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Develop two personas for your individual design project. Use the information and samples on page 406 of the course textbook to guide you. The personas should look visually pleasing and professional. Each persona should take up one page in a word file. Submit your word file using this assignment link prior to the deadline.

Interaction Design continues to be the standard textbook in the field. Seasoned practitioners will find it use- ful when they need a reference to best practices or to explain a concept to a colleague. Students can turn to Interaction Design for an easy-to-understand description of the basics or in-depth how-tos. From personas and disabilities to the design of UX organizations and working in Agile, if you’re going to pick one book to bring into the office, it should be this one.

Jofish Kaye, Principal Research Scientist, Mozilla, USA

This is the perfect textbook for a wide range of User interface/User experience design courses. For an undergradu- ate, it provides a variety of compelling examples that illustrate best practice in Interaction Design. For a graduate student, it provides a foundational overview of advanced topics. This book is also essential for the professional who wants to know the state of the art in Interaction design. I use this textbook and recommend it widely.

Rosa I. Arriaga, Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist, School of Interactive Computing Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

The Interaction Design book has immensely contributed to a growing Namibian HCI skilled community over the last decade. Exposing students, academics and practitioners to the basic principles and theories as well as most recent trends and technologies, with global and local case studies, in the latest edition, allows for reflective applications within very specific contexts. This book remains our number one reference in the education of future generations of interaction designers in Namibia, promoting the creation of thoughtful user experiences for respon- sible citizens.

Heike Winschiers-Theophilus, Professor, Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Africa

Throughout my teaching of user experience and interaction design, the book by Rogers, Preece and Sharp has been an absolute cornerstone textbook for students. The authors bring together their own wealth of knowledge of academic HCI with a deep understanding of industry practice to provide what must be the most comprehensive introduction to the key areas of interaction design and user experience work, now an established field of practice. I put this book in the “essential reading” section of many of the reading lists I give to students.

Simon Attfield, Associate Professor in Human Centred Technology, Middlesex University, UK

Interaction design has gone through tremendous changes in the last few years—for example the rising importance of “big” data streams to design, and the growing prevalence of everyday ubiquitous computing issues of sensing and blending gracefully and ethically into peoples’ daily lives. This is an important and timely update to a text that’s long been considered gold standard in our field. I’m looking forward to using it with my students to help prepare them for the design challenges they will face in today’s industrial practice.

Katherine Isbister, Professor, Computational Media, University of California Santa Cruz, USA

More than ever, designing effective human-computer interactions is crucial for modern technological systems. As digital devices become smaller, faster and smarter, the interface and interaction challenges become ever more complex. Vast quantities of data are often accessed on handheld screens, or no screens at all through voice com- mands; and AI systems have interfaces that “bite back” with sophisticated dialogue structures. What are the best interaction metaphors for these technologies? What are the best tools for creating interfaces that are enjoyable and universally accessible? How do we ensure emerging technologies remain relevant and respectful of human values? In this book, you’ll find detailed analysis of these questions and much more. (It is a valuable resource for both the mature student and the reflective professional.)

Frank Vetere, Professor of Interaction Design, School of Computing and Information Systems, University of Melbourne, Australia

This is at the top of my recommended reading list for undergraduate and master’s students as well as professionals looking to change career paths. Core issues to interaction design are brought to life through compelling vignettes and contemporary case examples from leading experts. What has long been a comprehensive resource for interac- tion design now incorporates timely topics in computing, such as data at scale, artificial intelligence, and ethics, making it essential reading for anyone entering the field of interaction design.

Anne-Marie Piper, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Communication Studies, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, USA

I have been using Interaction Design as a textbook since its first edition for both my undergraduate and graduate introductory HCI courses. This is a must-read seminal book which provides a thorough coverage of the discipline of HCI and the practice of user-centered design. The fifth edition lives up to its phenomenal reputation by includ- ing updated content on the process of interaction design, the practice of interaction design (e.g., technical debt in UX, Lean UX), design ethics, new types of interfaces, etc. I always recommend Interaction Design to students and practitioners who want to gain a comprehensive overview of the fields of HCI and UX.

