+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Discussion: Applying Differential Diagnosis to Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

What is it truly like to have a mental illness? By considering clients’ lived experiences, a social worker becomes more empathetic and therefore better equipped to treat them. In this Discussion, you analyze a case study focused on a depressive disorder or bipolar disorder using the steps of differential diagnosis.

To prepare: View the TED Talk “Depression, the Secret We Share” (TED Conferences, LLC, 2013) https://www.ted.com/talks/andrew_solomon_depression_the_secret_we_share#t-23422 and compare the description of Andrew Solomon’s symptoms to the criteria for depressive disorders in the DSM-5. Next review the steps in diagnosis detailed in the Morrison (2014) reading pgs. (129-166), and then read the case provided by your instructor for this week’s Discussion (Case of Anastasia), considering the client against the various DSM-5 criteria for depressive disorders and bipolar disorders.

By Day 3

Post a 300- to 500-word response in which you address the following: (PLEASE LIST DIAGNOSIS FIRST BEFORE DISCUSSION)

  • Provide the full DSM-5 diagnosis for the client. For any diagnosis that you choose, be sure to concisely explain how the client fits that diagnostic criteria. Remember, a full diagnosis should include the name of the disorder, ICD-10-CM code, specifiers, severity, medical needs, and the Z codes (other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention). Keep in mind a diagnosis covers the most recent 12 months.
  • Explain the diagnosis by matching the symptoms identified in the case to the specific criteria for the diagnosis.
  • Recommend a specific evidence-based measurement instrument to validate the diagnosis and assess outcomes of treatment.
  • Describe your treatment recommendations, including the type of treatment modality and whether or not you would refer the client to a medical provider for psychotropic medications.

CASE OF ANASTASIA

Intake Date: May 2021

IDENTIFYING/DEMOGRAPHIC DATA:

Anastasia is a 39-year-old Caucasian female of Greek ancestry who has been married for 21 years. She lives with her husband and her 15-year-old son. Her daughter is a sophomore in college and lives on campus. Anastasia owns an Greek restaurant in Tarpon Springs, Florida.

CHIEF COMPLAINT/PRESENTING PROBLEM:

Anastasia presents for treatment complaining of an increased sense of hopelessness and a persistent feeling of being a failure. She relates that she has no motivation and nothing seems to bring her pleasure. Anastasia reports feeling very sad and has difficulties getting out of bed in the morning, having irregular sleep patterns, frequently awakening throughout the night and staring at the clock, unable to fall back to sleep. Anastasia reports intense periods of anxiety affecting her sleep and occurring upon awakening and she especially worries about her children, her business, and things going on in her neighborhood, and wondering if everything will work out in her family members’ lives. She states that her anxiety becomes so severe that it makes her teeth chatter uncontrollably. Anastasia reports that she experiences periods of tearfulness and crying during the day especially when things are particularly stressful at her business. She is always tired and fatigued and has difficulty making even simple business decisions.

HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS:

Anastasia states that she has always worried about being successful and that recent marital problems have increased these feelings. She states that feelings of impending disaster plague her in the morning and that these anxious feelings have been going on since June 2018. Client states that she feels as if her “anxiety regulator” has broken. She admitted that she found out in June 2018 that her husband was emotionally involved with another woman.

Client stated her husband would disappear for several hours each day and she later discovered that he was spending time over a neighbor’s house while the neighbor’s husband was at work. Client states that her husband made it clear that he was getting close to the neighbor because Anastasia’s schedule left little time for him and that Anastasia was very involved with her parents and other family members. Anastasia is unable to explore as to whether this relationship involved physical intimacy. Anastasia believes she would fall apart if her husband had been having sex outside the marriage. Anastasia states the discovery of her husband’s emotional affair led to an intense period of frequent and severe “attacks” which included chest pains, shortness of breath and dizziness. When this happens, she just wants to throw up. Client states that since she found out about the affair she has bizarre dreams, suffers from night sweats and chills, and wakes up with a feeling that she is going crazy. Since June, Anastasia has lost 35 lbs. and has difficulty concentrating on running her business. Although her attacks would come on suddenly, they did not last very long, but it seemed like hours.

Anastasia noted since this all came out her husband reportedly stopped going to the neighbor’s house. She states that she cannot shake feelings of anxiety, especially when she is unable to reach her husband. She has spent the last several months worrying about the attacks happening when she cannot reach her husband. Anastasia states she also began worrying about dying. She reports a previous period of depression that began in 2017 after her husband asked for a divorce. She identified feelings of hopelessness and sleep disturbances as well as persistent thoughts of suicide. Client states she began psychotherapy and was put on Prozac for about one year. She was able to deal with the threat of divorce and felt generally happy for two years, until her husband disclosed this relationship in 2020.

Client reports years of worrying about her life, her children and all of her family members. Even though it makes her irritable, she doesn’t even try to stop it anymore. The situation with her husband only increased things for her to worry about. She expresses concern about her business although there is no indication that there is any trouble.

CURRENT FAMILY ISSUES AND DYNAMICS:

Anastasia was married in 2000. Anastasia was given her business by her father at age 24 and is successful in the business. She comes from a family of business owners. Client has two children. Clients reports she separated from her husband two times because of his unmotivated behavior.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM:

Anastasia presents friendly and cooperative and is dressed neatly in appropriate attire. Anastasia’s mood is depressed. She is oriented to time, place, and person. She demonstrates general knowledge consistent with education. Anastasia demonstrates proper judgment, insight, and normal memory, both recent and remote. Additionally, Anastasia presents with normal perceptions and normal stream of thought. Anastasia’s speech is spontaneous. She initially presents with an appropriate affect although she demonstrates a moderate lability to her mood. Her expression of mood ranged from intense laughter to periods of uncontrollable sobbing. Mood was congruent with expression. Anastasia appeared anxious when discussing monetary matters and cried when describing marital difficulties. She denies active suicidal/homicidal ideation but states that her family would be better off if she were dead so that they could collect on the insurance.

Also from James Morrison

Diagnosis Made Easier:
Principles and Techniques for Mental Health Clinicians, Second Edition

The First Interview, Fourth Edition

When Psychological Problems Mask Medical Disorders:

A Guide for Psychotherapists

For more information, see www.guilford.com/morrison

2

DSM-5® Made Easy
The Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis

James Morrison

THE GUILFORD PRESS
New York London

3

Epub Edition ISBN: 9781462515448; Kindle Edition ISBN: 9781462515455

© 2014 The Guilford Press
A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.
72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012
www.guilford.com

All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without
written permission from the publisher.

Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The author has checked with sources believed to be reliable in his effort to provide information that is
complete and generally in accord with the standards of practice that are accepted at the time of publication.
However, in view of the possibility of human error or changes in behavioral, mental health, or medical
sciences, neither the author, nor the editor and publisher, nor any other party who has been involved in the
preparation or publication of this work warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect
accurate or complete, and they are not responsible for any errors or omissions or the results obtained from
the use of such information. Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained in this book with
other sources.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Morrison, James R., author.
DSM-5 made easy : the clinician’s guide to diagnosis / James Morrison.
p.; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4625-1442-7 (hardcover : alk. paper)
I. Title.
[DNLM: 1. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed 2. Mental Disorders—

diagnosis—Case Reports. 3. Mental Disorders—classification—Case Reports. WM 141]
RC469
616.89’075—dc23

2014001109

DSM-5 is a registered trademark of the American Psychiatric Association. The APA has not participated in
the preparation of this book.

