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Assignment: K-Means Clustering

What is “k-means clustering,” and how might it help healthcare administration leaders in their health services organization?

One of the more common methods of clustering is the use of k-means, where “k” is the number of clusters that are meant to describe the population of interest. For example, what if you were interested in segmenting patients based on satisfaction levels? K-means clustering could be used in the same way to help describe this given population.

This technique might assist leaders in determining what characteristics need to be considered in order to study crime and unemployment. In striving to address the problem, k-means clustering is an effective tool for leadership to consider.

For this Assignment, review the resources for this week, and examine the k-means clustering approach. Reflect on how you might apply this approach to an issue or challenge in a health services organization. Then, complete the problems for the Assignment.

For Chapter 17, problem 21, you will need to download the file P17_21.xlsx (attached)

The Assignment: (5 pages)

· Complete Problem 21 on page 938 of your course text.

QUESTION

Using the data in the file P17_21.xlsx, the same data as in Problem 19, use the method in Example 17.4 to find four clusters of cities. Note that there are two text variables, Crime_Trend and Unemployment_Threat. You can ignore them for this problem. Write a short report about the clusters you find. Does the clustering make sense? Can you provide descriptive, meaningful names for the clusters?

By Day 7

Submit your answers and embedded analysis as a Microsoft Word management report.

## Source

Savageau, D. and R. D’Agostino, Places Rated Almanac (Millennium Edition), Macmillan, 2000.