Olivier St-Cyr, Assistant Professor, Teaching Stream, University of Toronto, Canada

Interaction design is a practice that spans many domains. The authors acknowledge this by providing a tremen- dous amount of information across a wide spectrum of disciplines. This book has evolved from a simple textbook for HCI students, to an encyclopedia of design practices, examples, discussions of related topics, suggestions for further reading, exercises, interviews with practitioners, and even a bit of interesting history here and there. I see it as one of the few sources effectively bridging the gulf between theory and practice. A copy has persistently occu- pied my desk since the first edition, and I regularly find myself revisiting various sections for inspiration on how to communicate the reasoning behind my own decisions to colleagues and peers.

William R. Hazlewood, PhD, Principal Design Technologist, Retail Experience Design Concept Lab, Amazon, USA

For years Interaction Design has been my favourite book not only for supporting my classes but also as my primary source for preparing UX studies to industrial and academic settings. The chapters engage readers with easy-to-read content while presenting, harmonically, theories, examples and case studies which touch in multidisci- plinary aspects of construction and evaluation of interactive products. The fifth edition again maintains the tradi- tion of being an up-to-date book on HCI, and includes new discussions on Lean UX, emotional interaction, social and cognitive aspects, and ethics in human studies, which are certainly contemporary topics of utmost relevance for practitioners and academics in interaction design.

Luciana Zaina, Senior Lecturer, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil

This book is always my primary recommendation for newcomers to human-computer interaction. It addresses the subject from several perspectives: understanding of human behaviour in context, the challenges of ever-changing technology, and the practical processes involved in interaction design and evaluation. The new edition again shows the authors’ dedication to keeping both the primary content and representative examples up to date.

Robert Biddle, Professor of Human–Computer Interaction, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

This fifth edition provides a timely update to one of the must-have classics on interaction design. The changes in our field, including how to deal with emerging sensing technology and the volumes of data it provides, are well addressed in this volume. This is a book for those new to and experienced in interaction design.

Jodi Forlizzi, Professor and Geschke Director, Human-Computer Interaction Institute, The School of Computer Science, CMU, USA

The milieu of digital life surrounds us. However, how we choose to design and create our experiences and interactions with these emerging technologies remains a significant challenge. This book provides both a road- map of essential skills and methodologies to tackle these designs confidently as well as the critical deeper history, literature, and poetry of interaction design. You will return to this book throughout your career to operationalize, ground and inspire your creative practice of interaction design.

Eric Paulos, Professor, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, UC Berkeley, USA

Preece, Sharp and Rogers offer once again an engaging excursion through the world of interaction design. This series is always up-to-date and offers a fresh view on a broad range of topics needed for students in the field of interaction design, human-computer interaction, information design, web design or ubiquitous computing. The book should be the book every student should have in their backpack. It is a “survival guide”! It guides one through the jungle of information and the dark technological forests of our digital age. It also helps to develop a critical view on developing novel technologies as our computing research community needs to confront much more seriously the negative impacts of our innovations. The online resources are a great help for me to create good classes and remove some weight from the backpacks of my students.

Johannes Schöning, Professor of Computer Science, Bremen University, Germany

Nearly 20 years have passed since the release of the first edition of Interaction Design, with massive changes to technology and thus the science and practice of interaction design. The new edition combines the brilliance of the first book with the wisdom of the lessons learned in the meantime, and the excitement of new technological fron- tiers. Complex concepts are elegantly and beautifully explained, and the reader is left with little doubt as to how to put them into practice. The book is an excellent resource for those new to interaction design, or as a guidebook or reference to practitioners.

Dana McKay, UX Researcher, Practitioner and Academic, University of Melbourne, Australia

Computers are ubiquitous and embedded in virtually every new device and system, ranging from the omnipresent cellphone to the complex web of sociotechnical systems that envelop most every sphere of personal and profes- sional life. They connect our activities to ever-expanding information resources with previously unimaginable computational power. To ensure interface design respects human needs and augments our abilities is an intellectual challenge of singular importance. It involves not only complex theoretical and methodological issues of how to design effective representations and mechanisms of interaction but also confronts complex social, cultural, and political issues such as those of privacy, control of attention, and ownership of information. The new edition of Interaction Design continues to be the introductory book I recommend to my students and to anyone interested in this crucially important area.

