+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Develop a paper on IT needs for an organization(Matilda Cloud Management Solutions) cloud migration. – 15 pages APA format and In-text citations.

  

– Develop best practices for developing a technology needs assessment plan

– Gain a better insight into some of the factors that lead to wrong technology investments by organizations

– Determine the short and long term technology needs of an enterprise and their impact on enterprise operations.

 

… whether as President and CEO of companies or as an industry observer, I know you can only ignore the suggestions of Pham’s book … at your own peril. —Mitchell Fox, CEO, WGA Global Marketing, Former Group President, Condé Nast Publications

… Not only has it been a tremendous pleasure for me to read and write a foreword for From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap, but I am also glad that I now have this book to refer to in my toolbox … . —Larry Rothstein, PhD, Co-Chairman of the Board, No Limits Media

… this book provides an easy-to-understand, yet profound, approach senior management can readily use. I recommend it to all senior management staff, both business and IT, and believe it should be considered as required reading in MBA programs. —Michael Weiner, Strategy Consultant, Revenue Storm

… From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap is a natural companion for anyone looking to better integrate their business strategy and IT, and a useful conversation starter for any institution seriously interested in the executive team’s collaboration. —Emily Simoness, Founder and Executive Director, SPACE on Ryder Farm

… Pham and her co-authors lay out a concise, logical, and clear pathway that both business executives and IT leaders can use to intelligently derive an IT roadmap from the organization’s business strategy … . —Kiran Rijhsinghani, Chairwoman, New York City Ballet Business & Professional Committee

… presents a simplified approach to moving your enterprise toward success and developing a long- term sustainable strategy and IT foundation. —Stephanie Bartz, Director of Strategic Planning, United Healthcare

… easy to read with real examples of business case and business strategy. … very logical and easy to follow. —Adam Warner, IT Management, Education Service Center, Region 10

Whether you are a CEO, CFO, board member, or an IT executive (such as CIO, CTO or CDO), From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap: A Practical Guide for Executives and Board Members lays out a practical, how-to approach to identifying business strategies and creating value-driven technology roadmaps for your organization, commercial or nonprofit. Unlike many other books on the subject, you will not find theories or grandiose ideas here. This book uses numerous examples, illustrations, and case studies to show you how to solve the real-world problems that business executives and technology leaders face on a day-to-day basis.

Filled with actionable advice you can use immediately, the book introduces both Enterprise Architecture and the Lean-Agile mindset in a manner that the people in your business and technology departments can easily understand. Ideal for executives in both the commercial and nonprofit sectors, it includes two case studies: one about a commercial family business that thrived to become a multi-million-dollar company and the other about a nonprofit association based in New York City that fights against child illiteracy.

Business Management

ISBN: 978-1-4665-8502-7

9 781466 585027

90000

FROM BUSINESS STRATEGY TO INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP A Practical Guide for Executives and Board Members

Tiffany Pham, MBA, Harvard Business School

David K. Pham and Andrew T. Pham, Authors of Business-Driven IT-Wide Agile (Scrum) and Kanban (Lean) Implementation

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K19070

www.crcpress.com

Mitchell Fox CEO, WGA Global Marketing Former Group President, Condé Nast Publications

Dr. Larry Rothstein Co-Chairman of the Board, No Limits Media Former Editor, Harvard Business Review

Michael Weiner Strategy Consultant, Revenue Storm Former Vice President, EDS

Emily Simoness Founder & Executive Director Space on Ryder Farm

Kiran Rijhsinghani Chairwoman, NYC Ballet Business & Professional Committee Vice President, Weiss Multi Strategy Advisers

Forewords by:

K19070 cvr mech.indd 1 4/18/13 9:56 AM

FROM BUSINESS STRATEGY TO INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP A Practical Guide for Executives and Board Members

FROM BUSINESS STRATEGY TO INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP A Practical Guide for Executives and Board Members

Tiffany Pham, MBA, Harvard Business School

Forewords by:

Mitchell Fox CEO, WGA Global Marketing, Former Group President, Condé Nast Publications

Dr. Larry Rothstein Co-Chairman of the Board, No Limits Media, Former Editor, Harvard Business Review

Michael Weiner Strategy Consultant, Revenue Storm, Former Vice President, EDS

Emily Simoness Founder & Executive Director, Space on Ryder Farm

Kiran Rijhsinghani Chairwoman, NYC Ballet Business& Professional Committee

Vice President, Weiss Multi Strategy Advisers

David K. Pham and Andrew T. Pham, Authors of Business-Driven IT-Wide Agile (Scrum) and

Kanban (Lean) Implementation

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

© 2013 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20121214

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-8503-4 (eBook – PDF)

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.