4

For Mary, still my sine qua non

5

About the Author

James Morrison, MD, is Affiliate Professor of Psychiatry at Oregon Health and
Science University in Portland. He has extensive experience in both the private
and public sectors. With his acclaimed practical books—including, most recently,
Diagnosis Made Easier, Second Edition, and The First Interview, Fourth Edition—
Dr. Morrison has guided hundreds of thousands of mental health professionals
and students through the complexities of clinical evaluation and diagnosis. His
website (www.guilford.com/jm) offers additional discussion and resources related
to psychiatric diagnosis and DSM-5.

6

Acknowledgments

Many people helped in the creation of this book. I want especially to thank my
wife, Mary, who has provided unfailingly excellent advice and continual support.
Chris Fesler was unsparing with his assistance in organizing my web page.

Others who read portions of the earlier version of this book, DSM-IV Made
Easy, in one stage or another included Richard Maddock, MD, Nicholas
Rosenlicht, MD, James Picano, PhD, K. H. Blacker, MD, and Irwin Feinberg,
MD. I am grateful to Molly Mullikin, the perfect secretary, who contributed
hours of transcription and years of intelligent service in creating the earlier
version of this book. I am also profoundly indebted to the anonymous reviewers
who provided input; you know who you are, even if I don’t.

My editor, Kitty Moore, a keen and wonderful critic, helped develop the
concept originally, and has been a mainstay of the enterprise for this new edition.
I also deeply appreciate the many other editors and production people at The
Guilford Press, notably Editorial Project Manager Anna Brackett, who helped
shape and speed this book into print. I would single out Marie Sprayberry, who
went the last mile with her thoughtful, meticulous copyediting. David Mitchell
did yeoman service in reading the manuscript from cover to cover to root out
errors. I am indebted to Ashley Ortiz for her intelligent criticism of my web page,
and to Kyala Shea, who helped get it web borne.

A number of clinicians and other professionals provided their helpful advice in
the final revision process. They include Alison Beale, Ray Blanchard, PhD, Dan
G. Blazer, MD, PhD, William T. Carpenter, MD, Thomas J. Crowley, MD,
Darlene Elmore, Jan Fawcett, MD, Mary Ganguli, MD, Bob Krueger, PhD,
Kristian E. Markon, PhD, William Narrow, MD, Peter Papallo, MSW, MS,
Charles F. Reynolds, MD, Aidan Wright, PhD, and Kenneth J. Zucker, PhD. To
each of these, and to the countless patients who have provided the clinical
material for this book, I am profoundly grateful.

7

Contents

Also from James Morrison

Title Page

Copyright Page

Dedication Page

About the Author

Acknowledgments

FREQUENTLY NEEDED TABLES

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 Neurodevelopmental Disorders

CHAPTER 2 Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

CHAPTER 3 Mood Disorders

CHAPTER 4 Anxiety Disorders

CHAPTER 5 Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders

CHAPTER 6 Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders

CHAPTER 7 Dissociative Disorders

CHAPTER 8 Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

CHAPTER 9 Feeding and Eating Disorders

CHAPTER 10 Elimination Disorders

CHAPTER 11 Sleep–Wake Disorders

CHAPTER 12 Sexual Dysfunctions

CHAPTER 13 Gender Dysphoria

CHAPTER 14 Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders

CHAPTER 15 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

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CHAPTER 16 Cognitive Disorders

CHAPTER 17 Personality Disorders

CHAPTER 18 Paraphilic Disorders

CHAPTER 19 Other Factors That May Need Clinical Attention

CHAPTER 20 Patients and Diagnoses

APPENDIX

Essential Tables

Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale

Physical Disorders That Affect Mental Diagnosis

Classes (or Names) of Medications That Can Cause Mental Disorders

INDEX

About Guilford Press

Discover Related Guilford Books

9

Frequently Needed Tables

TABLE 3.2 Coding for Bipolar I and Major Depressive Disorders

TABLE 3.3 Descriptors and Specifiers That Can Apply to Mood Disorders

TABLE 15.1 Symptoms of Substance Intoxication and Withdrawal

TABLE 15.2
ICD-10-CM Code Numbers for Substance Intoxication, Substance
Withdrawal, Substance Use Disorder, and Substance-Induced Mental
Disorders

TABLE 16.1 Coding for Major and Mild NCDs

Purchasers of this ebook can download copies of these tables from
www.guilford.com/morrison2-forms.

10

Introduction

The summer after my first year in medical school, I visited a friend at his home
near the mental institution where both of his parents worked. One afternoon,
walking around the vast, open campus, we fell into conversation with a staff
psychiatrist, who told us about his latest interesting patient.

She was a young woman who had been admitted a few days earlier. While
attending college nearby, she had suddenly become agitated—speaking rapidly
and rushing in a frenzy from one activity to another. After she impulsively sold
her nearly new Corvette for $500, her friends had brought her for evaluation.

“Five hundred dollars!” exclaimed the psychiatrist. “That kind of thinking,
that’s schizophrenia!”

Now my friend and I had had just enough training in psychiatry to recognize
that this young woman’s symptoms and course of illness were far more consistent
with an episode of mania than with schizophrenia. We were too young and
callow to challenge the diagnosis of the experienced clinician, but as we went on
our way, we each expressed the fervent hope that this patient’s care would be less
flawed than her assessment.

For decades, the memory of that blown diagnosis has haunted me, in part
because it is by no means unique in the annals of mental health lore. Indeed, it
wasn’t until many years later that the first diagnostic manual to include specific
criteria (DSM-III) was published. That book has since morphed into the
enormous fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

Everyone who evaluates and treats mental health patients must understand
the latest edition of what has become the world standard for evaluation and
diagnosis. But getting value from DSM-5 requires a great deal of concentration.
Written by a committee with the goal of providing standards for research as well
as clinical practice in a variety of disciplines, it covers nearly every conceivable
subject related to mental health. But you could come away from it not knowing
how the diagnostic criteria translate to a real live patient.

I wrote DSM-5 Made Easy to make mental health diagnosis more accessible to
clinicians from all mental health professions. In these pages, you will find
descriptions of every mental disorder, with emphasis on those that occur in
adults. With it, you can learn how to diagnose each one of them. With its careful

11

use, no one today would mistake that young college student’s manic symptoms
for schizophrenia.

WHAT HAVE I DONE TO MAKE DSM-5 EASY?

Quick Guides. Opening each chapter is a summary of the diagnoses addressed
therein—and other disorders that might afflict patients who complain about
similar problems. It also provides a useful index to the material in that chapter.

Introductory material. The section on each disorder starts out with a brief
description designed to orient you to the diagnosis. It includes a discussion of the
major symptoms, perhaps a little historical information, and some of the
demographics—who is likely to have this disorder, and in what circumstances.
Here, I’ve tried to state that which I would want to know myself if I were starting
out afresh as a student.

Essential Features. OK, that’s the name I’ve given them in in DSM-5 Made Easy,
but they’re also known as prototypes. I’ve used them in an effort to make the
DSM-5 criteria more accessible. For years, we working clinicians have known that
when we evaluate a new patient, we don’t grab a list of emotional and behavioral
attributes and start ticking off boxes. Rather, we compare the data we’ve gathered
to the picture we’ve formed of the various mental and behavioral disorders.
When the data fit an image, we have an “aha!” experience and pop that diagnosis
into our list of differential diagnoses. (From long experience and conversations
with countless other experienced clinicians, I can assure you that this is exactly
how it works.)

Very recently, a study of mood and anxiety disorders* has found that clinicians
who make diagnoses by rating their patients against prototypes perform at least as
well as, and sometimes better than, other clinicians who adhere to strict criteria.
That is, it can be shown that prototypes have validity even greater than that of
some DSM diagnostic criteria. Moreover, prototypes are reported to be usable by
clinicians with a relatively modest level of training and experience; you don’t have
to be coming off 20 years of clinical work to have success with prototypes. And
clinicians report that prototypes are less cumbersome and more clinically useful.
(However—and I hasten to underscore this point—the prototypes used in the
studies I have just mentioned were generated from the diagnostic criteria
inherent in the DSM criteria.) The bottom line: Sure, we need criteria, but we can
adapt them so they work better for us.

