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Discussion 1 – Week 3

Discussion 1: Mental Health and the Family

The unique pressures of young and middle adulthood—financial and career ambitions, building a family, caring for older relatives—can contribute to mental health and substance use issues. It is important to remember that these issues affect not only the individual but also loved ones living in the same home such as partners and children.

In cases of mental health and substance use, social workers can use psychoeducation with family members to provide information about a mental health issue and treatment. When using this intervention, social workers must adapt it to the specific family members, accommodating their cognitive level and age.

For this Discussion, you analyze a case in which a returning soldier, who is also a husband and father, experiences mental health symptoms resulting from combat.

To Prepare:

  • Review the Learning      Resources on psychological aspects of young and middle adulthood,      psychoeducation, and military populations.
  • Access the Social Work      Case Studies media and navigate to Marcus.
  • As you explore      Marcus’s case, consider the ways in which the social environment,      including the trauma he has experienced, has impacted Marcus’s      psychological functioning.

By 12/152021
 

Post an analysis of how the social environment has contributed to Marcus’s psychological functioning. In what ways has trauma impacted Marcus’s daily functioning? Describe how you as the social worker would integrate elements of psychoeducation with Marcus and his family. How would you adapt psychoeducation for the cognitive level of the family member?

Use the Learning Resources to support your posts. Make sure to provide APA citations and a reference list.

Discussion 2 – Week 3

Discussion 2: Characteristics of Midlife Crises

Picture someone standing in the middle of a bridge. First, they look back at where they have been and what they have done along the way to that point; then they look forward, seeing what little space they have left to travel and considering the extent they will be able to make the journey meaningful. If the bridge represents life, the person stuck in the middle, in a period of uncertainty and evaluation, is someone in a midlife crisis.

The phenomenon is often portrayed in popular media: a middle-aged man buys a sportscar, has an extramarital affair, and begins socializing with the younger generation. But what exactly is a “midlife crisis,” and why does it occur? While some researchers question the term, stating that such crises are not necessarily limited to midlife, it is believed to be experienced by a sizable segment of the population. However, the crisis may look different from person to person.

For this Discussion, you describe a midlife crisis and how biology, psychology, and sociology interact to create the phenomenon. You also envision yourself as a social worker addressing this phenomenon with a client.

To Prepare:

  • Review the Learning      Resources on midlife and middle adulthood.
  • Consider the      phenomenon of a midlife crisis, its characteristics/features, and how it      may vary for people of different genders.

By 12/16/2021
Post a description of the characteristics/features of a midlife crisis, including the different experiences in terms of gender. Explain how biology intersects with psychology and social factors in this phenomenon and provide an example. Then, explain how you as a social worker could help a person navigate a midlife crisis.

By Day 7

 

Use the Learning Resources to support your posts. Make sure to provide APA citations and a reference list.

Required Readings

Zastrow, C. H., Kirst-Ashman, K. K., & Hessenauer, S. L. (2019). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (11th ed.). Cengage Learning.

· Chapter 11, "Psychological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood" (pp. 485–535)

Herzog, J. R., Whitworth, J. D., & Scott, D. L. (2020). Trauma informed care with military populations. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 30(3), 265–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2019.1679693

Piotrowski, N. A., & Prest, L. A. (2019). Midlife crisis. In B. C. Auday, M. A. Buratovich, G. F. Marrocco, & P. Moglia (Eds.). Magill’s medical guide (8th ed.). Salem Press.

Schnyders, C. M., Rainey, S., & McGlothlin, J. (2018). Parent and peer attachment as predictors of emerging adulthood characteristics. Adultspan Journal, 17(2), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1002/adsp.12061

Sherman, M. D., & Larsen, J. L. (2018). Family-focused interventions and resources for veterans and their families. Psychological Services, 15(2), 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000174

1

© 2021 Walden University, LLC. Adapted from Plummer, S. -B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social

work case studies: Foundation year. Laureate International Universities Publishing.