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To Jessica and Kym with love

vii

Contents

Praise for From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap ….. xv About the Authors …………………………………………………………………………….xix Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………………………….xxi What Is This Book About? ……………………………………………………………… xxiii Preface ………………………………………………………………………………………….xxvii Foreword by Mitchell Fox ………………………………………………………………..xxix Foreword by Larry Rothstein ……………………………………………………………xxxi Foreword by Michael Weiner ………………………………………………………… xxxiii Foreword by Emily Simoness ………………………………………………………….. xxxv Foreword by Kiran Rijhsinghani ……………………………………………………xxxvii

SeCtion i A ConCiSe intRoDUCtion to BUSineSS StRAteGY: ConCePtS AnD FoRMULAtion

1 From Mission, Vision, and Values to Business Model ……………………….3 1.1 Chapter Objective …………………………………………………………………..3 1.2 Mission, Vision, and Values ………………………………………………………3

1.2.1 Mission ………………………………………………………………………3 1.2.2 Vision ………………………………………………………………………..4 1.2.3 Values ………………………………………………………………………..4

1.3 Business Model ……………………………………………………………………….5 1.4 Takeaways ……………………………………………………………………………..5 References ……………………………………………………………………………………….6

2 Business Strategy and Its Formulation ……………………………………………7 2.1 Chapter Objective …………………………………………………………………..7 2.2 What Is Business Strategy? ……………………………………………………….7

2.2.1 Key Criteria for a Good Business Strategy ……………………….7 2.2.1.1 Internal Consistency ………………………………………7 2.2.1.2 External Consistency ……………………………………..9 2.2.1.3 Dynamic Consistency…………………………………….9

viii  ◾  Contents

2.2.2 Some Other Important Considerations ……………………………9 2.2.2.1 Trade- Offs ……………………………………………………9 2.2.2.2 Strategic Fit ………………………………………………..11

2.3 From Core Competency to Value Creation ………………………………..11 2.3.1 Core Competency and Value Chain ……………………………..11

2.3.1.1 Core Competency ………………………………………..12 2.3.1.2 Value Chain ………………………………………………..13

2.3.2 Relative Cost Analysis ………………………………………………..14 2.3.3 Value Creation …………………………………………………………..16

2.3.3.1 Some Special Perspective for Commercial Companies …………………………………………………16

2.3.3.2 Some Special Perspective for Nonrofit Organizations ……………………………………………..17

2.4 Michael Porter’s Five Forces Framework ……………………………………17 2.4.1 Michael Porter’s Five Forces …………………………………………17

2.4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers ……………………….18 2.4.1.2 Bargaining Power of Customers ……………………..18 2.4.1.3 Threat of New Entrants ………………………………..19 2.4.1.4 Threat of Substitutes …………………………………….19 2.4.1.5 Rivalry among Existing Competitors ……………..19 2.4.1.6 Walmart and Porter’s Five Forces ……………………20 2.4.1.7 The MoMA and Porter’s Five Forces ……………….21

2.4.2 Leading Uses of the Five Forces Framework …………………..22 2.4.3 A Sixth Force …………………………………………………………….23

2.5 Product– Market Growth Directions Matrix ………………………………23 2.6 The Strategy Blade …………………………………………………………………25 2.7 From Business Strategy to Financial Goals ………………………………..26 2.8 Takeaways ……………………………………………………………………………27 References ……………………………………………………………………………………..31

SeCtion ii An intRoDUCtion to LeAn, LeAn AnD AGiLe oRGAniZAtion, AnD LeAn AnD AGiLe it

3 What Do We Mean by Lean, Lean and Agile Organization, and Lean and Agile IT? …………………………………………………………………….35 3.1 Chapter Objective …………………………………………………………………35 3.2 What Is Lean? ………………………………………………………………………35 3.3 So What Do We Mean by a Lean and Agile Organization and

a Lean and Agile IT and IT Roadmap? …………………………………….37 3.4 Takeaways ……………………………………………………………………………38 References ……………………………………………………………………………………..39

Contents  ◾  ix

SeCtion iii FRoM BUSineSS StRAteGY to it RoADMAP: An intRoDUCtion to enteRPRiSe ARCHiteCtURe (eA)