12

So once you’ve collected the data and read the prototypes, I recommend that
you assign a number to indicate how closely your patient fits the ideal of any
diagnoses you are considering. Here’s the accepted convention: 1 = little or no
match; 2 = some match (the patient has a few features of the disorder); 3 =
moderate match (there are significant, important features of the disorder); 4 =
good match (the patient meets the standard—the diagnosis applies); 5 = excellent
match (a classic case). Obviously, the vignettes I’ve provided will always match at
the 4 or 5 level (if not, why would I use them as illustrative examples?), so I
haven’t bothered to grade them on the 5-point scale. But you should do just that
with each new patient you interview.

Of course, there may be times you’ll want to turn to the official DSM-5
criteria. One is when you’re just starting out, so you can get a picture of the exact
numbers of each type of criteria that officially count the patient as “in.” Another
would be when you are doing clinical research, where you must be able to report
that participants were all selected according to scientifically studied, reproducible
criteria. And even as an experienced clinician, I return to the actual criteria from
time to time. Perhaps it’s just to have in my mind the complete information that
allows me to communicate with other clinicians; sometimes it is related to my
writing. But mostly, whether I am with patients or talking with students, I stick to
the prototype method—just like nearly every other working clinician.

The Fine Print. Most of the diagnostic material included in these sections is what
I call boilerplate. I suppose that sounds pejorative, but each Fine Print section
actually contains one or more important steps in the diagnostic process. Think of
it this way: The prototype is useful for purposes of inclusion, whereas the
boilerplate is useful largely for the also important exclusion of other disorders and
delimitation from normal. The boilerplate verbiage includes several sorts of
stereotyped phrases and warnings, which as an aid to memory I’ve dubbed the
D’s. (I started out by using “Don’t disregard the D’s” or similar phrases, but soon
got tired of all the typing; so, I eventually adopted “the D’s” as shorthand.)

Differential diagnosis. Here I list all the disorders to consider as alternatives
when evaluating symptoms. In most cases, this list starts off with substance use
disorders and general medical disorders, which despite their relative
infrequency you should always place first on the list of disorders competing for
your consideration. Next I put in those conditions that are most treatable, and
hence should be addressed early. Only at the end do I include those that have
a dismal prognosis, or that you can’t do very much to treat. I call this the safety
principle of differential diagnosis.

13

Distress or disability. Most DSM-5 diagnostic criteria sets require that the
patient experience distress or some form of impairment (in work, social
interactions, interpersonal relations, or something else). The purpose is to
ensure that we discriminate people who are patients from those who, while
normal, perhaps have lives with interesting aspects.

As best I can tell, distress receives one definition in all of DSM-5 (Campbell’s Psychiatric Dictionary
doesn’t even list it). The DSM-5 sections on trichotillomania and excoriation (skin-picking) disorder
both describe distress as including negative feelings such as embarrassment and forfeiture of control.
It’s unclear, however, whether the same definition is employed anywhere else, or what might be the
dominant thinking throughout the manual. But for me, some combination of lost pride, shame, and
control works pretty well as a definition. (DSM-IV didn’t define distress anywhere.)

Duration. Many disorders require that symptoms be present for a certain
minimum length of time before they can be diagnosed. Again, this is to ensure
that we don’t go around indiscriminately handing out diagnoses to everyone.
For example, nearly everyone will feel blue or down at one time or another; to
qualify for a diagnosis of a depressive disorder, it has to hang on for at least a
couple of weeks.

Demographics. A few disorders are limited to certain age groups or genders.

Coding Notes. Many of the Essential Features listings conclude with these notes,
which supply additional information about specifiers, subtypes, severity, and
other subjects relevant to the disorder in question.

Here you’ll find information about specifying subtypes and judging severity for
different disorders. I’ve occasionally put in a signpost pointing to a discussion of
principles you can use to determine that a disorder is caused by the use of
substances.

Sidebars. To underscore or augment what you need to know, I have sprinkled
sidebar information throughout the text (such as the one above). Some of these
merely highlight information that will help you make a diagnosis quickly. Some
contain historical information and other sidelights about diagnoses that I’ve
found interesting. Many include editorial asides—my opinions about patients, the
diagnostic process, and clinical matters in general.

Vignettes. I have based this book on that reliable device, the clinical vignette. As
a student, I found that I often had trouble keeping in mind the features of

14

diagnosis (such as it was back then). But once I had evaluated and treated a
patient, I always had a mental image to help me remember important points
about symptoms and differential diagnosis. I hope that the more than 130
patients I have described in DSM-5 Made Easy will do the same for you.

Evaluation. This section summarizes my thinking for every patient I’ve written
about. I explain how the patient fits the diagnostic criteria and why I think other
diagnoses are unlikely. Sometimes I suggest that additional history or medical or
psychological testing should be obtained before a final diagnosis is given. The
conclusions stated here allow you to match your thinking against mine. There are
two ways you can do this. One is by picking out from the vignette the Essential
Features I’ve listed for each diagnosis. But when you want to follow the thinking
of the folks who wrote the actual DSM-5, I’ve also included references (in
parentheses) to the individual criteria. If you disagree with any of my
interpretations, I hope you’ll e-mail me ([email protected]). And for updated
information, visit my website: www.guilford.com/jm.

Final diagnosis. Usually code numbers are assigned in the record room, and we
don’t have to worry too much about them. That’s fortunate, for they are
sometimes less than perfectly logical. But to tell the record room folks how to
proceed, we need to put all the diagnostic material that seems relevant into
verbiage that conforms to the approved format. My final diagnoses not only
explain how I’d code each patient; they also provide models to use in writing up
the diagnoses for your own patients.

Tables. I’ve included a number of tables to try to give you an overall picture of
various topics—the variety of specifiers that apply across different diagnoses, a list
of physical disorders that can produce emotional and behavioral symptoms.
Those that are of principal use in a given chapter I’ve included in that chapter. A
few, which apply more generally throughout the book, you’ll find in the
Appendix.

My writing. Throughout, I’ve tried to use language that is as simple as possible.
My goal has been to make the material sound as though it was written by a
clinician for use with patients, not by a lawyer for use in court. Wherever I’ve
failed, I hope you will e-mail me to let me know. At some point, I’ll try to put it
right, either in a future edition or on my website (or both).

15

STRUCTURE OF DSM-5 MADE EASY

The first 18 chapters* of this book contain descriptions and criteria for the major
mental diagnoses and personality disorders. Chapter 19 comprises information
concerning other terms that you may find useful. Many of these are Z-codes
(ICD-9 calls them V-codes), which are conditions that are not mental disorders
but may require clinical attention anyway. Most noteworthy are the problems
people with no actual mental disorder have in relating to one another.
(Occasionally, you might even list a Z-code/V-code as the reason a patient was
referred for evaluation.) Also described here are codes that indicate medications’
effects, malingering, and the need for more diagnostic information.

Chapter 20 contains a very brief description of diagnostic principles, followed
by some additional case vignettes, which are generally more complicated than
those presented earlier in the book. I’ve annotated these case histories to help you
to review the diagnostic principles and criteria covered previously. Of course, I
could include only a small fraction of all DSM-5 diagnoses in this section.

Throughout the book, I have tried to give you clinically relevant and accessible
information, written in simple, declarative sentences that describe what you need
to know in diagnosing a patient.

QUIRKS

Here are a few comments regarding some of my idiosyncrasies.