## Data

 Metropolitan_Area Cost_Living Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Each metropolitan area’s score in this category and in the eight subsequent categories ranges from 0 to 100 points (where 100 is most favorable and 0 is least favorable in the given category). Note that the scores in each category are normalized such that the 50th percentile point is the average for all metropolitan areas. Transportation Jobs Education Climate Crime Arts Health_Care Recreation Population_2000 Total_Violent Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Average annual number of all violent crimes (including murders, robberies, and assaults) Total_Property Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Average annual number of all property-related crimes (including cases of burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) Crime_Trend Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Indicator of the overall crime trend over the previous five years Unemployment_Threat Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Indicator of metropolitan area’s vulnerability to recession based on too many blue-collar and military jobs Past_Job_Growth Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Percentage increase (or decrease if negative) in number of jobs since 1990 Fcast_Future_Job_Growth Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Forecasted percentage increase (or decrease if negative) in number of jobs between 2000 and 2005 Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Each metropolitan area’s score in this category and in the eight subsequent categories ranges from 0 to 100 points (where 100 is most favorable and 0 is least favorable in the given category). Note that the scores in each category are normalized such that the 50th percentile point is the average for all metropolitan areas. Fcast_Blue_Collar_Jobs Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Forecasted increase (or decrease if negative) in number of new jobs in predominantly blue-collar industries (e.g., farming, forestry, fishing, mining, construction, manufacturing, transportation, and public utilities) by the year 2005. Fcast_White_Collar_Jobs Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Forecasted increase (decrease if negative) in number of new jobs in predominantly white-collar industries (e.g., trade, finance, insurance, real estate, services and government other than military) by the year 2005 Fcast_High_Jobs Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Forecasted increase (or decrease if negative) in number of new jobs by the year 2005 in industries where earnings per worker are higher than average. Fcast_Average_Jobs Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Forecasted increase (or decrease if negative) in number of new jobs by the year 2005 in industries where earnings per worker are close to average. Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Average annual number of all violent crimes (including murders, robberies, and assaults) Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Average annual number of all property-related crimes (including cases of burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Indicator of the overall crime trend over the previous five years Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Indicator of metropolitan area’s vulnerability to recession based on too many blue-collar and military jobs Christopher J. Zappe, Ph.D.: Percentage increase (or decrease if negative) in number of jobs since 1990 Abilene, TX 96.32 36.54 17.28 49.29 55.52 49.58 27.2 45.04 2.83 123711 582 4396 Constant Average 6.1 4.5 345 3385 641 2234 Akron, OH 47.31 69.68 86.11 71.95 22.66 54.11 81.59 24.07 77.33 689538 518 4527 Constant Average 11.6 7.5 6363 24773 6728 18638 Albany, GA 86.12 28.02 32.01 26.62 75.63 15.59 33.15 20.11 6.79 120838 761 7036 Constant Average 6.6 7 460 4852 473 4603 Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 25.22 82.71 52.97 99.43 8.78 73.94 79.61 77.33 77.62 885782 365 3531 Constant Below average 5.2 3.7 88 20043 1325 15233 Albuquerque, NM 44.48 84.13 90.65 71.67 78.18 2.84 75.36 77.9 70.25 734255 1133 7261 Constant Below average 21.4 8.1 5846 30750 8134 20712 Alexandria, LA 92.36 42.49 19.26 11.61 66 7.09 40.8 62.03 22.66 127635 1100 5581 Constant Below average 6.1 4.8 627 