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Developing Policies

For an active policy in an organization, the following tools should be used while formulating policies; Opinion mining and Big data analytics. To be able to make effective policies that will be used to optimize train and bus schedules, energy consumption and the reduction of the time used by the passengers in a Smart City area. Opinion mining would help in finding out what kind of challenges that passengers face while boarding trains and buses (Charalabidis, Maragoudakis, & Loukis, 2015); Some of the problems could be on the arrival of buses and trains, congestions at the stations. The policymaker would consider such factors while making a policy that will make sure that, all the trains and buses arrive on time and that all the booking booths at the station have enough workers to serve the customers well with less waste of time.  The policy that would be made from the public through opinion mining will be widely accepted, as the policymakers would make policies following the matters on the ground (bus and train station).

Most of the government policies are made by relying on Big Data (Kim, Trimi, & Chung, 2014). Since the information that is obtained from the big data analysis would assist in making quality decisions, the use of Big data analytics will help in the making of policies, as the compiled data from past would be analyzed and the challenges that were faced, are facing or will be facing the bus and railway transport can be established. Some of the policies that would be made as a result of using the Big data analytics would be; every train or a bus should follow its schedule failure to what it be charged in the court of law since it has been discovered that most of the congestion has been as a result of rains and buses failing to stick and follow their schedules.


The resulting analysis of policymakers in designing a good, active policy, and providing the rationale for implementing it. Their presentation of tools and insights on the most effective tools can be crucial, and will also help strengthen the relationship between government and civil society, and between government and civil society experts in the field as diverse as political science, philosophy, and economics. In policy-making these two tools as follows

Visualization Tools: Visualisation tools are ideal mainly for information provision, namely for presenting data in a user-friendly, easy-to-grasp representation. These tools can be used in any stage of the policy cycle, wherever the need for demographic, social, or spatial data representation emerges. For example, they can be used during the decision-making stage in order to fine-tune new policies, during the implementation and evaluation stage in order to understand whether the application of a particular policy brought any changes or even during the agenda-setting stage in order to identify problems that should be addressed with policies. All types of stakeholders may be potential users of visualization tools depending on the topic addressed and because no specialization is required in order to use and understand them. (Garber, 2019)

Argumentation Tools: Argumentation tools are ideal for structured deliberation, namely for discussing specific issues to reach a common understanding or a commonly accepted decision. As such, these tools can be useful in all stages of the policy cycle. Whenever a targeted deliberation is needed, maybe they are more relevant for the agenda-setting, the policy formulation and decision making, and the evaluation and termination stages where such discussions are usually performed. Concerning potential users, in principle, all stakeholders can use argumentation tools. However, previous experience in the field has shown that argumentation tools require a certain degree of logic and critical thinking. It is, therefore, not easy for the general public to productively use these tools without prior training. For this reason, argumentation tools may be more effectively used for somewhat closed deliberation groups targeting a specific issue within a particular policy field.

Bus and local train schedules to minimize energy use and passenger wait times in a Smart City environment visualization tool and argumentation tool. Graphically explore and visualize information about the performance of all the available routes between two or more cities in a Smart City environment. (Liu, 2019)


Importance of tools in policymaking

In an organization, the development of the business always lies with the implementation of some techniques in the system that is actually related to making the policy in the system. The technologies that are seen to be used in the system certainly have some importance when defining the process in the system and identifying the process during the time of communication-related to the information is always important for making the policy. The techniques that are seen to be used by the organization in the system certainly have some important steps to follow during the time of developing a policy in the system (Furlan, Torresan, Ronco, Critto, Breil, Kontogianni & Marcomini, 2018). These steps are generally significant when it comes to recognizing the process in the system and the main thing before going to make any plan in the system, identification of those processes in the system is needed. It is also needed to be categorized in a proper manner and with the help of that, the work process of tools would be improved. There are some important tools that have3 been used by the organization for their different purposes and those tools actually work accordingly in the process with effecting any process in the system. Making any policy in the system always needed to make a plan properly and the significance of those tools could be found.


Developing a policy for optimizing bus and local train

The situation that has been discussed here is the issues faced by the passengers when they traveled through the bus and local trains. In the environment of SmartCity, making a proper policy is certainly needed for the betterment of the process in the system. The main and appropriate tools that would be productive for this situation for improving the techniques in the bus and scheduling the local trains in a better manner to reduce the energy and minimizing the wait times of the passengers are Visualization and Social network analysis tools (Janssen, Wimmer & Deljoo, 2015). These two tools would be productive and useful for the passengers of both vehicles to reduce the issues that they are actually facing during the time of their travel through both the vehicles.

The importance of a Visualization tool could be seen during the time of managing the data in the system for the purpose of understanding the data in a better manner and the viewpoint is certainly seen to be meaningful with the context. It would certainly help the passengers to visualize the schedules sitting in their respective homes or other places without going to the station or bus stand to get the information. The process could be easily learned and visualize through the technique of visualization in the system. This would help the passenger to reduce their energy for not going anywhere and arrives from their respective homes as the schedule managed. The tool of Social network analysis would provide support to the passengers to get the news from social media and identifies the pattern through which the behaviors of the users could be able to predict in the system (Hagen, Keller, Yerden & Luna-Reyes, 2019). The wait time of the passengers related to the local trains could be reduced when the analysis of the network is done through social media in the system. It is important to know the patterns from which the work is seen to be done.