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ue DateMonday, November 16, 2020, 08:00 A.M. Upload to Canvas in one of the following formats, using the “Submit” button on the official Assignment 3 page: ?Portable Document Format .pdf ?MS Word .doc or .docx Value15 points; graded (scored). (Late submissions will result in a lowered grade, as explained in module item 0.2.) Length/Word Count4-5 pages, double-spaced (2200-2700 words), plus separate Works Cited page(s). ContextThe synonymous terms, “incredible!” and “unbelievable!” are accepted nowadays to mean, “impressively true and interesting.” However, taken literally, these words actually mean the opposite: that we should not regard something as credible or believable. The staying power of these two hyperboles in our culture was perhaps predictive of the post-truth society in which we would come to find ourselves today. However, long, long ago, before there was ever a thing called “post-truth,” daily life was managed by “magical thinking,” the belief that one’s own thoughts, desires, or actions somehow could manipulate what happens in the physical world. Over millennia, we have done unspeakable things in the name of such magical thinking: a belief that unseen forces, rather than random chance, create the odds by which events or results occur. Since time immemorial, totems and rituals ranging from human sacrifice to throwing salt over one’s shoulder have been assumed to bring luck or ward against evil; cause rain to fall; make the harvest bountiful, smite the enemy, etc.. It seems an unchanging fact of being human that we tend to invest in the alternative “truths” of the supernatural, the preternatural, or the paranormal. Predictably, our reaction to such alternative “truths” breaks into three types: 1.the cynic, who says, “I deny it can ever be true”; 2.the skeptic, who says, “I want to know that it is true”; 3.the believer, who says, “I have faith it must be true.” This assignment is about you as skeptic taking on the burden (to use Carl Sagan’s term) of being proactive in defending the value of facts and compassionately reasoned rejection of these alternative truths. TaskChoose eitherOption A or OPTION B(not both). OPTION A Select one specific urban myth or cultural folklore that other people believe to be true (or possibly true), and, taking the stance of a skeptic, discredit their baseless magical thinking or pseudoscience. Additionally, propose a minimum of three reasons why people seem to want to continue believing in this supernatural myth or folktale. OPTION B Select one specific example of a paranormal/supernatural phenomenon in which people invest their belief, and, taking the stance of a science-based, pragmatic enquirer, discredit its pseudoscience and/or irrationality. Additionally, propose a minimum of three reasons why people continue to want to believe in the truth of this myth. Contributing causes in your analysis should be based upon culture, psychology, anthropology, education, knowledgeability, or other similar factors, as well as cognitive fallacies such as confirmation bias, hypersensitive agency detection, and cognitive closure. You are expected to have researched these and fallacies of reasoning as part of your Unit 3 lessons. Topic ChoicesFor your specific case example, you could select an urban legend (such as the putative existence of C.H.U.D.s, cannibalistic humanoid underground dwellers), or a specific cultural folktale (such as the legend of La Llorona, or Bloody Mary). You may also select a phenomenon considered to be preternatural, paranormal, or supernatural (Sasquatch, telekinesis, Ouija boards, poltergeists, human levitation, Mothman, and the like). You have a lot to choose from, so I recommend going with something that genuinely piques your curiosity, but while retaining your own skepticism. Be cautious of the following: •Don’t confuse a broad category of phenomenon with a case example. “Ghosts” is a category, whereas the allegedly haunted Suicide Forest in Japan is an apt and singularly specific case example of a cultural myth. •Be sure to choose a specific folktale or example of superstition, magical thinking, or pseudoscience. An essay that doesn’t look at a specific and detailed case example of one of these will score poorly. •Don’t take on broad ideologies in lieu of case examples. You won’t get far in a short paper trying to examine the faults of the empirical method in science, or in trying to make an argument about whether or not the soul really exists. •Theology and other obvious faith-based examples (such as, belief in God, or praying to saints) should not be used for this assignment at all. Choose something else.