Abbreviations. I’ll cop to using some nonstandard abbreviations, especially for
the names of disorders. For example, BPsD (for brief psychotic disorder) isn’t
something you’ll read elsewhere, certainly not in DSM-5. I’ve used it and others
for the sake of shortening things up just a bit, and thus perhaps reducing ever so
slightly the amount of time it takes to read all this stuff. I use these ad hoc
abbreviations just in the sections about specific disorders, so don’t worry about
having to remember them longer than the time you’re reading about these
disorders. Indeed, I can think of two disorders that are sometimes abbreviated
CD and four that are sometimes abbreviated SAD, so always watch for context.

My quest for shortening has also extended to the chapter titles. In the service
of seeming inclusive, DSM-5 has sometimes overcomplicated these names, in my
view. So you’ll find that I’ve occasionally (not always—I’ve got my obsessive–
compulsive disorder under control!) shortened them up a bit for convenience.

16

You shouldn’t have any problem knowing where to turn for sleep disorders
(which DSM-5 calls sleep–wake disorders), mood disorders (bipolar and related
disorders plus depressive disorders), psychotic (schizophrenia spectrum and other
psychotic) disorders, cognitive (neurocognitive) disorders, substance (substance-
related and addictive) disorders, eating (feeding and eating) disorders, and
various other disorders from which I’ve simply dropped and related from the
official titles. Similarly, I’ve sometimes dropped the /medication from
substance/medication-induced [just about anything].

{Curly braces}. I’ve used these in the Essential Features and in some tables to
indicate when there are two mutually exclusive specifier choices, such as {with}
{without} good prognostic features. Again, it just shortens things up a bit.

Severity specifiers. One of the issues with DSM-5 is its use of complicated
severity specifiers that differ from one chapter to another, and sometimes from
one disorder to the next. Some of these are easier to use than others.

For example, for the psychoses, we are offered the Clinician-Rated Dimensions
of Psychosis Symptom Severity (CRDPSS?), which asks us to rate on a 5-point
scale, based on the past 7 days, each of eight symptoms (the five psychosis
symptoms of schizophrenia [p. 58] plus impaired cognition, depression, and
mania); there is no overall score, only the eight individual components, which we
are encouraged to rate again every few days. My biggest complaint about this
scale, apart from its complexity and the time required, is that it gives us no
indication as to overall functioning—only the degree to which the patient
experiences each of the eight symptoms. Helpfully, DSM-5 informs us that we are
allowed to rate the patient “without using this severity specifier,” an offer that
many clinicians will surely rush to accept.

Evaluating functionality. Whatever happened to the Global Assessment of
Functioning (GAF)? In use from DSM-III-R through DSM-IV-TR, the GAF was
a 100-point scale that reflected the patient’s overall occupational, psychological,
and social functioning—but not physical limitations or environmental problems.
The scale specified symptoms and behavioral guidelines to help us determine our
patients’ GAF scores. Perhaps because of the subjectivity inherent in this scale, its
greatest usefulness lay in tracking changes in a patient’s level of functioning across
time. (Another problem: It was a mash-up of severity, disability, suicidality, and
symptoms.)

However, the GAF is now G-O-N-E, eliminated for several reasons (as
described in a 2013 talk by Dr. William Narrow, research director for the DSM-5
Task Force). Dr. Narrow (accurately) pointed out that the GAF mixed concepts

17

(psychosis with suicidal ideas, for example) and that it had problems with
interrater reliability. Furthermore, what’s really wanted is a disability rating that
helps us understand how well a patient can fulfill occupational and social
responsibilities, as well as generally participate in society. For that, the Task Force
recommends the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule,
Version 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), which was developed for use with clinical as well as
general populations and has been tested worldwide. DSM-5 gives it on page 747;
it can also be accessed online (www.who.int/classifications/icf/whodasii/en/). It is
scored as follows: 1 = none, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = severe, and 5 = extreme.
Note that scoring systems for the two measures are reciprocal; a high GAF score
more or less equates with a low WHODAS 2.0 rating.

After quite a bit of experimentation, I decided that the WHODAS 2.0 is so
heavily weighted toward physical abilities that it poorly reflects the qualities
mental health clinicians are interested in. Some of the most severely ill mental
patients received a only a moderate WHODAS 2.0 score; for example, Velma
Dean scored 20 on the GAF but 1.6 on the WHODAS 2.0. In addition,
calculation of the WHODAS 2.0 score rests on the answers given by the patient
(or clinician) to 36 questions—a burden of data collection that many busy
professionals will not be able to carry. And, because these answers cover
conditions over the previous month, the score cannot accurately represent
patients with rapidly evolving mental disorders. The GAF, on the other hand, is a
fairly simple (if subjective) way to estimate severity.

So, after much thought, I’ve decided not to recommend the WHODAS 2.0
after all. (Anyone who is interested in further discussion can write to me; I’ll be
happy to send along a chart that compares the GAF with the WHODAS 2.0 for
every patient mentioned in this book.) Rather, here’s my fix as regards evaluating
function and severity, and it’s the final quirk I’ll mention: Go ahead and use the
GAF. Nothing says that we can’t, and I find it sometimes useful for tracking a
patient’s progress through treatment. It’s quick, easy (OK, it’s also subjective), and
free. You can specify the patient’s current level of functioning, or the highest level
in any past time frame. You’ll find it in the Appendix of this book.

USING THIS BOOK

There are several ways in which you might use DSM-5 Made Easy.

Studying a diagnosis. Of course, you might go about this in several ways, but

18

here’s how I’d do it. Scan the introductory information for some background,
then read the vignette. Next, compare the information in the vignette to the
Essential Features, to assure yourself that you can pick out what’s important
diagnostically. If you want to see how well the vignettes fit the actual DSM-5
criteria, read through the vignette evaluations; there I’ve touched upon each
of the important diagnostic points. In each evaluation section, you’ll also find a
discussion of the differential diagnosis, as well as some other conditions often
found in association with the disorder in question.

Evaluating a patient whose diagnosis you think you know. Read through the
Essential Features, then check the information you have on this patient against
the prototype. Assign a 1–5 score, using the key given above (p. 3). Check
through the D’s to make sure you’ve considered all disqualifying information
and relevant alternative diagnoses. If all’s well and you’ve hit the mark, I’d
also read through the evaluation section of the relevant vignette, just to make
sure you’ve understood the criteria. Then you might want to read the
introductory material for background.

Evaluating a new patient. Follow the sequence given just above, with one
exception: After identifying one of several areas of clinical interest as a
diagnostic possibility—let’s say an anxiety disorder—you might want to start
with the Quick Guide in the relevant chapter. There you will find capsule
statements (too brief even to be …

DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL
MANUAL OF

MENTAL DISORDERS
F I F T H E D I T I O N

DSM-5TM

American Psychiatric Association

Officers 2012-2013
P residen t D ilip V. J este, M.D.

P resid en t-Elect J effrey A. Lieberm a n , M.D.
Tr ea su rer Da v id F a ssler, M.D.

Secreta ry R cxser Peele, M.D.

Assembly
Spea k er R. Sc o tt B en so n , M.D.

S peaker-Elect M elin da L. Yo u n g , M.D.

Board o f Trustees
Jeffrey A ka ka, M .D.

C aro l A. B ern stein, M.D.
B rL·̂ ̂C ro w ley, M.D.

An ita S. Everett, M.D.
J effrey G eller, M .D., M .P.H .

M ^ c D a v id G ra ff, M.D.
‘ J ^ e&A. G i^ eneVM.D.
Ju d ith F. Ka sh ta n , M.D.
M o lly K. M c Vo y, M .D.
J a m es E. N in in g er, M.D.
Jo h n M. O ldh a m , M .D.

A lan F. Sc h a tzberg , M.D.
A lik s . W id g e, M .D., P h .D.