Jim Hollan, Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science, University of California San Diego, USA

Interaction Design continues to be my favorite textbook on HCI. Even named our undergraduate and postgradu- ate programmes at Aalborg University after it. In its fifth edition, it captures the newest developments in the field’s cumulative body of knowledge, and continues to be the most updated and accessible work available. As always, it serves as a clear pointer to emerging trends in interactive technology design and use.

Jesper Kjeldskov, Professor and Head of Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark

I got to learn about the field of HCI and interaction design when I came across the first edition of this book at the library in my junior year of college. As an HCI researcher and educator, I have been having the pleasure of intro- ducing the subject to undergraduates and professional master’s students using the previous editions. I thank the authors for their studious efforts to update and add new contents that are relevant for students, academics, and professionals to help them learn this ever-evolving field of HCI and interaction design in a delightful manner.

Eun Kyoung Choe, Professor of Human-Computer Interaction, College of Information Studies, University of Maryland, USA

This new edition is, without competition, the most comprehensive and authoritative source in the field when it comes to modern interaction design. It is highly accessible and it is a pleasure to read. The authors of this book have once again delivered what the field needs!

Erik Stolterman, Professor in Informatics, School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA

This book illuminates the interaction design field like no other. Interaction design is such a vast, multidisciplinary field that you might think it would be impossible to synthesize the most relevant knowledge in one book. This book does not only that, but goes even further: it eloquently brings contemporary examples and diverse voices to make the knowledge concrete and actionable, so it is useful for students, researchers, and practitioners alike. This new edition includes invaluable discussions about the current challenges we now face with data at scale, embrac- ing the ethical design concerns our society needs so much in this era.

Simone D. J. Barbosa, Professor of Computer Science, PUC-Rio, and Co-Editor-in-Chief of ACM Interactions, Brazil

My students like this book a lot! It provides a comprehensive coverage of the essential aspects of HCI/UX, which is key to the success of any software applications. I also like many aspects of the book, particularly the examples and videos (some of which are provided as hyperlinks) because they not only help to illustrate the HCI/UX con- cepts and principles, but also relate very well to readers. I highly recommend this book to anyone who wants to learn more about HCI/UX.

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, Editor-in-Chief of AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, Professor of Business and Information Technology, Missouri University of Science

and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, USA

I have been using the book for several years in my Human-Computer Interaction class. It helps me, not only for teaching, but also for theses supervision. I really appreciate the authors regarding their efforts in maintaining the relevance and up-to-dateness of the Interaction Design book. For example, they put Data At Scale and AgileUX in the new edition. Really love the book!

Harry B. Santoso, PhD, Instructor of Interaction System (HCI) course at Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

During my PhD already the first edition of Interaction Design: beyond human-computer interaction in 2002 quickly became my preferred reference book. Seventeen years later, and now in its fifth edition, I commend the authors for their meticulous and consistent effort in updating and enriching what has become the field’s standard introductory textbook. Not just about objects and artefact, design today is increasingly recognized as a sophis- ticated and holistic approach for systems thinking. Similarly, Preece, Sharp, and Rogers have kept the book’s coverage with the times by providing a comprehensive, compelling, and accessible coverage of concepts, methods and cases of interaction design across many domains such as experience design, ubiquitous computing, and urban informatics.

Marcus Foth, Professor of Urban Informatics, QUT Design Lab, Brisbane, Australia

“Interaction Design” has long been my textbook of choice for general HCI courses. The latest edition has intro- duced a stronger practitioner focus that should add value for students transitioning into practice, for practitioners, and also for others interested in interaction design and its role in product development. It manages to be an engag- ing read while also being “snackable”, to cover the basics and also inspire. I still find it a great read, and believe others will too.”

Ann Blandford, Professor of Human – Computer Interaction, University College London

Very clear style, with plenty of active learning material and pointers to further reading. I found that it works very well with engineering students.