2687 768 1879 Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA 33.72 66.57 29.46 63.45 47.3 89.81 58.08 63.45 47.87 616924 226 3153 Constant Average 4.7 3.2 -2473 13096 -551 9706 Altoona, PA 61.76 26.91 12.18 1.69 54.95 98.87 15.3 64.02 0 131388 162 2240 Constant Average 9.2 4.4 -171 3449 -74 2182 Amarillo, TX 96.89 60.05 28.32 54.1 39.66 28.62 35.13 64.58 30.59 212395 588 6646 Constant Average 16.6 4.4 502 5141 1169 3531 Anchorage, AK 15.87 84.41 76.48 41.35 71.1 24.93 29.47 5.09 6.23 263727 727 5808 Decreasing Below average 14.5 8 2780 11621 2473 8666 Ann Arbor, MI 7.37 15.86 77.33 83 32.57 70.26 67.99 94.33 83.28 554998 356 4078 Decreasing Average 11.6 6.1 3717 17070 3657 11902 Anniston, AL 93.21 7.08 7.64 21.81 62.32 22.95 4.54 29.74 13.88 118556 882 4607 Constant Average 6.6 3.4 97 2087 120 1135 Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI 54.4 70.82 79.32 47.3 4.24 97.74 50.71 54.1 86.4 352708 84 3247 Decreasing Above average 18.1 7.1 5036 12096 5248 9298 Asheville, NC 54.11 54.67 54.1 59.77 66.57 68.56 44.76 85.83 38.81 218552 372 4063 Constant Average 14.6 6.8 667 9009 1366 5471 Athens, GA 62.4 29.46 47.3 45.32 69.12 36.83 37.4 31.44 32.01 144889 551 6207 Constant Average 10.3 7.3 924 5864 1430 3814 Atlanta, GA 39.38 98.3 99.15 82.71 69.97 12.19 94.62 57.22 76.2 3807451 834 6787 Constant Below average 16.9 8.5 39133 176274 51718 114414 Atlantic City-Cape May, NJ 30.03 66.85 62.03 20.39 65.43 13.32 38.25 15.29 91.21 341541 717 7809 Decreasing Below average 4 5.6 867 11817 1835 10267 Augusta-Aiken, GA-SC 77.91 35.41 63.45 46.45 72.52 43.91 50.43 86.11 53.54 474398 592 4552 Constant Average 8 5.6 640 13824 1648 8473 Austin-San Marcos, TX 50.43 78.75 98.01 98.3 71.67 40.23 72.24 64.87 68.83 1149201 482 6557 Constant Average 29.9 12.3 11355 83887 18070 61768 Bakersfield, CA 24.65 50.7 85.55 18.69 96.88 24.08 18.99 19.54 30.87 654208 794 5286 Decreasing Above average 6.3 7.9 7862 17307 6013 8736 Baltimore, MD 22.38 94.9 75.92 94.05 69.68 3.97 95.47 86.4 84.98 2528739 1222 5860 Constant Below average 4.1 5.4 2758 79138 1497 66018 Bangor, ME 34.57 66.28 3.11 90.36 27.19 94.38 63.46 43.62 60.33 93703 87 3901 Constant Average -0.3 3.1 7 1445 34 1184 Barnstable-Yarmouth, MA 6.24 38.24 26.34 10.19 75.35 45.9 62.89 14.16 94.61 152930 722 3448 Decreasing Below average 7.4 6.5 333 4715 21 3715 Baton Rouge, LA 68.28 57.22 82.43 39.09 75.07 1.7 45.9 57.5 57.79 604025 1186 7759 Constant Average 18.1 8.7 2703 28631 2091 24563 Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 93.46 41.92 36.26 30.02 64.87 22.1 24.65 38.81 49 380075 758 5887 Decreasing Above average 10.2 4.4 911 7767 1391 5582 Bellingham, WA 27.77 48.05 71.95 38.52 79.32 71.11 67.14 32.57 23.51 164563 229 5229 Constant Average 17.3 11.1 1386 9538 2183 6171 Benton Harbor, MI 45.61 45.6 7.08 25.49 10.76 13.6 47.88 28.04 71.67 161605 921 5757 Decreasing Above average 7.7 3.1 -218 3038 -191 2418 Bergen-Passaic, NJ 2.55 14.44 26.06 69.97 44.19 76.21 90.09 89.51 56.09 1337377 343 3404 Decreasing Average -2.9 1.5 -7601 19166 -2890 13603 Billings, MT 70.83 74.22 28.89 11.89 28.89 82.44 17.29 56.37 16.71 130916 106 5202 Constant Below average 20.4 6.2 655 4766 319 3766 Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS 74.79 36.82 77.9 1.13 82.71 41.36 31.17 48.72 82.43 356565 523 5953 Constant Average 24.5 8.1 1950 14571 2287 12400 Binghamton, NY 28.9 67.13 14.73 37.11 24.36 96.04 47.31 22.94 57.5 251438 169 2927 Constant Average -1.5 2.8 90 3860 1023 2749 Birmingham, AL 51.28 79.88 77.33 80.73 66.85 14.17 85.27 97.45 73.37 921945 942 5352 Decreasing Average 14.4 5.8 1251 31545 2734 23990 Bismarck, ND 83.86 33.42 35.12 37.39 13.03 95.19 37.97 82.71 41.92 95004 117 3533 Constant Below average 19.1 7.5 337 4628 954 3358 Bloomington, IN 63.74 17.64 28.04 35.97 19.54 82.16 79.33 37.96 45.32 121679 304 3228 Constant Average 18.7 5.9 437 4187 845 2715 Bloomington-Normal, IL 57.8 72.23 40.79 64.87 21.52 91.79 62.33 13.59 29.46 144879 177 3291 Constant Average 16 6.3 658 5588 1499 4149 Boise City, ID 54.96 67.42 91.78 61.75 85.26 71.96 75.64 60.33 46.17 408256 281 4569 Constant Above average 30.7 10.6 9087 19864 7563 15831 Boston, MA-NH 1.14 94.61 49 99.71 59.2 46.75 98.59 94.9 77.05 3296878 675 3858 Decreasing Below average -0.4 3.3 -3924 75558 -7205 66100 Boulder-Longmont, CO 15.02 12.74 75.35 45.04 61.47 74.23 