E r ik R. V an d erlip, M .D .,
M em ber-in-T raining Tr u stee-E lect

DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL
MANUAL OF

MENTAL DISORDERS7
F I F T H E D I T I O N

DSM-5TM

New School Library

/«44

Amcriccin

O svch iatric

ADivi«ono(AmCT»MlVhijtiKAMod<tk>n

W ashin g ton , DC
Lon d on , E n gland

Copyright © 2013 American Psychiatric Association

DSM and DSM-5 are trademarks of the American Psychiatric Association. Use of these terms
is prohibited without permission of the American Psychiatric Association.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Unless authorized in writing by the APA, no part of this book may
be reproduced or used in a manner inconsistent with the APA’s copyright. This prohibition
apphes to unauthorized uses or reproductions in any form, including electronic applications.

Correspondence regarding copyright permissions should be directed to DSM Permissions,
American Psychiatric Publishing, 1000 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1825, Arlington, VA 22209­
3901.

Manufactured in the United States of America on acid-free paper.

ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1 (Hardcover)

ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8 (Paperback)

American Psychiatric Association
1000 Wilson Boulevard
Arlington, VA 22209-3901
www.psych.org

The correct citation for this book is American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statisti­
cal Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Associa­
tion, 2013.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. — 5th ed.

p. ; cm.
DSM-5
DSM-V
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1 (hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8 (pbk. : alk. paper)
I. American Psychiatric Association. II. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5 Task Force,
m. Title: DSM-5. IV. Title: DSM-V.
[DNLM: 1. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. 2. Mental Disorders—
classification. 3. Mental Disorders—diagnosis. WM 15]
RC455.2.C4
616.89Ό75—dc23

2013011061
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data ^ n
A CIP record is available from the British Library. ^

Text Design—Tammy J. Cordova

Manufacturing—Edwards Brothers Malloy ^

cH

Contents

DSM-5 Classification…………………………………………………………xiii
Preface…………………………………………………………………………….. xli

Section I
DSM-5 Basics

Introduction……………………………………………………………………….. 5

Use of the M anual………………………………………………………………19

Cautionary Statement for Forensic Use of DSM-5………………… 25

Section II
Diagnostic Criteria and Codes

Neurodevelopmental Disorders………………………………………….. 31
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders……….87
Bipolar and Related Disorders………………………………………….. 123
Depressive Disorders………………………………………………………. 155
Anxiety Disorders………………………………………………………………189
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders………………….. 235
Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders…………………………… 265
Dissociative Disorders…………………………………………………….. 291
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders…………………………. 309
Feeding and Eating Disorders………………………………………….. 329
Elimination Disorders………………………………………………………. 355
Sleep-Wake Disorders………………………………………………………. 361
Sexual Dysfunctions…………………………………………………………423
Gender Dysphoria…………………………………………………………….451

Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders…………..461
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders……………………… 481
Neurocognitive Disorders…………………………………………………. 591
Personality Disorders………………………………………………………. 645
Paraphilic Disorders………………………………………………………… 685
Other Mental Disorders…………………………………………………… 707

Medication-Induced Movement Disorders
and Other Adverse Effects of M edication……………………….. 709

Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention .. 715

Section III
Emerging Measures and Models

Assessment Measures…………………………………………………….. 733

Cultural Formulation………………………………………………………… 749

Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders…………….761

Conditions for Further Study……………………………………………. 783

Appendix
Highlights of Changes From DSM-IV to DSM -5………………….. 809
Glossary of Technical Term s……………………………………………. 817
Glossary of Cultural Concepts of Distress…………………………. 833
Alphabetical Listing of DSM-5 Diagnoses and Codes

(ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM)……………………………………………. 839
Numerical Listing of DSM-5 Diagnoses and Codes

(ICD-9-CM)………………………………………………………………….. 863
Numerical Listing of DSM-5 Diagnoses and Codes

(ICD-10-CM)………………………………………………………………….877
DSM-5 Advisors and Other Contributors…………………………… 897

Index………………………………………………………………………………. 917

DSM-5 Task Force
D a vid J. K u pfer, M.D.

Task Force Chair
D a rrel A. R egier, M .D., M .P.H .

Task Force Vice-Chair
William E. Narrow, M.D.,

Research Director

Dan G. Blazer, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H.
Jack D. Burke Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
William T. Carpenter Jr., M.D.
F. Xavier Castellanos, M.D.
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E.
Joel E. Dimsdale, M.D.
Javier I. Escobar, M.D., M.Sc.
Jan A. Fawcett, M.D.
Bridget F. Grant, Ph.D., Ph.D. (2009-)
Steven E. Hyman, M.D. (2007-2012)
Dilip V. Jeste, M.D. (2007-2011)
Helena C. Kraemer, Ph.D.
Daniel T. Mamah, M.D., M.P.E.
James P. McNulty, A.B., Sc.B.
Howard B. Moss, M.D. (2007-2009)

Susan K. Schultz, M.D., Text Editor
Emily A. Kuhl, Ph.D., APA Text Editor

Charles P. O’Brien, M.D., Ph.D.
Roger Peele, M.D.
Katharine A. Phillips, M.D.
Daniel S. Pine, M.D.
Charles F. Reynolds III, M.D.
Maritza Rubio-Stipec, Sc.D.
David Shaffer, M.D.
Andrew E. Skodol II, M.D.
Susan E. Swedo, M.D.
B. Timothy Walsh, M.D.
Philip Wang, M.D., Dr.P.H. (2007-2012)
William M. Womack, M.D.
Kimberly A. Yonkers, M.D.
Kenneth J. Zucker, Ph.D.
Norman Sartorius, M.D., Ph.D., Consultant

APA Division of Research Staff on DSIVI-5
Darrel A. Regier, M.D., M.P.H.,

Director, Division o f Research
William E. Narrow, M.D., M.P.H.,

Associate Director
Emily A. Kuhl, Ph.D., Senior Science

Writer; Staff Text Editor
Diana E. Clarke, Ph.D., M.Sc., Research

Statistician

Lisa H. Greiner, M.S.S.A., DSM-5 Field
Trials Project Manager

Eve K. Moscicki, Sc.D., M.P.H.,
Director, Practice Research Network

S. Janet Kuramoto, Ph.D. M.H.S.,
Senior Scientific Research Associate,
Practice Research Network

Amy Porfiri, M.B.A.
Director o f Finance and Administration

Jennifer J. Shupinka, Assistant Director,
DSM Operations

Seung-Hee Hong, DSM Senior Research
Associate

Anne R. Hiller, DSM Research Associate
Alison S. Beale, DSM Research Associate
Spencer R. Case, DSM Research Associate

Joyce C. West, Ph.D., M.P.P.,
Health Policy Research Director, Practice
Research Network

Farifteh F. Duffy, Ph.D.,
Quality Care Research Director, Practice
Research Network

Lisa M. Countis, Field Operations
Manager, Practice Research Network

Christopher M. Reynolds,
Executive Assistant

APA Office of the IVIedlcal Director
Jam es H. S c u l l y Jr ., M.D.

Medical Director and CEO

Editorial and Coding Consultants
Michael B. First, M.D. Maria N. Ward, M.Ed., RHIT, CCS-P

DSM-5 Work Groups
ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

D a v id Sha ffer, M.D.
Chair

F. Xa v ier C a stella n o s, M.D.
Co-Chair

Paul J. Frick, Ph.D., Text Coordinator Luis Augusto Rohde, M.D., Sc.D.
Glorisa Canino, Ph.D. Rosemary Tannock, Ph.D.
Terrie E. Moffitt, Ph.D. Eric A. Taylor, M.B.
Joel T. Nigg, Ph.D. Richard Todd, Ph.D., M.D. (d. 2008)

Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, Posttraumatic,
and Dissociative Disorders

K a th a rin e A. Ph illips, M.D.
Chair

Michelle G. Craske, Ph.D., Text Scott L. Rauch, M.D.
Coordinator H. Blair Simpson, M.D., Ph.D.