4 An Introduction to Business Strategy and IT Alignment …………………43 4.1 Chapter Objective …………………………………………………………………43 4.2 Why Business and IT Misalignment Is Unacceptable ………………….43 4.3 How Can We Identify if There Is Such Misalignment? ………………. 44 4.4 Why Has IT Never Been Clearly Aligned with the

Organization’s Business Strategy? …………………………………………… 44 4.5 How Can We More Clearly Align IT with an Organization’s

Business Strategy? ………………………………………………………………….45 4.6 Introduction to Enterprise Architecture …………………………………… 46 4.7 A Look at the Different Layers of an Enterprise Architecture ……… 46 4.8 Takeaways ……………………………………………………………………………47

5 More on Enterprise Architecture (EA) ………………………………………….49 5.1 Chapter Objective …………………………………………………………………49 5.2 EA Framework ……………………………………………………………………..49

5.2.1 Enterprise Business Architecture…………………………………..50 5.2.1.1 Business Objectives, Goals, and Metrics ………….50 5.2.1.2 Business Processes ………………………………………..51 5.2.1.3 Team Structure ……………………………………………58

5.2.2 Enterprise IT Application Architecture ………………………….58 5.2.3 Enterprise IT Data Architecture …………………………………..61 5.2.4 Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture ………………………61 5.2.5 Enterprise Security Architecture Layer ………………………… 64

5.3 Takeaways ………………………………………………………………………….. 64 Reference …………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

SeCtion iV FRoM BUSineSS StRAteGY to An AGiLe AnD LeAn it RoADMAP: tHe FoRMULAtion PRoCeSS

6 A High- Level Overview of the IT Roadmap Formulation Process …….69 6.1 Chapter Objective …………………………………………………………………69 6.2 Step 1: Identify Current Business and IT Situation …………………….69 6.3 Step 2: Identify Future Business Strategy and IT Needs ………………70 6.4 Step 3: Identify Business and IT Gaps ………………………………………70 6.5 Step 4: Identify the IT Roadmap ……………………………………………..71 6.6 Takeaways ……………………………………………………………………………71

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7 More on the IT Roadmap Formulation Process ……………………………..73 7.1 Chapter Objective …………………………………………………………………73 7.2 Step 1: Identify the Current Business and IT Situation ……………….73

7.2.1 Current Enterprise Business Architecture ………………………73 7.2.1.1 Business Goals and Metrics …………………………..75 7.2.1.2 Business Processes ………………………………………..75 7.2.1.3 Team Structure ……………………………………………79

7.2.2 Current Enterprise IT Application Architecture ……………..79 7.2.3 Current Enterprise IT Data Architecture ……………………….89

7.2.3.1 Enterprise IT Transactional Data Architecture….89 7.2.3.2 Enterprise IT Business Intelligence Data

Architecture ………………………………………………..89 7.2.4 Current Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture ………… 90

7.3 Step 2: Identify the Future Business Strategy and IT Situation ……..92 7.3.1 Future Business Strategy and Its New Enterprise

Business Architecture …………………………………………………92 7.3.1.1 Future Goals and Direction …………………………..92 7.3.1.2 Enterprise Business Processes …………………………94 7.3.1.3 Team Structure ……………………………………………95

7.3.2 Future Enterprise IT Application Architecture ……………….95 7.3.3 Future Enterprise IT Data Architecture …………………………98 7.3.4 Future Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture ……………99

7.4 Step 3: Identify Business and IT Gaps …………………………………….100 7.4.1 Gaps in Enterprise Business Processes …………………………100 7.4.2 Gaps in Enterprise IT Application Architecture …………… 101 7.4.3 Gaps in Enterprise IT Data Architecture ……………………..103

7.4.3.1 Transactional Applications ………………………….103 7.4.3.2 Enterprise Business Intelligence/ Analytics ……..103

7.4.4 Gaps in Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture …………105 7.5 Step 4: Identify the IT Roadmap ……………………………………………109

7.5.1 The Organization or Business Unit’s Business Direction and Financial Goals …………………………………………………. 110

7.5.2 The Organization or Business Unit’s Overall Enterprise Architecture ……………………………………………………………. 112

7.5.3 Technical Migration Plan …………………………………………. 112 7.5.4 Timeline ………………………………………………………………… 114 7.5.5 IT Budget ………………………………………………………………. 114