69.98 61.75 46.17 271464 203 5149 Constant Average 26.5 7 3885 11644 3139 8187 Brazoria, TX 88.39 0.28 47.59 9.34 81.3 83.86 13.89 3.96 35.97 235492 291 3179 Constant Above average 6.7 6.4 1504 4874 2362 3035 Bremerton, WA 37.4 20.11 50.7 6.79 78.75 77.63 36.27 6.79 43.34 246036 274 3974 Constant Below average 9.5 7.4 783 8415 934 6557 Bridgeport, CT 13.89 34.84 9.34 57.79 60.33 47.6 77.91 67.42 62.32 445239 594 4620 Constant Average -3.2 2 -2752 7366 -2691 6641 Brockton, MA 12.19 3.68 18.98 35.69 48.72 47.88 36.55 1.69 52.12 254014 653 3987 Constant Average 3.8 4.6 435 4622 21 3448 Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito, TX 98.31 27.47 69.97 18.98 88.66 35.13 3.4 13.88 62.03 332385 577 6096 Constant Average 24 7.9 775 9449 3672 4206 Bryan-College Station, TX 91.51 31.72 50.42 32.29 73.65 48.73 33.72 41.64 28.89 137543 463 5697 Constant Below average 18.4 7.1 491 5648 2611 2561 Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY 41.36 86.11 50.99 92.63 19.26 39.95 93.49 81.58 89.51 1166581 696 4435 Constant Average 1.8 2.4 1122 14918 2077 10945 Burlington, VT 20.12 66 30.87 77.9 9.06 72.24 80.17 66.85 80.73 169145 183 5537 Constant Average 8.3 5.6 579 6138 164 5343 Canton-Massillon, OH 58.65 65.43 56.37 47.87 22.66 59.78 8.79 34.27 67.98 404836 451 4574 Constant Above average 5.9 4.8 2670 8469 2595 5729 Casper, WY 90.66 38.81 12.74 9.06 8.21 57.23 42.5 35.12 11.04 64821 359 5830 Constant Average 7.4 5.2 100 2147 163 1713 Cedar Rapids, IA 52.41 64.02 34.27 56.09 5.94 69.41 56.38 41.92 38.52 186710 253 5137 Constant Average 11.8 5.6 885 6770 550 5999 Champaign-Urbana, IL 66.29 73.93 35.97 60.33 28.04 46.18 56.1 71.67 31.72 169573 513 5526 Constant Average 6.4 5.4 1680 4691 1597 3795 Charleston, WV 64.59 73.37 33.14 62.6 51.27 72.81 52.41 83.28 19.26 256038 342 3909 Constant Below average 12.9 5.3 220 8212 196 7172 Charleston-North Charleston, SC 47.6 58.64 81.86 68.83 83.28 15.02 61.19 88.66 93.76 535689 882 5851 Constant Below average -9.5 8.7 1878 24516 2405 18528 Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC 27.2 94.05 94.05 83.56 71.8 6.24 88.39 50.14 81.3 1413215 1069 6172 Constant Average 13.7 7.7 8415 64174 15370 41001 Charlottesville, VA 20.4 53.25 40.5 72.23 71.38 80.46 59.78 79.88 35.12 152105 270 3729 Constant Average 11.1 5.9 465 5665 1776 3780 Chattanooga, TN-GA 94.91 56.94 65.15 56.94 64.58 22.67 81.87 58.92 61.75 459565 836 5078 Constant Average 13.6 5.9 190 16582 1367 12601 Cheyenne, WY 85.84 37.96 11.33 12.46 40.22 84.99 25.78 22.37 5.94 80079 171 4277 Constant Below average 11.6 4 19 2088 513 1062 Chicago, IL 9.35 100 86.96 98.86 16.14 2.27 99.16 81.3 97.16 7864846 1386 5676 Constant Average 5.3 4.4 21442 195150 21334 170426 Chico-Paradise, CA 36.55 30.31 51.27 21.24 94.61 66.58 10.49 45.6 11.89 202151 381 4513 Constant Average 12.9 8.4 395 8214 856 7158 Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 34.85 99.15 82.71 96.6 39.37 55.81 94.06 78.75 78.75 1641098 520 4378 Constant Average 9.8 5.5 5383 53040 7590 37845 Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY 100 13.03 57.22 27.76 31.16 29.47 37.12 2.54 12.74 205913 853 3873 Constant Average 19.7 6.8 1421 6225 2898 2853 Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH 21.25 96.31 75.07 88.95 16.43 56.1 97.17 84.7 99.71 2228317 562 3872 Constant Average 3.4 3.4 8307 39609 9681 29002 Colorado Springs, CO 41.65 76.77 90.08 80.45 58.64 61.48 62.04 11.89 50.7 509836 363 5250 Constant Average 19.7 9.6 6765 24482 5034 19213 Columbia, MO 68.56 34.27 73.08 64.58 25.77 62.04 60.06 97.73 36.54 134314 399 4869 Constant Below average 18.3 10 1388 8660 4075 4271 Columbia, SC 64.03 63.73 88.95 92.35 68.27 9.92 64.31 73.65 69.4 533121 990 5809 Constant Below average 10.9 8 2238 27070 7251 17291 Columbus, GA-AL 80.17 45.04 39.37 38.24 76.77 55.53 47.03 40.5 42.77 279453 471 4881 Constant Average 6.4 5.4 630 8038 939 5852 Columbus, OH 28.62 91.21 86.4 95.18 44.75 34.28 92.64 58.35 81.86 1502584 606 5898 Constant Below average 13 5.9 3219 57358 7024 36337 Corpus Christi, TX 94.62 49.29 58.92 16.71 84.13 15.87 18.7 54.39 51.27 398896 681 7767 Constant Average 6.5 5.7 1227 10732 1609 8417 Cumberland, MD-WV 60.06 28.61 5.38 51.55 24.64 84.42 20.97 38.52 2.54 98418 351 2526 Constant Average 2.5 3.3 20 1551 76 1073 Dallas, TX 49.3 95.46 95.18 90.08 47.59 9.35 93.21 48.15 88.95 