English 120: College Composition and ReadingFall 2020Instructor: K. SherlockDevelopment and OrganizationBe sure to use the Scoring Rubric for this assignment to remind yourself about how to develop this essay effectively. (See below.) The essay’s pattern of development and sequence of organization should be exactly as follows: B.Three-stage introductory paragraph: start with a single introductory paragraph that introduces •the general subject matter with interest way (a hook); •a narrower declaration of your selected topic (Option A or B); •a thesis asserting generally and briefly three main reasons why your selected preternatural or paranormal example continues to have invested believers. C.Body Paragraph 1: A summary of the topic (the urban legend, the superstition, the paranormal phenomenon, etc.) with an overview of the selected case of it. D.Body Paragraph 2: An examination of the factors that make believing in this phenomenon a matter of magical thinking and/or pseudoscience. E.Body Paragraph 3-5+: An analysis of the underlying causesfor why people continue to invest in the magical thinking and/or pseudoscience underscoring their belief in claims like this. Each paragraph should highlight a different but related reason and be a fully developed, five-stage paragraph (topic point; explanation; support; interpretation; concluding statement). F.Editorial Conclusion: a multi-sentence concluding paragraph that advocates for skeptical inquiry and defends facts and science against magical thinking and pseudoscience, with particular reference to the beliefs discredited in your essay. Yo u m a y i n c l u d e a q u o t e i f y o u w i s h , b u t i t s h o u l d n o t b e counted as one of the two required uses of Unit 3 readings. (See “Sources,” below.) G.Works Cited: at the end of your essay, on separate page(s), a properly formatted Works Cited with citations for all and any sources used in your essay, whether for quotations, illustration, or factual information. Citations must be complete and arranged per MLA style; MLA guides are available in your required handbook for this course and across the web, as well as through the Grossmont College Library. Sources and CitationsAlthough you are welcome to draw quotes from any of the readings assigned in Units 1 and 2, for this particular assignment you must also QUOTE TWO OR MORE OF THE UNIT 3 READINGS: two different sources, not two quotes from the same source. Other sources, whether scholarly, popular, or informational, used in documenting the case example you have chosen for the topic will be necessary and encouraged, and these should, likewise, be properly cited and included in your Works Cited. If quoted within the essay, these should be parenthetically cited, just like other sources. While they may, of course, be used as research aids, reference sources such as dictionaries and Wikipedia are forbidden from use as quotes or citations. USING SOURCES AND QUOTES EFFECTIVELY Use these quotes to support or otherwise supplement your critical arguments. Quotation use will be judged by how earnestly you complete the following process for each, and in the order provided below: 1.Introduce the author by full name (titles such as Mr./Ms. etc. are not used), and identify who these authors are. Saying that they are authors is not sufficient. Do some research into their background and briefly indicate their credentials. Some suggested credentials: a.What are they best known for? b.With which professional or academic institutions are they affiliated? c.What are their best known/most celebrated contributions to the field? d.What is their critical reception? 2.Use the correct method of punctuation to introduce a contextual quotation, and properly cite the source in parentheses, per MLA style. (If using a blocked or indented style of quote instead, make sure it’s justified by length, and that you adjust for its layout, markers, and citation placement per MLA design and style.) 3.Afterward, put into your own words what the quote means in its original, intended context: a.Why did the author write this? b.How does the author’s idea behind this quote relate to your own ideas? c.Do you agree/disagree with the premise of the author’s point? Why/why not? 4.What is the significance of your response to this quote? Discuss AT LENGTH (not just in a single sentence) how the meaning of the quote applies to your own point. Intellectualize it, interpret it, and extend it into your own arguments. Consider other relevant insights it inspires for you and your topic. Additional Rules?Yo u r e s s a y m u s t b e c o m p o s e d i n p r o p e r M L A d o c u m e n t d e s i g n . Please just take the no-fuss alternative and download the MLA document template for this purpose, a button for which is available at the top of this page. ?Yo u m a y not refer to yourself anywhere in the essay, particularly in the critical response half. Do not use pronouns such as “I,” “my,” “me,” and “mine.” ?Vocabulary and tone should be professional for your given audience, and you should steer clear of the errors of usage and tone you reviewed in this unit’s assigned readings from Handbook of Tone and Usage. ?A Works Cited, required for this assignment, should be in proper MLA citation style (again, as prompted by the MLA document template you are asked to us). ?File uploads only. No Google Docs. Conform to the proper file-naming protocols and supported file formats: .doc, docx, or .pdf.