Marcus

Marcus is a 28-year-old, African American male who recently returned to his hometown

after having served in multiple deployments in both Iraq and Syria. Marcus lives with his

wife, Tamika, and their 5-year-old son, Jayson. While serving overseas, Marcus was

exposed to combat and to blasts from three explosions caused by improvised explosive

devices (IEDs). As a result of his experiences, Marcus sustained several physical

injuries, including wounds from shrapnel released by the IEDs, a mild traumatic brain

injury (TBI) in the form of a concussion caused by being thrown from a blast site after an

explosion, and mild hearing loss in one ear that does not require the use of a hearing

aid. Marcus’s physical wounds had healed completely at the time of his discharge.

Marcus joined the military immediately after his graduation from high school and

planned to begin working at least part time while studying for an associate’s or

bachelor’s degree after his honorable discharge from the U.S. Army. Marcus sought

mental health treatment with me because he “felt different” after arriving back home

from military duty. Marcus reported that he was having difficulties adjusting to domestic

life and found it hard to feel emotionally connected to his wife, though he knew that he

loved her. Similarly, Marcus felt that he had difficulty being an attentive father to his son.

Marcus also reported that despite his goals for continued employment and education,

he could not motivate himself to look for a job or enroll in courses at the local

community college and spent most of his days sitting on the back porch of his home

smoking cigarettes, “staring into space,” and remembering violent scenes from his

combat experience. Additionally, Marcus was having difficulty sleeping due to

nightmares, had lost weight because of a general loss of appetite, had an increasingly

“short fuse” with his family, and reported that he felt constantly nervous and “on edge,

like something is going to blow” inside him.

Treatment

Strengths and Goals

Marcus came to treatment with several strengths, including the ability to identify his

symptoms and their effect on his life, his strong connections to his family, vocational

and educational goals, and the ability to work well within structured environments under

a great deal of pressure, as evidenced by his successful wartime military career.

Marcus reported that his goals for treatment included being able to be a more active

husband and father, to stop thinking so much about his combat experiences, and to

reengage in working and going back to school.

Neurological and Physical Evaluation

Because Marcus has a history of mild TBI, I referred him to a neuropsychologist for an

evaluation to rule out cognitive and/ or behavioral complications that could be attributed

to his past concussion as well as to a general physician to be sure that there were not

any undiagnosed medical conditions exacerbating Marcus’ symptoms. After determining

2

© 2021 Walden University, LLC. Adapted from Plummer, S. -B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social

work case studies: Foundation year. Laureate International Universities Publishing.

that there were no physical complications and no detectable ongoing symptoms of the

TBI, the neuropsychologist diagnosed Marcus with post-traumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) and referred him to a psychiatrist for an evaluation for medication. Marcus was

prescribed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant and began

taking the medication as directed as soon as the prescription was filled. After several

weeks, Marcus reported an increased ability to sleep through the night as well an

increase in his ability to concentrate and improved appetite during the day.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

To address his other symptoms, including emotional numbing and intrusive memories of

his combat experiences, I employed both cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and

exposure-based treatment. The CBT was used to help dismantle negative and irrational

thoughts that fueled Marcus’ symptoms. For example, Marcus reported a negative belief

that if he had been a better soldier, other soldiers would not have died during IED

explosions. Treatment focused on helping to replace these negative cognitions with

more positive, realistic cognitions, such as “I did the best work I possibly could as a

soldier, even when I couldn’t control everything.” Exposure therapy was used to reduce

the intrusive thinking about combat experiences. Marcus used a special computer

program that exposed him to scenes typical of what he experienced during his

deployment, including events involving IEDs. Marcus could control how much of the

scenes he watched and worked on reducing the amount of psychological and physical

arousal that exposure to these scenes caused. Additionally, I referred Marcus to

resources in the community tailored for veterans and their families.