J. Gavin Andrews, M.D. David Spiegel, M.D.
Susan M. Bögels, Ph.D. Dan J. Stein, M.D., Ph.D.
Matthew J. Friedman, M.D., Ph.D. Murray B. Stein, M.D.
Eric Hollander, M.D. (2007-2009) Robert J. Ursano, M.D.
Roberto Lewis-Fernandez, M.D., M.T.S. Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ph.D.
Robert S. Pynoos, M.D., M.P.H.

Childhood and Adolescent Disorders
D an iel S. Pin e, M.D.

Chair
Ronald E. Dahl, M.D. James F. Leckman, M.D.
E. Jane Costello, Ph.D. (2007-2009) Ellen Leibenluft, M.D.
Regina Smith James, M.D. Judith H. L. Rapoport, M.D.
Rachel G. Klein, Ph.D. Charles H. Zeanah, M.D.

Eating Disorders
B. T im o th y W alsh, M.D.

Chair
Stephen A. Wonderlich, Ph.D., Richard E. Kreipe, M.D.

Text Coordinator Marsha D. Marcus, Ph.D.
Evelyn Attia, M.D. James E. Mitchell, M.D.
Anne E. Becker, M.D., Ph.D., Sc.M. Ruth H. Striegel-Moore, Ph.D.
Rachel Bryant-Waugh, M.D. G. Terence Wilson, Ph.D.
Hans W. Hoek, M.D., Ph.D. Barbara E. Wolfe, Ph.D. A.P.R.N.

Mood Disorders
J a n a . F a w c e t t , M.D.

Chair
Ellen Frank, Ph.D., Text Coordinator
Jules Angst, M.D. (2007-2008)
William H. Coryell, M.D.
Lori L. Davis, M.D.
Raymond J. DePaulo, M.D.
Sir David Goldberg, M.D.
James S. Jackson, Ph.D.

Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D., Ph.D.
(2007-2010)

Mario Maj, M.D., Ph.D.
Husseini K. Manji, M.D. (2007-2008)
Michael R. Phillips, M.D.
Trisha Suppes, M.D., Ph.D.
Carlos A. Zarate, M.D.

Neurocognitive Disorders
D ilip V. Je s te , M .D. (2007-2011)

Chair Emeritus
D an G. Bla zer, M .D., P h .D., M.P.H.

Chair
R o n a l d C. P e te r s e n , M .D., Ph.D.

Co-Chair
Mary Ganguli, M.D., M.P.H.,

Text Coordinator
Deborah Blacker, M.D., Sc.D.
Warachal Faison, M.D. (2007-2008)

Igor Grant, M.D.
Eric J. Lenze, M.D.
Jane S. Paulsen, Ph.D.
Perminder S. Sachdev, M.D., Ph.D.

Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Su sa n E. Sw ed o , M.D.

Chair
Gillian Baird, M.A., M.B., B.Chir.,

Text Coordinator
Edwin H. Cook Jr., M.D.
Francesca G. Happé, Ph.D.
James C. Harris, M.D.
Walter E. Kaufmann, M.D.
Bryan H. King, M.D.

Catherine E. Lord, Ph.D.
Joseph Piven, M.D.
Sally J. Rogers, Ph.D.
Sarah J. Spence, M.D., Ph.D.
Fred Volkmar, M.D. (2007-2009)
Amy M. Wetherby, Ph.D.
Harry H. Wright, M.D.

Personality and Personality Disorders^
A n d rew E. Sk o d o l, M.D.

Chair
Joh n M. O l d h a m , M.D.

Co-Chair
Robert F. Krueger, Ph.D., Text

Coordinator
Renato D. Alarcon, M.D., M.P.H.
Carl C. Bell, M.D.
Donna S. Bender, Ph.D.

Lee Anna Clark, Ph.D.
W. John Livesley, M.D., Ph.D. (2007-2012)
Leslie C. Morey, Ph.D.
Larry J. Siever, M.D.
Roel Verheul, Ph.D. (2008-2012)

̂The members of the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group are responsible for the
alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders that is included in Section III. The Section II
personality disorders criteria and text (with updating of the text) are retained from DSM-IV-TR.

Psychotic Disorders
W illiam T. C arpen ter J r ., M.D.

Chair
Deanna M. Barch, Ph.D., Text Dolores Malaspina, M.D., M.S.P.H.

Coordinator Michael J. Owen, M.D., Ph.D.
Juan R. Bustillo, M.D. Susan K. Schultz, M.D.
Wolfgang Gaebel, M.D. Rajiv Tandon, M.D.
Raquel E. Gur, M.D., Ph.D. Ming T. Tsuang, M.D., Ph.D.
Stephan H. Heckers, M.D. Jim van Os, M.D.

Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
K en n eth J. Zu c k er, Ph .D.

Chair
Lori Brotto, Ph.D., Text Coordinator Martin P. Kafka, M.D.
Irving M. Binik, Ph.D. Richard B. Krueger, M.D.
Ray M. Blanchard, Ph.D. Niklas Langström, M.D., Ph.D.
Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, Ph.D. Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, Dr. rer. nat.
Jack Drescher, M.D. Friedemann Pfäfflin, M.D.
Cynthia A. Graham, Ph.D. Robert Taylor Segraves, M.D., Ph.D.

Sleep-Wake Disorders
C h a rles F. Reyn o ld s III, M.D.

Chair
Ruth M. O’Hara, Ph.D., Text Coordinator Kathy P. Parker, Ph.D., R.N.
Charles M. Morin, Ph.D. Susan Redline, M.D., M.P.H.
Allan I. Pack, Ph.D. Dieter Riemann, Ph.D.

Somatic Symptom Disorders
J o el E. D im sd a le, M.D.

Chair
James L. Levenson, M.D., Text Michael R. Irwin, M.D.

Coordinator Francis J. Keefe, Ph.D. (2007-2011)
Arthur J. Barsky III, M.D. Sing Lee, M.D.
Francis Creed, M.D. Michael Sharpe, M.D.
Nancy Frasure-Smith, Ph.D. (2007-2011) Lawson R. Wulsin, M.D.

Substance-Related Disorders
C h a rles P. O ‘B rien, M .D., Ph .D.

Chair
Th o m a s J. C ro w ley, M.D.

Co-Chair
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E., Thomas R. Kosten, M.D. (2007-2008)

Text Coordinator Walter Ling, M.D.
Marc Auriacombe, M.D. Spero M. Manson, Ph.D. (2007-2008)
Guilherme L. G. Borges, M.D., Dr .Sc. A. Thomas McLellan, Ph.D. (2007-2008)
Kathleen K. Bucholz, Ph.D. Nancy M. Petry, Ph.D.
Alan J. Budney, Ph.D. Marc A. Schuckit, M.D.
Bridget F. Grant, Ph.D., Ph.D. Wim van den Brink, M.D., Ph.D.
Deborah S. Hasin, Ph.D. (2007-2008)

DSM-5 Study Groups
Diagnostic Spectra and DSM/ICD Harmonization

Steven E. H ym a n , M.D.
Chair (2007-2012)

William T. Carpenter Jr., M.D. William E. Narrow, M.D., M.P.H.
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E. Charles P. O’Brien, M.D., Ph.D.
Jan A. Fawcett, M.D. John M. Oldham, M.D.
Helena C. Kraemer, Ph.D. Katharine A. Phillips, M.D.
David J. Kupfer, M.D. Darrel A. Regier, M.D., M.P.H.

Lifespan Developmental Approaches
E ric J. L en ze, M.D.

Chair
Susa n K. Sc h u ltz, M.D.