3277816 921 6715 Decreasing Average 13.7 6.8 21661 131183 29407 95754 Danbury, CT 2.84 3.39 3.96 17.28 37.67 96.61 23.23 41.35 15.29 200544 128 3131 Decreasing Average -3.2 2.3 -1115 3685 -1138 3393 Danville, VA 83.01 7.39 4.24 22.66 56.65 92.64 18.42 4.53 1.13 108666 227 2721 Increasing Above average 4.6 2.3 377 942 417 721 Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 72.81 80.16 34.84 78.47 20.11 58.93 59.21 33.42 67.7 359260 480 4453 Constant Average 7.6 4.4 1032 8846 730 7278 Dayton-Springfield, OH 48.45 88.38 63.73 96.88 20.96 49.86 87.54 79.6 56.94 947067 530 4919 Constant Average 4.9 3.7 294 21509 2415 14674 Daytona Beach, FL 94.06 41.35 69.4 66.85 86.4 26.35 22.1 26.06 91.78 488292 760 5346 Constant Average 21.4 6.5 1603 10725 2947 5631 Decatur, IL 69.69 36.26 0.28 16.99 13.31 47.03 43.91 28.04 7.93 113808 568 4905 Constant Above average 3.8 1.3 -366 1315 -465 1287 Denver, CO 22.1 98.58 95.46 92.06 50.42 42.5 97.74 85.26 82.71 1993142 568 5333 Decreasing Below average 18 7.9 20492 91019 14457 77931 Des Moines, IA 50.15 78.18 68.83 96.31 8.49 63.46 60.34 39.37 67.42 447613 319 5505 Constant Below average 11.4 6.3 68 21506 1390 14265 Detroit, MI 14.74 98.86 80.73 70.53 30.02 17 95.19 49 96.6 4505455 885 5521 Decreasing Average 6.5 4.4 12850 98723 6796 85057 Dothan, AL 89.81 29.74 32.86 25.77 85.83 54.68 5.1 55.24 2.26 137822 573 3919 Constant Average 10.7 6 726 4468 1109 3246 Dover, DE 32.87 10.19 27.76 31.44 59.49 53.26 3.12 0.84 18.98 126932 556 4253 Constant Average 17.4 6.1 126 4172 817 2137 Dubuque, IA 63.46 54.39 8.78 80.16 3.11 92.07 46.75 24.92 19.54 88553 203 2994 Constant Above average 11.6 3.7 85 2257 122 1756 Duluth-Superior, MN-WI 45.33 52.4 19.83 85.83 1.41 87.82 74.23 88.1 90.93 239774 173 3834 Constant Average 12.8 3.9 227 5227 375 4239 Dutchess County, NY 4.25 23.22 30.59 65.43 43.05 81.31 48.16 48.44 60.9 266779 355 2797 Constant Average -10 5.9 -699 8370 -19 6754 Eau Claire, WI 44.2 45.32 66.57 49 3.39 95.47 42.78 90.36 35.41 147776 113 3571 Constant Average 15.1 9.4 1230 8001 1862 5020 El Paso, TX 95.47 70.25 86.68 30.59 82.15 11.62 54.11 19.83 42.49 733504 858 6875 Constant Average 18.2 7.7 1694 22927 7689 13642 Elkhart-Goshen, IN 84.71 16.14 43.05 23.51 2.83 59.21 40.23 4.24 3.68 173753 465 4561 Constant Above average 17.1 4.7 3562 3086 3892 1739 Elmira, NY 31.45 63.45 1.41 17.56 29.17 83.57 31.45 25.21 11.61 92846 242 3684 Constant Above average 2.6 1 62 462 196 169 Enid, OK 90.37 26.06 2.26 3.96 30.87 26.92 11.34 33.71 1.69 56720 638 6400 Decreasing Average 8.4 3.1 142 958 -43 921 Erie, PA 56.66 60.9 20.11 70.25 24.07 82.72 38.82 54.95 75.35 280282 309 3119 Constant Above average 7.1 3.4 421 5032 615 3886 Eugene-Springfield, OR 42.21 59.77 57.79 61.18 79.6 60.06 51 53.54 41.35 321288 309 5952 Constant Average 11.8 6.1 967 10542 1370 8666 Evansville-Henderson, IN-KY 85.56 65.15 27.47 57.5 39.09 56.38 75.08 81.86 27.19 293236 538 4095 Constant Above average 14.3 4.1 630 7101 432 6304 Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN 87.54 41.64 67.42 59.2 10.19 94.91 82.16 81.01 47.02 173825 85 3855 Decreasing Below average 18 8.8 559 10603 1458 6937 Fayetteville, NC 78.19 42.77 60.62 29.74 64.02 10.77 48.45 17.84 17.28 291439 844 7132 Decreasing Below average 14.8 5.8 792 9650 2381 5834 Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR 72.53 50.14 91.21 39.37 49.29 90.66 64.59 46.17 52.97 285475 176 3630 Constant Above average 28.2 12.5 6878 17568 6955 10655 Fitchburg-Leominster, MA 14.17 4.53 2.83 34.27 41.07 51.85 17.85 35.97 31.44 142191 646 3486 Constant Average -0.7 2.9 -219 1883 -324 1539 Flagstaff, AZ-UT 29.75 25.21 63.17 28.89 74.5 51 24.08 25.49 21.24 124306 386 6185 Constant Below average 13.1 11.4 452 7680 1462 4616 Flint, MI 24.93 58.92 19.54 43.34 27.76 7.37 43.63 27.47 40.5 436446 1040 6130 Decreasing Above average 2.9 3 -397 7328 -713 6736 Florence, AL 84.42 17.56 21.81 37.96 45.6 88.96 8.22 39.94 40.22 140291 253 2919 Constant Above average 17.2 5 406 3429 670 1801 Florence, SC 78.76 33.14 47.87 24.92 81.58 12.47 5.95 70.82 1.98 127602 958 5523 Decreasing Average 8.8 7.7 -86 6277 1596 2587 Fort Collins-Loveland, CO 32.3 13.31 79.88 34.56 46.74 86.12 39.67 47.02 26.06 242111 213 3647 Constant Above average 27.1 9.7 3958 10940 2815 7765 Fort Lauderdale, FL 33.43 81.58 93.48 48.44 90.93 7.65 87.82 62.88 84.13 1533988 