After 6 months of treatment occurring twice weekly, Marcus reported that he was having

significantly less conflict with his wife and was able to connect to his loving feelings for

her and enjoy spending time together as a couple. Marcus was also able to spend more

time with his young son without losing his temper or getting frustrated as quickly. In

addition, Marcus reported significantly improved concentration, the ability to sleep well

nearly every night, as well as a marked decrease in intrusive thoughts and enhanced

coping skills for managing the intrusive thoughts when they did occur. By the end of his

treatment, Marcus had also obtained a part-time job working as an accountant’s

assistant and had enrolled in two business courses at the local community college. In

addition, he had begun to volunteer, running a social group for veterans and their

families at his local church, and was enjoying the social and spiritual support he

received. He reported that he saw a future for himself in a life outside of the military and

felt that he could forge a productive place for himself in the community.

,

Discussion 1 – Week 3Top of Form

Discussion 1: Mental Health and the Family

The unique pressures of young and middle adulthood—financial and career ambitions, building a family, caring for older relatives—can contribute to mental health and substance use issues. It is important to remember that these issues affect not only the individual but also loved ones living in the same home such as partners and children.

In cases of mental health and substance use, social workers can use psychoeducation with family members to provide information about a mental health issue and treatment. When using this intervention, social workers must adapt it to the specific family members, accommodating their cognitive level and age.

For this Discussion, you analyze a case in which a returning soldier, who is also a husband and father, experiences mental health symptoms resulting from combat.

To Prepare:

· Review the Learning Resources on psychological aspects of young and middle adulthood, psychoeducation, and military populations.

· Access the Social Work Case Studies media and navigate to Marcus.

· As you explore Marcus’s case, consider the ways in which the social environment, including the trauma he has experienced, has impacted Marcus’s psychological functioning.

By 12/152021 Post an analysis of how the social environment has contributed to Marcus’s psychological functioning. In what ways has trauma impacted Marcus’s daily functioning? Describe how you as the social worker would integrate elements of psychoeducation with Marcus and his family. How would you adapt psychoeducation for the cognitive level of the family member?

Use the Learning Resources to support your posts. Make sure to provide APA citations and a reference list.

Bottom of Form

Discussion 2 – Week 3Top of Form

Discussion 2: Characteristics of Midlife Crises

Picture someone standing in the middle of a bridge. First, they look back at where they have been and what they have done along the way to that point; then they look forward, seeing what little space they have left to travel and considering the extent they will be able to make the journey meaningful. If the bridge represents life, the person stuck in the middle, in a period of uncertainty and evaluation, is someone in a midlife crisis.

The phenomenon is often portrayed in popular media: a middle-aged man buys a sportscar, has an extramarital affair, and begins socializing with the younger generation. But what exactly is a “midlife crisis,” and why does it occur? While some researchers question the term, stating that such crises are not necessarily limited to midlife, it is believed to be experienced by a sizable segment of the population. However, the crisis may look different from person to person.

For this Discussion, you describe a midlife crisis and how biology, psychology, and sociology interact to create the phenomenon. You also envision yourself as a social worker addressing this phenomenon with a client.

To Prepare:

· Review the Learning Resources on midlife and middle adulthood.

· Consider the phenomenon of a midlife crisis, its characteristics/features, and how it may vary for people of different genders.

By 12/15/2021 Post a description of the characteristics/features of a midlife crisis, including the different experiences in terms of gender. Explain how biology intersects with psychology and social factors in this phenomenon and provide an example. Then, explain how you as a social worker could help a person navigate a midlife crisis.

By Day 7

Use the Learning Resources to support your posts. Make sure to provide APA citations and a reference list.

Required Readings

Zastrow, C. H., Kirst-Ashman, K. K., & Hessenauer, S. L. (2019). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (11th ed.). Cengage Learning.

· Chapter 11, "Psychological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood" (pp. 485–535)

Herzog, J. R., Whitworth, J. D., & Scott, D. L. (2020). Trauma informed care with military populations. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment30(3), 265–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2019.1679693

Piotrowski, N. A., & Prest, L. A. (2019). Midlife crisis. In B. C. Auday, M. A. Buratovich, G. F. Marrocco, & P. Moglia (Eds.). Magill’s medical guide (8th ed.). Salem Press.