Albert Ali Salah, Professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands

INTERACTION DESIGN beyond human-computer

interaction

Fifth Edition

Interaction Design: beyond human-computer interaction, Fifth Edition

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The authors are senior academics with a background in teaching, researching, and consulting in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, India, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. Having worked together on four previous editions of this book, as well as an earlier textbook on human-computer interaction, they bring considerable experience in curriculum develop- ment using a variety of media for online learning as well as face-to-face teaching. They have considerable knowledge in creating learning texts and websites that motivate and support learning for a range of students. All three authors are specialists in interaction design and human-computer interaction (HCI). In addition, they bring skills from other disciplines; for instance, Yvonne Rogers started off as a cognitive scientist, Helen Sharp is a software engi- neer, and Jenny Preece works in information systems. Their complementary knowledge and skills enable them to cover the breadth of concepts in interaction design and HCI to produce an interdisciplinary text and website.

Helen Sharp is a Professor of Software Engineering and Associate Dean in the Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics at the Open University. Originally trained as a software engineer, it was by watching the frustration of users and the clever “work- arounds” they developed that inspired her to investigate HCI, user-centered design, and the other related disciplines that now underpin the field of interaction design. Her research focuses on the study of professional software practice and the effect of human and social aspects on software development, leveraging her expertise in the intersection between inter- action design and software engineering and working closely with practitioners to support practical impact. She is active in both the software engineering and CHI communities, and she has had a long association with practitioner-related conferences. Helen is on the editorial board of several software engineering journals, and she is a regular invited speaker at aca- demic and practitioner venues.

Yvonne Rogers is the Director of the Interaction Centre at University College London, a Professor of Interaction Design, and a deputy head of department for Computer Science. She is internationally renowned for her work in HCI and ubiquitous computing and, in particular, for her pioneering approach to innovation and ubiquitous learning. Yvonne is widely published, and she is the author of two recent books: Research in the Wild (2017, co-authored with Paul Marshall) and The Secrets of Creative People (2014). She is also a regular keynote speaker at computing and HCI conferences worldwide. Former positions include Professor of Interaction Design at the Open University (2006–2011), Professor of Human-Computer Interaction at the School of Informatics and Computing at Indiana University (2003–2006), and Professor in the former School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences at Sussex University (1992–2003). She has also been a Visiting Professor at UCSC, University of Cape Town, Melbourne University, Stanford, Apple, Queensland University, and UCSD. She has been elected as a Fellow of the ACM, the British Computer Society, and the ACM’s CHI Academy.

About the Authors

A b o u t t h e A u t h o r sviii

Jennifer Preece is Professor and Dean Emerita in the College of Information Studies— Maryland’s iSchool—at the University of Maryland. Jenny’s research focuses on the intersec- tion of information, community, and technology. She is particularly interested in community participation online and offline. She has researched ways to support empathy and social support online, patterns of online participation, reasons for not participating (for example, lurking and infrequent participation), strategies for supporting online communication, devel- opment of norms, and the attributes of successful technology-supported communities. Currently, Jenny focuses on how technology can be used to educate and motivate citizens to engage and contribute quality data to citizen science projects. This research contributes to the broader need for the collection of data about the world’s flora and fauna at a time when many species are in rapid decline due to habitat loss, pollution, and climate change. She was author of one of the first books on online communities—Online Communities: Designing Usability, Supporting Sociability (2000) published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and several other HCI texts. Jenny is also widely published, a regular keynote speaker, and a member of the ACM’s CHI Academy.

Associate Publisher Jim Minatel

Editorial Manager Pete Gaughan

Production Manager Katie Wisor

Project Editor Gary Schwartz

Production Editor Barath Kumar Rajasekaran

Technical Editors Danelle Bailey Jill L. H. Reed

Copy Editor Kim Wimpsett

Proofreader Nancy Bell

Indexer Johnna VanHoose Dinse

Cover Designer Wiley

Cover Image © Wiley; Jennifer Preece photo courtesy of Craig Allan Taylor

Credits

Many people have helped us over the years in writing the four previous editions of this book. We have benefited from the advice and support of our many professional colleagues across the world and from our students, friends, and families. We especially would like to thank everyone who generously contributed their ideas and time to help make all of the editions of this book successful.

