDescribing change-many of the studies we will examine simply involve the first step in investigation, which
is description. Arnold Gesell’s study on infant motor skills, for example.

2. Explaining changesExplaining changes is another goal. Theories provide explanations for why we change over time. For
example, Erikson offers an explanation about why our two-year-old is temperamental.

Think about how you were 5, 10, or even 15 years ago. In what ways have you changed? In what ways have
you remained the same? You have probably changed physically; perhaps you’ve grown taller and become
heavier. But you may have also experienced changes in the way you think and solve
problems. Cognitive change is noticeable when we compare how 6 year olds, 16 year olds, and 46 year olds
think and reason, for example. Their thoughts about others and the world are probably quite different. Consider
friendship for instance. The 6 year old may think that a friend is someone with whom you can play and have fun.
A 16 year old may seek friends who can help them gain status or popularity. And the 46 year old may have
acquaintances, but rely more on family members to do things with and confide in. You may have also
experienced psychosocial change. This refers emotions and psychological concerns as well as social
relationships. Psychologist Erik Erikson suggests that we struggle with issues of independence, trust, and
intimacy at various points in our lives. (We will explore this thoroughly throughout the course.)

Our journeys through life are more than biological; they are shaped by culture, history, economic and political
realities as much as they are influenced by physical change. This is a very interesting and practical course
because it is about us and those with whom we live and work. One of the best ways to gain perspective on our
own lives is to compare our experiences with that of others. By periodically making cross-cultural and historical
comparisons and by presenting a variety of views on issues such as healthcare, aging, education, gender and
family roles, I hope to give you many eyes with which to see your own development. This occurs frequently in the
classroom as students from a variety of cultural backgrounds discuss their interpretations of developmental tasks
and concerns. I hope to recreate this rich experience as much as possible in this text. So, for example, we will
discuss current concerns about the nutrition of children in the United States (for a middle-class boy of 11 years
who is 130 pounds overweight and suffering with Pediatric Type II diabetes) as well as malnutrition experienced
by children in Ethiopia as a result of drought. Being self-conscious can enhance our ability to think critically about
the systems we live in and open our eyes to new courses of action to benefit the quality of life. And knowing about
other people and their circumstances can help us live and work with them more effectively. An appreciation of
diversity enhances the social skills needed in nursing, education, or any other field.

New Assumptions and UnderstandingsNew Assumptions and Understandings

I took my first graduate course in life span over 20 years ago. Much time was spent on the period of childhood,
less on adolescence, and very little attention was given to adulthood. The message was clear: once you are 25,
your development is essentially completed. Our academic knowledge of the life span has changed and although
there is still less research on adulthood than on childhood, adulthood is gaining increasing attention. This is
particularly true now that the large cohort known as the baby boomers are beginning to enter late
adulthood. There is so much we need to find out about love, housing, health, nutrition, exercise, social, and
emotional development with this large group. (Visit your local bookstore or search the internet and you will find
many new titles in the self-help and psychology sections that address this population.)

I was also introduced to the theories of Freud, Erikson, and Piaget, the classic stage theorists whose models
depict development as occurring in a series of predictable stages. Stage theories had a certain appeal to an
American culture experiencing dramatic change in the early part of the 20th century. But that sense of security
was not without its costs; those who did not develop in predictable ways were often thought of as delayed or
abnormal. And Freudian interpretations of problems in childhood development, such as autism, held that such
difficulties were in response to poor parenting. Imagine the despair experienced by mothers accused of causing
their child’s autism by being cold and unloving. It was not until the 1960s that more medical explanations of
autism began to replace Freudian assumptions.

Freud and Piaget present a series of stages that essentially end during adolescence. For Freud, we enter the
genital stage in which much of our motivation is focused on sex and reproduction and this stage continues
through adulthood. Piaget’s fourth stage, formal operational thought, begins in adolescence and continues
through adulthood. Again, neither of these theories highlights developmental changes during adulthood. Erikson,
however, presents eight developmental stages that encompass the entire lifespan. For that reason, Erikson is

known as the “father” of developmental psychology and his psychosocial theory will form the foundation for much
of our discussion of psychosocial development.

Today we are more aware of the variations in development and the impact that culture and the environment have
on shaping our lives. We no longer assume that those who develop in predictable ways are normal and those
who do not are abnormal. And the assumption that early childhood experiences dictate our future is also being
called into question. Rather, we have come to appreciate that growth and change continues throughout life and
experience continues to have an impact on who we are and how we relate to others. And we recognize that
adulthood is a dynamic period of life marked by continued cognitive, social, and psychological development.

Who Studies Human Development?Who Studies Human Development?

Many academic disciplines contribute to the study of life span and this course is offered in some schools as
psychology; in other …