Schnyders, C. M., Rainey, S., & McGlothlin, J. (2018). Parent and peer attachment as predictors of emerging adulthood characteristics. Adultspan Journal17(2), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1002/adsp.12061

Sherman, M. D., & Larsen, J. L. (2018). Family-focused interventions and resources for veterans and their families. Psychological Services15(2), 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000174

Chapter 11, "Psychological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood" (pp. 485–535) Summary

Sociological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood 601 services to accommodate his or her disability. In such a situation, liberals would seek to develop edu-cational services to meet the child’s learning needs. Liberals view the family as an evolving institu-tion, and therefore they are willing to support pro-grams that assist emerging family forms—such as single-parent families and same-sex marriages. Developmental Perspective Liberals for years have criticized the residual ap-proach to social welfare as being incongruent with asociety’s obligation to provide long-term assistance to those who have long-term health, welfare, social, and recreational needs. Conservatives, on the other hand, have been highly critical of the institutional approach as they claim it creates a welfare state in which many recipients simply become dependent on the government to meet their health, welfare, social, and recreational needs—without seeking to work and without contributing in other ways to the well-being of society. It is clear that conservatives will attempt to stop the creation of any major social program that moves the country in the direction of being a welfare society. They have the necessary leg-islative votes to stop the enactment of programs that are “marketed” to society as being consistent with the institutional approach. Is there a view of social welfare that can gar-ner the support of both liberals and conservatives? Midgley (1995) contends that the developmental view (or perspective) offers an alternative approach that appears to appeal to liberals, conservatives, and to the general public. Midgley defines this approach as a “process of planned social change designed to promote the well-being of the population as a whole in conjunction with a dynamic process of economic development” (p. 25). This perspective has appeal to liberals because it supports the development and expansion of needed social welfare programs. The perspective has appeal to conservatives because it asserts that the develop-ment of certain social welfare programs will have a positive impact on the economy. The general public also would be apt to support the developmental per-spective. Many voters oppose welfare, as they believe it causes economic problems (e.g., recipients living on the government dole, rather than contributing to so-ciety through working). Asserting and documenting that certain proposed social welfare programs will di-rectly benefit the economy is attractive to voters. Midgley and Livermore (1997) note that the de-velopmental approach is, at this point, not very well defined. The approach has its roots in the promo-tion of social programs in developing (Third World) countries. Advocates for social welfare programs in A Peace Corps volunteer teaches a group of Costa Rican boys. Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Paul Conklin/PhotoEdit 602 Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment developing countries have been successful in get-ting certain programs enacted by asserting and documenting that such programs will have a benefi-cial impact on the overall economy of the country. Midgley and Livermore note, “The developmental perspective’s global relevance began in the Third World in the years of decolonization after World War II” (p. 576). The United Nations later used the developmental approach in its efforts to promote the growth of social programs in developing countries, asserting that such programs had the promise of im-proving the overall economies of these countries. What are the characteristics of the developmen-tal approach? It advocates social interventions that contribute positively to economic development, thus promoting harmony between economic and social institutions. The approach regards economic prog-ress as a vital component of social progress, and it promotes the active role of government in economic and social planning (in direct opposition to the resid-ual approach). Finally, the developmental approach focuses on integrating economic and social develop-ment for the benefit of all members of society. The developmental approach can be used in ad-vocating for the expansion of a wide range of social welfare programs. It can be argued that any social program that assists a person in becoming employ-able contributes to the economic well-being of a soci-ety. It can also be argued that any social program that assists a person in making significant contributions to his or her family, or to his or her community, con-tributes to the economic well-being of a society, as functional families and functional communities are good for businesses. Members of functional families tend to be better employees, and businesses desire to locate in communities that are prospering and that have low rates of crime and other social problems. A few examples will illustrate how the develop-mental approach can be used to advocate for the expansion of social welfare programs. It can be ar-gued that job training, quality child care, and ad-equate health insurance will all benefit the economy because they will help unemployed single parents obtain employment. All of these programs will fa-cilitate the parents being able to work. It can be argued that providing mentoring programs and other social services will help at-risk children stay in school and eventually contributing to society as adults by obtaining employment and contrib-uting to their families and to the communities in which they live. It can be argued that rehabilitative programs in the criminal justice system will help correctional clients become contributing members of society. It can be argued that alcohol and drug treatment programs, nutritional programs, eating disorder intervention programs, stress manage-ment programs, and grief management programs will help people with issues in these areas to handle them better, thereby increasing the likelihood that they will become contributors to the economy and to the well-being of society. Chapter Summary The following summarizes this chapter’s content as it relates to the learning objectives presented at the beginning of the chapter. Chapter content will help prepare students to LO 1 Describe the following lifestyles and family forms that young adults may enter into: marriage, cohabitation, single life, parenthood, and the life of a childless couple. In young adulthood, people choose a personal life-style. Choosing a personal lifestyle partly involves making career decisions. Young adults may also enter into a variety of family living arrangements, including marriage, cohabitation, single life, parent-hood, and childless couples. LO 2 Describe three major sociological theories about human behavior: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism. These are macro-system theories. Three macro-system theories in sociology—functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism—offer contrasting explanations of human behavior. Functionalism views society and other social systems as composed of interde-pendent and interrelated parts. Conflict theory is more radical, viewing society as a struggle for scarce resources among individuals and social groups. Interactionist the-ory views human behavior as resulting from the interac-tion of a person’s unique, distinctive personality and the groups he or she participates in. LO 3 Understand three social problems that young and middle-aged adults may encounter: poverty, empty-shell marriages, and divorce. One-parent families, blended families, and mothers working outside the home will also be discussed. Those most vulnerable to being poor include one-parent families, children, older adults, large families, people of color, the homeless, those without a high school education, and those living in urban slums. Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial Bottom of Form