889 7567 Constant Below average 18.1 7.7 8331 54554 13179 36226 Fort Myers-Cape Coral, FL 86.97 75.35 85.26 2.83 92.91 39.38 45.33 33.99 93.2 409546 617 5282 Constant Below average 20.5 9.5 2336 17672 4529 10789 Fort Pierce-Port St. Lucie, FL 69.98 0.84 60.9 7.08 91.5 29.75 30.03 15.86 86.96 314593 720 5198 Constant Average 13.1 7.8 1524 8708 1365 4951 Fort Smith, AR-OK 81.59 40.22 64.3 7.36 43.34 68.28 21.53 53.82 31.16 198623 357 4353 Constant Above average 20.5 6.9 2774 5962 3521 3895 Fort Walton Beach, FL 53.26 43.05 55.52 5.09 76.48 75.64 10.2 20.96 70.82 173673 357 3381 Constant Below average 18.8 9 591 9263 647 6216 Fort Wayne, IN 83.57 65.72 56.09 79.88 13.88 70.83 83.57 50.7 66.85 486909 313 4405 Constant Above average 14.2 4.1 1055 12752 2075 9700 Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 74.23 92.63 98.58 66.57 47.59 20.4 85.56 29.46 73.08 1637606 743 6468 Decreasing Average 15.2 10.8 20403 82598 26660 57843 Fresno, CA 40.23 69.12 87.25 51.84 93.76 5.95 33.43 30.02 27.47 903664 1015 7075 Decreasing Above average 10.5 7.4 9665 24871 6866 17311 Gasden, AL 91.22 4.24 3.11 8.49 60.9 15.3 30.6 24.64 8.21 106167 934 5316 Increasing Above average 14.7 3.2 -528 2126 -480 1813 Gainesville, FL 67.99 55.52 69.68 50.14 84.41 0.85 58.65 96.31 59.77 205110 1228 8647 Constant Below average 16.7 8.2 439 11289 2003 8576 Galveston-Texas City, TX 73.94 1.98 59.49 43.62 83 17.57 22.95 55.8 45.6 255296 790 6430 Decreasing Below average 8.8 6.5 -76 7852 3338 2105 Gary, IN 46.18 19.26 37.11 63.17 7.08 18.7 12.75 42.2 54.39 634616 929 4817 Increasing Average 8.3 4.4 629 13578 -169 11499 Glens Falls, NY 22.92 6.23 1.98 15.01 3.68 79.04 32.02 36.82 63.73 123794 363 2879 Constant Average 6.4 2.3 -101 1620 68 1238 Goldsboro, NC 75.64 6.51 11.04 8.21 61.18 33.15 7.09 2.83 0.84 114186 704 5014 Decreasing Average 3.3 4.1 18 2433 345 1528 Grands Fork, ND-MN 71.68 37.67 21.24 56.37 11.61 92.36 68.56 53.25 44.47 103531 113 3872 Constant Below average -5.1 5.3 344 3453 485 2388 Grand Junction, CO 41.93 51.55 32.29 18.13 74.22 71.68 26.63 77.62 10.48 115327 255 4840 Constant Average 19.8 7.4 1048 3834 547 3205 Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI 52.7 77.33 90.36 79.32 6.79 56.95 77.06 27.19 99.43 1059044 504 4403 Decreasing Above average 14.4 7.2 11088 38666 12642 23848 Great Falls, MT 76.49 58.35 2.54 2.54 16.71 64.31 15.02 30.59 9.34 79681 173 6905 Constant Below average 11.1 3 -101 1594 -47 1200 Greeley, CO 58.36 11.61 36.26 34.84 33.14 66.86 43.06 9.06 20.39 161563 297 5174 Constant Above average 21.5 6.6 1551 4169 1199 3269 Green Bay, WI 39.95 60.33 68.55 62.88 10.48 85.84 39.1 18.13 41.92 221728 216 3643 Decreasing Above average 23.2 7.3 1950 10081 2058 8880 Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC 32.58 85.83 84.41 88.1 80.73 35.42 73.38 72.23 85.83 1187143 643 5436 Decreasing Above average 11 6.1 5972 43644 7112 33393 Greenville, NC 58.93 26.62 70.25 41.92 58.35 17.29 6.24 73.08 14.44 128121 770 6655 Constant Average 13.2 10.8 1090 7531 4071 3053 Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC 58.08 75.92 85.83 74.5 74.78 16.15 67.43 55.52 72.52 933016 960 4972 Constant Above average 11.5 6.5 5942 32468 7679 19555 Hagerstown, MD 76.78 31.44 17.56 11.04 41.64 89.52 35.42 7.08 22.37 129890 306 2357 Constant Average 11.5 4.9 317 3375 394 2412 Hamilton-Middletown, OH 39.1 6.79 68.27 60.9 29.46 44.76 51.85 5.66 30.02 344292 562 5110 Constant Average 15.6 7.6 1173 10369 1960 5561 Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA 48.73 77.62 81.3 73.93 56.37 79.61 46.18 69.4 61.47 636375 344 3069 Decreasing Average 6.9 6.7 3154 26868 5238 19990 Hartford, CT 11.9 87.81 35.41 91.21 41.35 58.36 93.77 66.28 75.07 1149141 490 4395 Decreasing Average -6.4 3.2 -6601 24361 -6310 19431 Hattiesburg, MS 81.87 20.39 22.94 52.4 55.24 48.16 70.26 69.12 39.37 112810 515 5307 Constant Average 15.7 5.4 121 3145 1108 1470 Hickory-Morganton-Lenoir, NC 60.63 24.64 56.37 32.57 70.25 73.09 32.3 34.84 55.8 325102 356 3766 Constant Above average 12.4 4.9 1646 9031 2434 4480 Honolulu, HI 0.57 78.47 66.28 86.96 98.58 62.33 90.37 62.32 92.91 884956 259 6219 Constant Below average 1.2 4.2 1837 22624 2473 17692 Houma, LA 84.99 0 22.94 5.94 79.03 62.89 0 22.09 83 193996 533 3419 Constant Average 11.5 4.5 1279 2803 1234 1599 Houston, TX 59.5 94.33 94.9 71.1 80.45 24.65 89.81 65.43 85.26 4008119 763 5500 Constant Above average 6.3 6.7 29007 131037 38249 86208 Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH 74.51 41.07 30.31 67.13 57.22 90.37 35.7 63.17 48.72 314783 238 3013 Constant Average 7.4 4.6 218 6908 639 4848 Huntsville, AL 67.71 51.84 67.98 89.51 53.25 43.35 60.63 45.32 63.45 343802 576 5174 Constant Above average 11 6 1688 11245 2724 7434 Indianapolis, IN 55.53 93.2 84.7 83.85 23.51 31.17 96.04 88.95 82.15 1545986 698 5258 Constant Average 11.5 5.9 2614 57661 6913 39824 Iowa City, IA 43.91 22.66 47.02 42.2 7.64 77.91 57.23 95.75 43.9 107168 343 3274 Constant Below average 13.5 6.9 872 4778 2210 2364 Jackson, MI 57.23 8.78 16.14 10.48 21.81 42.78 26.35 1.98 50.14 157144 710 3873 Constant Above average 8.1 4.4 287 3082 770 2006 Jackson, MS 86.41 67.98 77.05 69.68 49.85 21.53 49.58 92.63 55.52 439450 673 6960 Decreasing Below average 16.7 6.3 2465 15454 3892 10941 Jackson, TN 99.16 30.59 49.85 52.69 35.12 3.4 27.48 79.32 4.53 102566 1143 6743 Constant Above average 21.9 7.9 1369 4201 2208 2841 Jacksonville, FL 71.39 81.86 91.5 44.75 86.11 1.99 78.19 71.38 94.05 1086690 1248 7073 Constant Below average 5.8 8.2 3426 52152 4976 42083 Jacksonville, NC 82.72 30.87 22.37 0.84 66.28 78.76 4.25 1.13 37.67 144512 269 3896 Constant Below average 13.2 4.7 467 3722 761 1764 Jamestown, NY 38.25 27.19 0.84 53.54 14.44 86.97 75.93 8.49 72.23 140084 221 3427 Decreasing Above average 4.2 1.5 -215 1344 -129 1022 Janesville-Beloit, WI 53.83 17.28 29.17 37.67 9.63 75.36 59.5 16.71 37.96 153306 221 4745 Constant Above average 11.5 4.9 1319 2952 1663 2277 Jersey City, NJ 5.39 9.91 16.43 40.22 76.2 8.79 71.11 38.24 16.14 547753 1053 5475 Decreasing Below average -1 2.4 -4532 11376 -2620 6713 Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA 97.46 49.57 49.57 67.42 64.3 90.94 42.21 75.07 49.29 467061 256 2781 Increasing Above average 14.5 4.7 1624 10945 1317 8778 Johnstown, PA 56.95 37.39 21.52 33.99 20.39 100 19.84 52.69 35.69 236001 179 1503 Constant Average 6 4.7 -63 5515 47 3781 Joplin, MO 87.82 32.86 60.33 35.41 31.44 77.34 4.82 11.04 10.19 151975 222 4523 Constant Above average 18.8 7.4 2537 4910 2839 3105 Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, MI 56.38 61.47 60.05 75.35 14.37 32.58 65.16 47.59 87.81 454942 689 5202 Constant Above average 13.5 5.1 883 12924 1696 8996 Kankakee, IL 45.05 5.94 33.42 26.34 18.98 19.55 3.97 11.33 18.69 102904 824 5780 Constant Above average 14.4 7.3 1244 2932 1283 2220 Kansas City, MO-KS 47.03 93.76 87.81 96.03 26.91 4.82 89.24 67.7 87.25 1759224 1129 6322 Constant Average 10.1 5.7 8587 56794 11610 43575 Kenosha, WI 41.08 9.63 27.19 55.24 30.31 78.19 34.57 3.39 49.57 148199 254 4155 Constant Average 14.7 6.9 53 4413 322 3288 Killeen-Temple, TX 96.61 31.16 44.47 41.64 52.4 65.44 1.7 44.75 20.96 311803 429 4149 Constant Below average 14.5 5.1 642 8061 1799 4460 Knoxville, TN 88.11 69.97 88.38 81.58 57.5 30.32 66.01 86.68 86.11 681865 740 4972 Constant Average 20.3 8.2 5758 29789 3635 23886 Kokomo, IN 77.34 11.89 3.11 40.5 15.58 76.49 52.7 18.41 12.46 100812 332 3505 Constant Above average 12.9 2.5 -351 1970 75 1331 La Crosse, WI-MN 49.86 52.97 31.72 82.15 20.67 94.62 41.93 75.92 44.19 124563 108 3637 Constant Average 17 5.9 408 4854 1029 3551 Lafayette, IN 69.41 49.85 45.32 49.85 23.22 81.87 46.46 13.03 37.11 176733 232 3977 Constant Above average 16.5 5.8 1479 5121 2368 3461 Lafayette, LA 90.09 44.47 68.83 31.72 72.23 57.51 23.8 33.14 52.69 379456 528 4112 Constant Above average 14.4 6 3126 9041 3846 5498 Lake Charles, LA 84.14 35.12 34.56 10.76 68.83 11.34 11.62 46.45 16.43 183364 902 6502 Constant Above average 13.5 6 643 5518 875 3872 Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 73.09 8.49 53.54 53.25 86.68 5.67 2.27 20.67 87.53 460634 940 7845 Constant Average 15.1 4.7 362 10190 2605 6069 Lancaster, PA 36.83 40.5 57.5 39.94 50.7 95.76 68.28 31.16 37.39 466773 185 2802 Constant Above average 4 4.3 1978 10011 3327 5738 Lansing-East Lansing, MI 45.9 70.53 61.18 64.3 11.04 52.13 49.01 26.91 65.15 453992 519 4754 Constant Average 10.1 4.7 2492 11010 2389 8476 Laredo, TX 99.72 46.74 72.8 8.78 91.78 25.5 1.99 2.26 0.56 199698 633 6673 Constant Below average 45.5 12.1 2721 6683 3720 3432 Las Cruces, NM 69.13 32.01 45.04 31.16 58.92 52.98 30.32 0.56 23.22 176926 469 5162 Constant Average 14.4 8.5 