These include our colleagues and students at the College of Information Studies— “Maryland’s iSchool”—at University of Maryland, the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) and Center for the Advanced Study of Communities and Information (CASCI), the Open University, and University College London. We would especially like to thank (in alphabetical first name order) all of the following individuals who have helped us over the years:

Alex Quinn, Alice Robbin, Alice Siempelkamp, Alina Goldman, Allison Druin, Ana Javornik, Anijo Mathew, Ann Blandford, Ann Jones, Anne Adams, Ben Bederson, Ben Shnei- derman, Blaine Price, Carol Boston, Cathy Holloway, Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza, Connie Golsteijn, Dan Green, Dana Rotman, danah boyd, Debbie Stone, Derek Hansen, Duncan Brown, Edwin Blake, Eva Hornecker, Fiona Nah, Gill Clough, Godwin Egbeyi, Harry Brignull, Janet van der Linden, Jeff Rick, Jennifer Ferreira, Jennifer Golbeck, Jeremy Mayes, Joh Hunt, Johannes Schöning, Jon Bird, Jonathan Lazar, Judith Segal, Julia Galliers, Fiona Nah, Kent Norman, Laura Plonka, Leeann Brumby, Leon Reicherts, Mark Woodroffe, Michael Wood, Nadia Pantidi, Nick Dalton, Nicolai Marquardt, Paul Cairns, Paul Marshall, Philip “Fei” Wu, Rachael Bradley, Rafael Cronin, Richard Morris, Richie Hazlewood, Rob Jacob, Rose Johnson, Stefan Kreitmayer, Steve Hodges, Stephanie Wilson, Tamara Clegg, Tammy Toscos, Tina Fuchs, Tom Hume, Tom Ventsias, Toni Robertson, and Youn-Kyung Lim.

In addition we wish to thank the many students, instructors, researchers and practition- ers who have contacted us over the years with stimulating comments, positive feedback and provocative questions

We are particularly grateful to Vikram Mehta, Nadia Pantidi, and Mara Balestrini for filming, editing, and compiling a series of on-the-spot “talking heads” videos, where they posed probing questions to the diverse set of attendees at CHI’11, CHI’14, and CHI’18, including a variety of CHI members from across the globe. The questions included asking about the future of interaction design and whether HCI has gone too wild. There are about 75 of these videos, which can be viewed on our website at www.id-book.com. We are also indebted to danah boyd, Harry Brignull, Leah Beuchley, Albrecht Schmidt, Ellen Gottesdie- ner, and Jon Froehlich for generously contributing in-depth, text-based interviews in the book. We would like to thank Rien Sach, who has been our webmaster for several years, and Deb Yuill who did a thoughtful and thorough job of editing the old reference list.

Danelle Bailey and Jill Reed provided thoughtful critiques and suggestions on all the chapters in the fifth edition, and we thank them.

Finally, we would like to thank our editor and the production team at Wiley who have been very supportive and encouraging throughout the process of developing this fifth edition: Jim Minatel, Pete Gaughan, Gary Schwartz, and Barath Kumar Rajasekaran.

Acknowledgments

Contents

What’s Inside? xvii

1 WHAT IS INTERACTION DESIGN? 1

1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Good and Poor Design 2 1.3 What Is Interaction Design? 9 1.4 The User Experience 13 1.5 Understanding Users 15 1.6 Accessibility and Inclusiveness 17 1.7 Usability and User Experience Goals 19 Interview with Harry Brignull 34

2 THE PROCESS OF INTERACTION DESIGN 37

2.1 Introduction 37 2.2 What Is Involved in Interaction Design? 38 2.3 Some Practical Issues 55

3 CONCEPTUALIZING INTERACTION 69

3.1 Introduction 69 3.2 Conceptualizing Interaction 71 3.3 Conceptual Models 74 3.4 Interface Metaphors 78 3.5 Interaction Types 81 3.6 …

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Running head: Design Project Proposal 1

Design Project Proposal 2

Design Project Proposal

Project Proposal

“Smart Quiz” is an application for general quiz and it helps everyone to attend their quiz through friendly interface. UI we are developing will asks first everyone to register in that they will get options to select interested topics (ex: sports, general knowledge, politics, movies, colors, shapes, etc). Our application targets all groups of audience and every age. Depends on age and their interest they will get the quizzes.

The application proposed will be a multi model which can be accessed or used on both mobile and web browser.

Our major source of information is from internet, articles, textbooks etc. This application requires internet, the data related to quiz and new quizzes will be updated in a timely fashion that users will always find new quizzes whenever they come back.

As the application is designed to target all groups of audience it will be simple with minimum options and buttons on