7.6 Takeaways …………………………………………………………………………. 117

8 From a Business Unit’s IT Roadmap to an Enterprise IT Roadmap .. 119 8.1 Chapter Objective ………………………………………………………………. 119 8.2 The “What” ……………………………………………………………………….. 119

Contents  ◾  xi

8.3 The “How” ………………………………………………………………………… 119 8.4 Takeaways ………………………………………………………………………….120

9 IT and Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) Activities ……………………..123 9.1 Chapter Objective ……………………………………………………………….123 9.2 Mergers and Acquisitions Evaluation Process …………………………..123 9.3 IT Due Diligence Questionnaire ……………………………………………124 9.4 Takeaways ………………………………………………………………………….124

10 Change Management ………………………………………………………………..129 10.1 Chapter Objective ……………………………………………………………….129 10.2 Key Recommendations …………………………………………………………129 10.3 Takeaways …………………………………………………………………………. 131 Reference …………………………………………………………………………………….132

SeCtion V FRoM it RoADMAP FoRMULAtion to eXeCUtion

11 Strategy Is Execution ………………………………………………………………..135 11.1 Chapter Objective ……………………………………………………………….135 11.2 Getting Organized for Execution …………………………………………..135

11.2.1 Business and IT Governance Board …………………………….135 11.2.2 Business Unit IT Steering Committee …………………………136

11.3 What to Review? …………………………………………………………………136 11.3.1 Business Goals Review ……………………………………………..136 11.3.2 IT Roadmap Execution Progress Review ……………………..144 11.3.3 IT Budget Review……………………………………………………. 145

11.4 Revision to the IT Roadmap ………………………………………………… 145 11.5 Takeaways …………………………………………………………………………. 145

12 Parting Thoughts …………………………………………………………………….. 147

SeCtion Vi CASe StUDieS

13 Case Study 1: Commercial Case Study: All About HatWare ………….. 151 13.1 Current Enterprise Business Architecture ……………………………….. 152

13.1.1 Business Goals ………………………………………………………… 152 13.1.2 Business Processes ……………………………………………………. 153 13.1.3 Team Structure ……………………………………………………….. 155

13.2 Current Enterprise IT Application Architecture ………………………. 156 13.3 Current Enterprise IT Data Architecture ………………………………… 158 13.4 Current Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture …………………… 158

xii  ◾  Contents

13.5 Future Business Strategy and Its New Enterprise Business Architecture ………………………………………………………………………..162 13.5.1 Competitive Analysis ………………………………………………..162 13.5.2 All About HatWare’s New Business Strategy ………………..164

13.5.2.1 Future Goals and Direction …………………………164 13.5.2.2 Future Enterprise Business Processes …………….169 13.5.2.3 Future Team Structure ………………………………. 170

13.6 Future Enterprise IT Application Architecture ………………………… 170 13.7 Future Enterprise IT Data Architecture ………………………………….. 173

13.7.1 Future Enterprise IT Transactional Data Architecture ….. 173 13.7.2 Future Enterprise IT BI/Analytics Data Architecture ……. 174

13.8 Future Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture …………………….. 175 13.9 Gaps in Enterprise Business Processes ……………………………………. 175 13.10 Gaps in Enterprise IT Application Architecture ……………………….177 13.11 Gaps in Enterprise IT Data Architecture ………………………………… 178 13.12 Gaps in Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture …………………….180 13.13 IT Roadmap Components ……………………………………………………. 181

13.13.1 Business Strategy, Direction, and High-Level Goals ………182 13.13.2 Enterprise Architecture …………………………………………….. 183 13.13.3 Business and Technology Initiatives Prioritization …………184 13.13.4 Timeline …………………………………………………………………184 13.13.5 IT Budget ……………………………………………………………….186

13.14 All About HatWare’s IT Roadmap Execution …………………………..186

14 Case Study 2: Nonprofit Case Study: US Against Illiteracy …………… 193 14.1 Current Enterprise Business Architecture ………………………………..194

14.1.1 Business Goals …………………………………………………………194 14.1.2 Business Processes ……………………………………………………. 195 14.1.3 Team Structure ……………………………………………………….. 195

14.2 Current Enterprise IT Application Architecture ……………………….196 14.3 Current Enterprise IT Data Architecture …………………………………199

14.3.1 Enterprise IT Transactional Data Architecture ……………..199 14.3.2 Enterprise IT BI Data Architecture …………………………….199