Sociological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood 603 Three types of empty-shell marriages are devital-ized relationships, conflict-habituated relationships, and passive-congenial relationships. About one of two marriages ends in divorce. Although a divorce is traumatic for everyone in the family, it appears that children become better adjusted when raised in a one-parent family in which they have a good rela-tionship with that parent than in a two-parent family filled with discontent and tension. Becoming more common in our society are one-parent families, blended families, and mothers working outside the home. Poverty affects one-parent families significantly more than it does two-parent families. The formation of a blended family requires substan-tial adjustments by a number of people, including the spouses, the children, the former spouses, and close relatives and friends. Because increasing numbers of mothers are working outside the home, our society needs to expand its effort to make good child-care ar-rangements available to the children in these families. LO 4 Understand material on assessing and inter-vening in family systems. Problems faced by families tend to be clustered in the following four categories: marital problems between the husband and the wife, conflicts between the par-ents and the children, personal problems of individual family members, and stresses imposed on the family by the external environment. Two family system assess-ment techniques are the ecomap and the genogram. LO 5 Summarize material on social work with organizations, including several theories of organi-zational behavior. Numerous theories provide a variety of perspec-tives for viewing and analyzing organizations. The theories covered include the autocratic model, the custodial model, the scientific management model, the human relations model, Theory X, Theory Y, the collegial model, Theory Z, management by ob-jectives, and total quality management (TQM). Any of these models can be applied successfully in some situations. Material was also presented on Knopf’s (1979) suggestions for social workers surviving and thriving while employed in a bureaucracy. LO 6 Describe liberal, conservative, and de-velopmental perspectives on human service organizations. Values and assumptions (rather than facts and figures) form the bases of most decisions in organizations. Six value orientations frequently have an impact on deci-sion making: theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. In regard to value orientations, three diverse views that have major impacts on human service organizations are the conservative, liberal, and de-velopmental perspectives. Conservatives generally advocate the residual approach to social welfare programs, whereas liberals generally follow an insti-tutional view of social welfare. The developmental perspective offers an alternative approach that ap-pears to appeal to liberals, conservatives, and the general public. It advocates social interventions that contribute positively to economic development. COMPETENCY NOTES The following identifies where Educational Policy (EP) competencies and behaviors are discussed in this chapter. EP 6a. Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies; EP 7b. Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies; EP 8b. Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies. (All of this chapter.) Material on concepts and theories about human be-havior and the social environment affecting socio-logical aspects of young and middle adulthood are presented throughout this chapter. EP 1 Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior (pp. 538, 542, 545, 548, 555, 557, 559, 567, 598, 600) Ethical questions are posed. WEB RESOURCES See this text’s companion website at www.cengagebrain.com for learning tools such as chapter quizzes, videos, and more. Copyright