Chair Emeritus
Dan iel S. P in e, M.D.

Chair Emeritus
Dan G. Blazer, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H.
F. Xavier Castellanos, M.D.
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E.

Daniel T. Mamah, M.D., M.P.E.
Andrew E. Skodol II, M.D.
Susan E. Swedo, M.D.

Gender and Cross-Cultural Issues
K im berly A. Yo n kers, M.D.

Chair
R oberto L ew is-Fern â n d ez, M .D., M .T.S.

Co-Chair, Cross-Cultural Issues
Renato D. Alarcon, M.D., M.P.H.
Diana E. Clarke, Ph.D., M.Sc.
Javier I. Escobar, M.D., M.Sc.
Ellen Frank, Ph.D.
James S. Jackson, Ph.D.
Spiro M. Manson, Ph.D. (2007-2008)
James P. McNulty, A.B., Sc.B.

Leslie C. Morey, Ph.D.
William E. Narrow, M.D., M.P.H.
Roger Peele, M.D.
Philip Wang, M.D., Dr.P.H. (2007-2012)
William M. Womack, M.D.
Kermeth J. Zucker, Ph.D.

Psychiatric/General Medical Interface
L a w so n R. W u lsin, M.D.

Chair
Ronald E. Dahl, M.D.
Joel E. Dimsdale, M.D.
Javier I. Escobar, M.D., M.Sc.
Dilip V. Jeste, M.D. (2007-2011)
Walter E. Kaufmann, M.D.

Richard E. Kreipe, M.D.
Ronald C. Petersen, Ph.D., M.D.
Charles F. Reynolds III, M.D.
Robert Taylor Segraves, M.D., Ph.D.
B. Timothy Walsh, M.D.

Impairment and Disability
J a n e S. P a u ls e n , Ph.D .

Chair
J. Gavin Andrews, M.D.
Glorisa Canino, Ph.D.
Lee Anna Clark, Ph.D.
Diana E. Clarke, Ph.D., M.Sc.
Michelle G. Craske, Ph.D.

Hans W. Hoek, M.D., Ph.D.
Helena C. Kraemer, Ph.D.
William E. Narrow, M.D., M.P.H.
David Shaffer, M.D.

Diagnostic Assessment Instruments
J a ck D. Burk e Jr ., M .D., M .P.H.

Chair
Lee Anna Clark, Ph.D.
Diana E. Clarke, Ph.D., M.Sc.
Bridget F. Grant, Ph.D., Ph.D.

Helena C. Kraemer, Ph.D.
William E. Narrow, M.D., M.P.H.
David Shaffer, M.D.

DSM-5 Research Group
W illiam E. N a rro w , M .D., M.P.H.

Chair
Jack D. Burke Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
Diana E. Clarke, Ph.D., M.Sc.
Helena C. Kraemer, Ph.D.

David J. Kupfer, M.D.
Darrel A. Regier, M.D., M.P.H.
David Shaffer, M.D.

Course Specifiers and Glossary
W o lfg a n g G a ebel, M.D.

Chair
Ellen Frank, Ph.D.
Charles P. O’Brien, M.D., Ph.D.
Norman Sartorius, M.D., Ph.D.,

Consultant
Susan K. Schultz, M.D.

Dan J. Stein, M.D., Ph.D.
Eric A. Taylor, M.B.
David J. Kupfer, M.D.
Darrel A. Regier, M.D., M.P.H.

Before each disorder name, ICD-9-CM codes are provided, followed by ICD-IO-CM codes
in parentheses. Blank lines indicate that either the ICD-9-CM or the ICD-IO-CM code is not
applicable. For some disorders, the code can be indicated only according to the subtype or
specifier.

ICD-9-CM codes are to be used for coding purposes in the United States through Sep­
tember 30,2014. ICD-IO-CM codes are to be used starting October 1,2014.

Following chapter titles and disorder names, page numbers for the corresponding text
or criteria are included in parentheses.

Note for all mental disorders due to another medical condition: Indicate the name of
the other medical condition in the name of the mental disorder due to [the medical condi­
tion]. The code and name for the other medical condition should be listed first immedi­
ately before the mental disorder due to the medical condition.

Neurodevelopm ental Disorders (31)

Intellectual Disabilities (33)
319 (___.__) Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder) (33)

Specify current severity;
(F70) Mild
(F71) Moderate
(F72) Severe
(F73) Profound

315.8 (F88) Global Developmental Delay (41)

319 (F79) Unspecified Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental
Disorder) (41)

Communication Disorders (41)
315.39 (F80.9) Language Disorder (42)

315.39 (F80.0) Speech Sound Disorder (44)

315.35 (F80.81) Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering) (45)
Note: Later-onset cases are diagnosed as 307.0 (F98.5) adult-onset fluency

disorder.
315.39 (F80.89) Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (47)

307.9 (F80.9) Unspecified Communication Disorder (49)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (50)
299.00 (F84.0) Autism Spectrum Disorder (50)

Specify if: Associated with a known medical or genetic condition or envi­
ronmental factor; Associated with another neurodevelopmental, men­
tal, or behavioral disorder

Specify current severity for Criterion A and Criterion B: Requiring very
substantial support. Requiring substantial support. Requiring support

Specify if: With or without accompanying intellectual impairment. With
or without accompanying language impairment. With catatonia (use
additional code 293.89 [F06.1])

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (59)
___.__ (__ .__) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (59)

Specify whether:
314.01 (F90.2) Combined presentation
314.00 (F90.0) Predominantly inattentive presentation
314.01 (F90.1) Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation

Specify if: In partial remission
Specify current severity: Mild, Moderate, Severe

314.01 (F90.8) Other Specified Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (65)

314.01 (F90.9) Unspecified Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (66)

Specific Learning Disorder (66)
___.__ (___.__) Specific Learning Disorder (66)

Specify if:
315.00 (F81.0) With impairment in reading {specify if with word reading

accuracy, reading rate or fluency, reading comprehension)
315.2 (F81.81 ) With impairment in written expression {specify if with spelling

accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, clarity or
organization of written expression)

315.1 (F81.2) With impairment in mathematics {specify if with number sense,
memorization of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent
calculation, accurate math reasoning)

Specify current severity: Mild, Moderate, Severe

Motor Disorders (74)
315.4 (F82) Developmental Coordination Disorder (74)

307.3 (F98.4) Stereotypic Movement Disorder (77)
Specify if: With self-injurious behavior. Without self-injurious behavior
Specify if: Associated with a known medical or genetic condition, neuro­

developmental disorder, or environmental factor
Specify current severity: Mild, Moderate, Severe

Tic Disorders
307.23 (F95.2) Tourette’s Disorder (81)

307.22 (F95.1) Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder (81)
Specify if: With motor tics only. With vocal tics only

307.21 (F95.0) Provisional Tic Disorder (81)

307.20 (F95.8), Other Specified Tic Disorder (85)

307.20 (F95.9) Urispecified Tic Disorder (85)

Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders (86)
315.8 (FSB) Other Specified Neurodevelopmental Disorder (86)

315.9 (F89) Unspecified Neurodevelopmental Disorder (86)

Schizophrenia Spectrum
and Other Psychotic Disorders (87)

The following specifiers apply to Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
where indicated:
^Specify if: The following course specifiers are only to be used after a 1-year duration of the dis­

order: First episode, currently in acute episode; First episode, currently in partial remission;
First episode, currently in full remission; Multiple episodes, currently in acute episode; Mul­
tiple episodes, currently in partial remission; Multiple episodes, currently in full remission;
Continuous; Unspecified

^Specify if: With catatonia (use additional code 293.89 [F06.1])
^Specify current severity of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, abnormal psycho­

motor behavior, negative symptoms, impaired cognition, depression, and mania symptoms

301.22 (F21)