507 5605 1224 3462 Las Vegas, NV-AZ 38.53 87.53 99.71 16.43 87.81 16.72 50.15 24.36 95.18 1384481 841 6061 Constant Below average 28.7 16.5 24288 117302 21766 90858 Lawrence, KS 75.36 11.33 22.66 71.38 26.06 48.45 24.93 5.38 38.24 95114 389 6462 Constant Average 15.5 5.6 201 3024 927 1297 Lawrence, MA-NH 11.34 5.38 39.09 33.71 40.5 58.08 0.85 18.98 50.99 384762 506 4237 Constant Average 1.1 4.8 1443 8225 916 5579 Lawton, OK 89.24 24.92 17.56 13.31 34.84 30.6 1.42 16.43 4.24 113903 732 5014 Constant Below average 7.1 4.5 224 2704 1133 1585 Lewiston-Auburn, ME 26.63 15.01 8.49 44.19 33.42 91.51 9.92 36.54 20.11 91156 129 3854 Constant Average 3.4 4.2 -113 2038 -177 1917 Lexington, KY 59.21 73.08 82.15 93.48 44.47 36.27 55.81 98.01 60.05 459021 683 4987 Constant Above average 14.4 7.3 5825 17937 6649 12808 Lima, OH 78.48 18.13 7.93 35.12 19.83 20.97 49.86 21.24 25.21 155899 949 4343 Constant Above average 6.2 2.9 -332 3057 114 2288 Lincoln, NE 64.31 68.27 70.53 88.38 14.16 39.1 69.13 76.77 40.79 243417 496 6502 Constant Average 13.2 7 1925 10752 3112 7836 Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR 63.18 76.2 79.03 77.33 49 3.69 43.35 92.35 68.27 567511 1098 7175 Decreasing Average 17.5 6 3388 19698 5234 14429 Long Island, NY 2.27 63.17 67.13 52.97 81.86 87.54 72.81 99.15 99.15 2671294 243 3156 Decreasing Below average -1.1 3.5 -5312 55942 1930 34837 Longview-Marshall, TX 96.04 23.51 56.94 45.6 53.54 42.21 14.74 13.31 21.52 213782 582 5266 Decreasing Above average 14.4 6.7 2253 6078 2402 3903 Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 5.67 93.48 48.15 77.05 99.15 1.14 99.44 67.98 92.63 9220312 1505 4993 Decreasing Average -6.5 2.3 -24895 144997 -9930 124329 Louisville, KY-IN 51 90.08 80.16 85.55 47.02 51.56 80.46 87.81 80.45 1010464 582 4161 Constant Average 13.8 5.7 5503 32166 6523 22870 Lowell, MA-NH 14.45 2.83 13.31 12.18 37.96 60.63 56.95 37.39 58.35 293801 590 3030 Decreasing Average -1.4 2.8 -927 6519 -1213 6214 Lubbock, TX 88.96 62.88 38.52 54.95 45.32 32.02 16.15 91.21 24.92 233678 650 5636 Constant Below average 10.2 5.2 370 7445 1343 5146 Lynchburg, VA 75.08 43.9 25.77 76.2 77.33 80.74 20.68 28.89 48.15 210578 365 2774 Decreasing Above average 9.1 4.4 742 4787 938 3093 Macon, GA 71.11 29.17 35.69 76.48 58.07 41.65 15.87 71.67 53.82 322398 507 6076 Constant Average -9 5.5 -119 10440 -554 9596 Madison, WI 18.14 73.65 79.6 92.91 4.81 74.79 79.04 90.93 62.88 41350 276 4243 Constant Average 17.1 6.1 3378 17044 6948 10438 Manchester, NH 23.23 47.59 26.91 79.03 2.54 85.27 44.2 12.74 49.85 188757 145 4408 Constant Average 4.1 5.1 609 5145 439 3728 Mansfield, OH 59.78 16.71 38.24 16.14 9.91 34.57 55.53 15.01 15.58 175478 749 4443 Constant Above average 4.1 5.4 1915 3647 2407 2124 McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 98.59 32.29 88.1 3.68 78.47 35.7 12.47 12.46 22.94 547433 545 6396 Constant Average 24.1 10.4 1629 17560 6431 7355 Medford-Ashland, OR 42.78 47.87 62.6 7.64 89.23 64.59 39.95 40.22 13.03 181704 343 5170 Constant Average 19 9.1 1496 7658 1395 5833 Melbourne-Titusville-Palm Bay, FL 83.29 23.79 58.92 61.47 92.35 26.63 58.36 23.51 91.5 477944 724 5640 Constant Average 13.9 5.4 1729 10844 1633 7407 Memphis, TN-AR-MS 77.06 92.91 92.35 67.7 40.79 5.1 70.54 80.73 75.92 1116341 1100 6542 Constant Below average 6.5 7.4 11312 42708 13463 33929 Merced, CA 31.73 22.94 31.16 0 94.9 50.43 6.52 8.21 9.06 204463 545 4720 Constant Above average -5.2 5.6 803 3783 1523 1723 Miami, FL 35.13 90.65 83.85 73.65 91.21 0 89.52 96.88 89.8 2089376 1957 10534 Constant Average 7.9 5.3 4593 58342 14167 47501 Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ 5.1 18.98 64.58 73.37 50.14 87.26 90.66 74.78 53.25 1128973 240 3206 Decreasing Average 10.5 5.9 -1427 43668 181 35252 Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI 16.72 96.6 65.72 95.75 15.29 53.55 92.92 84.98 98.86 1467865 477 5014 Constant Average 9 4.7 2438 44565 1276 37812 Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 21.53 97.45 94.61 95.46 4.53 62.61 98.02 93.2 96.03 2909888 397 4827 Constant Average 16 6.9 17876 125439 27535 98568 Mobile, AL 64.88 51.27 74.22 60.62 67.42 7.94 47.6 60.9 92.06 549628 1037 5946 Decreasing Average 18.8 7 3295 16475 1971 14504 Modesto, CA 29.47 21.24 43.9 4.53 95.75 16.44 22.38 30.87 8.78 444155 840 6144 Decreasing Above average 9.9 4.7 1290 …