14.4 Current Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture ……………………202 14.5 Future Business Strategy and Its New Enterprise Business

Architecture ………………………………………………………………………..202 14.5.1 Future Goals and Direction ……………………………………….205 14.5.2 Future Team Structure ……………………………………………. 206 14.5.3 Future Enterprise Business Processes …………………………. 206

14.6 Future Enterprise IT Application Architecture ……………………….. 208 14.7 Future Enterprise IT Data Architecture …………………………………. 208

14.7.1 Future Enterprise IT Transactional Data Architecture …. 208 14.7.2 Future Enterprise IT BI Data Architecture ………………….. 210

Contents  ◾  xiii

14.8 Future Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture …………………….. 211 14.9 Gaps in Enterprise Business Processes …………………………………….212 14.10 Gaps in Enterprise IT Application Architecture ……………………….213

14.10.1 Enterprise IT Transactional Applications …………………….213 14.10.2 Enterprise IT BI Applications ……………………………………. 214

14.11 Gaps in Enterprise IT Data Architecture ………………………………… 214 14.12 Gaps in Enterprise IT Infrastructure Architecture ……………………. 214 14.13 IT Roadmap Components ……………………………………………………. 217

14.13.1 Business Strategy, Direction, and Goals ………………………. 218 14.13.2 Enterprise Architecture …………………………………………….. 219 14.13.3 Business and Technology Initiatives Prioritization ……….. 220 14.13.4 Timeline …………………………………………………………………221 14.13.5 IT Budget ……………………………………………………………….221

14.14 US Against Illiteracy’s IT Roadmap Execution …………………………223

Appendix A: The 10 Questions an IT Leader Should Ask His or Her CEO or Board Members ……………………………………………………………………225

Appendix B: The 10 Questions the CEO or Board Member Should Ask His or Her IT Leader ………………………………………………………………………..227

Appendix C: Leveraging Social Media for Business Strategy …………………229

Appendix D: Leveraging Mobile Technology for Business Strategy ………..233

Appendix E: Leveraging Cloud Computing for Business Strategy ………….235

Appendix F: The Business Case for a New Business Technology Project ….239

Appendix G: Buy or Build (Commercial Off-the-Shelf Package Implementation or In-House Software Development)? ………………………….241

Glossary………………………………………………………………………………………….245

xv

Praise for From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap

From all that I have observed throughout the years, whether as President and CEO of companies or as an industry observer, I know you can only ignore the sugges- tions of Pham’s book … at your own peril. And it’s a heck of a lot less money than getting this same advice from an expensive team of traditional consultants; it’s faster and easy to implement the ideas in this book; and it will help your company to work more collaboratively and become more innovative.

Mitchell Fox CEO, WGA Global Marketing Former Group President, Condé Nast Publications

As Co- Chairman of the Board of No Limits Media … and as a former Editor of the Harvard Business Review, I had the great pleasure of reading Tiffany Pham’s book From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap. The book makes a powerful case for the importance of any organization, profit- driven or nonprofit, to deeply connect its strategic thinking with its IT architecture and structure. Pham and her co- authors eloquently lay out their argument in a clear, step- by- step approach that guides the reader through the basics.

Larry Rothstein, PhD Co- Chairman of the Board, No Limits Media Former Editor, Harvard Business Review

xvi  ◾  Praise for From Business Strategy to Information Technology Roadmap

I have very much enjoyed reading this new book and found it very realistic with a very logical and practical approach for how to create the necessary alignment between the business and IT organization. In our competitive world where IT can either be a strategic business enabler for competitive agility and advantage or a hindrance to the same, this book provides an easy to understand, yet profound, approach senior …

,

Contents

Cover

Series

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Preface

Part One: IT Governance Concepts

Chapter One: Importance of IT Governance for All Enterprises

Chapter Two: Fundamental Governance Concepts and Sarbanes-Oxley Rules

SARBANES-OXLEY ACT

OTHER SOx RULES—TITLE II: AUDITOR INDEPENDENCE

SOx TITLE III: CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY

TITLE IV: ENHANCED FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES

WHAT IS IT GOVERNANCE?

NOTES

Chapter Three: Enterprise Governance and GRC Tools

THE ROAD TO EFFECTIVE GRC PRINCIPLES

IMPORTANCE OF GRC GOVERNANCE

RISK MANAGEMENT COMPONENT OF GRC