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Record: 1

Title:
Midlife crisis.
Authors:
Piotrowski, Nancy A., PhD Prest, Layne A., PhD
Source:
Magill’s Medical Guide (Online Edition), 2019. 6p.
Document Type:
Article
Subject Terms:
Mid-life crisis Life change events Psychological aspects of aging
Abstract:
Before the nature of the midlife crisis can be explored, it is first helpful to identify what is meant by “midlife.” As the average life expectancy has changed throughout history, so has the period termed midlife. For example, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the human life expectancy at birth in the United States had risen to 78.8 years of age in 2013. These figures are more than twice as long as the average life expectancy during the time of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and more than three and a half times as long as someone in ancient Greece could have expected to live.
Full Text Word Count:
3398
Accession Number:
89093476
Persistent link to this record (Permalink):
https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=ers&AN=89093476&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s6527200
Cut and Paste:
<A href="https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=ers&AN=89093476&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s6527200">Midlife crisis.</A>
Database:
Research Starters

Midlife crisis

Anatomy or system affected:Psychic-emotional system

Definition:The emotional, psychological, physical, spiritual, and relationship crises that arise during the transition from early to later adulthood.

Causes and Symptoms

Before the nature of the midlife crisis can be explored, it is first helpful to identify what is meant by “midlife.” As the average life expectancy has changed throughout history, so has the period termed midlife. For example, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the human life expectancy at birth in the United States had risen to 78.8 years of age in 2013. These figures are more than twice as long as the average life expectancy during the time of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and more than three and a half times as long as someone in ancient Greece could have expected to live.

89093476-119141.jpgMidlife crisis is a major cause of divorce. By Jennifer Pahlka from Oakland, CA, sfo (LOL Just divorced. And no, that's not my car.) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons89093476-119142.jpgThrill-seeking activities are pursued during a midlife crisis. By Don Graham from Redlands, CA, USA – God bless it! (Bungee-Jumping-620×465) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Life expectancy changes as it is influenced by any number of factors, including nutrition, health care and prevention, stress and lifestyle issues, historical period, culture, race, individual variability, gender, and social context. Consequently, there is no precise age at which midlife commences. It is also difficult to state unequivocally when the possibility for a midlife crisis ends. Nevertheless, some developmental theorists, such as D. J. Levinson, suggest the period from forty to forty-five is the time of the midlife transition where “crisis” may occur. Others have indicated that this time period may last until the age of fifty-three. Yet the results of these studies, collected primarily from Caucasian males in the United States, may not be applicable to the general population.

Other researchers, Carol Gilligan among them, have engaged in a critique of the assumptions underlying previous comments on midlife crises and theories of how human beings develop, pointing out how this research may be based on outdated and/or incomplete studies of human development and experience. Gilligan’s line of research demonstrates, for example, how it may be that women have an experience of the aging process that is different from the one commonly experienced by men. As a result, the process of normal adult development and the nature of this crisis remain unclear.

Midlife crisis experiences seem to arise in response to a variety of precipitating factors, including both norm