297.1 (F22)

298.8 (F23)

295.40 (F20.81)

295.90 (F20.9)

295.70 (F25.0)
295.70 (F25.1)

293.81 (F06.2)
293.82 (F06.0)

Schizotypal (Personality) Disorder (90)

Delusional Disorder^’ ̂ (90)
Specify whether: Erotomanie type. Grandiose type. Jealous type. Persecu­

tory type. Somatic type. Mixed type. Unspecified type
Specify if: With bizarre content
Brief Psychotic Disorder^’ ̂ (94)
Specify if: With marked stressor(s). Without marked stressor(s). With

postpartum onset
Schizophreniform Disorder^’ ̂ (96)
Specify if: With good prognostic features. Without good prognostic fea­

tures
Schizophrenia^’ ̂ (99)

Schizoaffective Disorder^’ ̂ (105)
Specify whether:

Bipolar type
Depressive type

Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic Disorder^ (110)
Note: See the criteria set and corresponding recording procedures for

substance-specific codes and ICD-9-CM and ICD-IO-CM coding.
Specify if: With onset during intoxication. With onset during withdrawal

Psychotic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition^ (115)
Specify whether:

With delusions
With hallucinations

293.89 (F06.1) Catatonia Associated With Another Mental Disorder (Catatonia
Specifier) (119)

293.89 (F06.1) Catatonic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition (120)

293.89 (F06.1) Unspecified Catatonia (121)
Note: Code first 781.99 (R29.818) other symptoms involving nervous and

musculoskeletal systems.
298.8 (F28) Other Specified Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic

Disorder (122)

298.9 (F29) Unspecified Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic
Disorder (122)

Bipolar and Related Disorders (123)
The following specifiers apply to Bipolar and Related Disorders where indicated:

Ŝpecify: With anxious distress (specify current severity: mild, moderate, moderate-severe, severe);
With mixed features; With rapid cycling; With melancholic features; With atypical features;
With mood-congruent psychotic features; With mood-incongruent psychotic features; With
catatonia (use additional code 293.89 [F06.1]); With péripartum onset; With seasonal pattem

296.41
296.42
296.43
296.44
296.45
296.46
296.40
296.40
296.45
296.46
296.40

296.51
296.52
296.53
296.54
296.55
296.56
296.50
296.7

(F31.11)
(F31.12)
(F31.13)
(F31.2)
(F31.73)
(F31.74)
(F31.9)
(F31.0)
(F31.73)
(F31.74)
(F31.9)

(F31.31)
(F31.32)
(F31.4)
(F31.5)
(F31.75)
(F31.76)
(F31.9)
(F31.9)

296.89 (F31.81)

Bipolar I Disorder® (123)
Current or most recent episode manic

Mild
Moderate
Severe
With psychotic features
In partial remission
In full remission
Unspecified

Current or most recent episode hypomanie
In partial remission
In kill remission
Unspecified

Current or most recent episode depressed
Mild
Moderate
Severe
With psychotic features
In partial remission
In full remission
Unspecified

Current or most recent episode unspecified

Bipolar II Disorder® (132)
Specify current or most recent episode: Hypomanie, Depressed
Specify course if full criteria for a mood episode are not currently met: In

partial remission. In full remission
Specify severity if full criteria for a mood episode are not currently met:

Mild, Moderate, Severe

301.13 (F34.0)
y

293.83 (__ ._ )

(F06.33)
(F06.33)
(F06.34)

296.89 (F31.89)

296.80 (F31.9)

Cyclothymic Disorder (139)
Specify if: With anxious distress

Substance/Medication-Induced Bipolar and Related Disorder (142)
Note: See the criteria set and corresponding recording procedures for

substance-specific codes and ICD-9-CM and ICD-IO-CM coding.
Specify if: With onset during intoxication. With onset during withdrawal

Bipolar and Related Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition
(145)

Specify if:
With manic features
With manic- or hypomanic-like episode
With mixed features

Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorder (148)

Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorder (149)

Depressive Disorders (155)
The following specifiers apply to Depressive Disorders where indicated:
^Specify: With anxious distress (specify current severity: mild, moderate, moderate-severe,

severe); With mixed features; With melancholic features; With atypical features; With mood-
congruent psychotic features; With mood-incongruent psychotic features; With catatonia
(use additional code 293.89 [F06.1]); With péripartum onset; With seasonal pattern

296.99 (F34.8) Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (156)

. ( _ ■ ) Major Depressive Disorder® (160)

. ( _ . ) Single episode
296.21 (F32.0) Mild
296.22 (F32.1) Moderate
296.23 (F32.2) Severe
296.24 (F32.3) With psychotic features
296.25 (F32.4) In partial remission
296.26 (F32.5) In full remission
296.20 (F32.9) Unspecified

. ( _ · ) Recurrent episode
296.31 (F33.0) Mild
296.32 (F33.1) Moderate
296.33 (F33.2) Severe
296.34 (F33.3) With psychotic features
296.35 (F33.41) In partial remission
296.36 (F33.42) In full remission
296.30 (F33.9) Unspecified
300.4 (F34.1) Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)® (168)

Specify if: In partial remission. In full remission
Specify if: Early onset. Late onset
Specify if: With pure dysthymic syndrome; With persistent major depres­

sive episode; With intermittent major depressive episodes, with current

625.4 (N94.3)

(_ _ ■ _ )

293.83 (__ ._ )

(F06.31)
(F06.32)
(F06.34)

311 (F32.8)

311 (F32.9)

episode; With intermittent major depressive episodes, without current
episode

Specify current severity: Mild, Moderate, Severe
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (171)

Substance/Medication-Induced Depressive Disorder (175)
Note: See the criteria set and corresponding recording procedures for

substance-specific codes and ICD-9-CM and ICD-IO-CM coding.
Specify if: With onset during intoxication. With onset during withdrawal

Depressive Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition (180)
Specify if:

With depressive features
With major depressive-like episode
With mixed features

Other Specified Depressive Disorder (183)

Unspecified Depressive Disorder (184)

Anxiety Disorders (189)
309.21 (F93.0)

312.23 (F94.0)

300.29 (__ ._ )

(F40.218)
(F40.228)
( _ · _ )
(F40.230)
(F40.231)
(F40.232)
(F40.233)
(F40.248)
(F40.298)

300.23 (F40.10)

300.01 (F41.0)

300.22 (F40.00)

300.02 (F41.1)

Separation Anxiety Disorder (190)

Selective Mutism (195)

Specific Phobia (197)
Specify if:

Animal
Natural environment
Blood-injection-injury

Fear of blood
Fear of injections and transfusions
Fear of other medical care
Fear of injury

Situational
Other

Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) (202)
Specify if: Performance only
Panic Disorder (208)

Panic Attack Specifier (214)

Agoraphobia (217)

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (222)

Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder (226)
Note: See the criteria set and corresponding recording procedures for

substance-specific codes and ICD-9-CM and ICD-IO-CM coding.
Specify if: With onset during intoxication. With onset during withdrawal.

With onset after medication use

293.84 (F06.4) Anxiety Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition (230)

300.09 (F41.8) Other Specified Anxiety Disorder (233)

300.00 (F41.9) Unspecified Anxiety Disorder (233)

Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (235)
The following specifier applies to Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders where indicated:
^Specify if: With good or fair insight. With poor insight. With absent insight/delusional beliefs

300.3 (F42)

300.7 (F45.22)

300.3 (F42)

312.39 (F63.2)

698.4 (L98.1)

(_._J

294.8 (F06.8)

300.3 (F42)

300.3 (F42)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder^ (237)
Specify if: Tic-related
Body Dysmorphic Disorder^ (242)
Specify if: With muscle dysmorphia
Hoarding Disorder^ (247)
Specify if: With excessive acquisition
Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling …