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 For the reflections, pick a concept or two from the chapter of your choice (e.g. muted group from chapter 3) explain the concept in a couple of sentences then state your experience, concrete examples from your life or other’s that you witnessed, explain how the concept explains what you experienced and how does knowing and understanding this concept would have made a difference on your experience if any (e.g. increased understanding, reduced weirdness, improved communication…etc.)  personal experience connected to it

  Two pages , double spaced 

Chapter 9

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Developing Intercultural Relationships

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Factors that Affect Intercultural Relationships

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Communication & Uncertainty

Premise of Uncertainty Reduction Theory (URT): the primary goal when interacting with a stranger is to reduce uncertainty and increase predictability of behavior.

Proactive

Interactive

Retroactive

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Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory (AUM)

Explains interrelationships among:

Uncertainty

Anxiety

Mindfulness

Communication Effectiveness

Focus on Management not Reduction

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Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

Uncertainty Reduction & ICA

People who experienced high ICA experienced high uncertainty

People who do not experience ICA have low uncertainty

Increasing our interaction with persons from different cultures reduces our uncertainty and anxiety

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Socio-Communicative Orientation

Assertiveness

an individual’s ability to make requests, actively disagree, and express positive or negative personal rights and feelings.

Responsiveness

an individual’s ability to e sensitive to the communication of others, including providing feedback, engaging in comforting communication, and listening.

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Empathy & Similarity in Relationship Development

Empathy

Degree to which we can accurately infer another’s thoughts or feelings

Relational Empathy

Shared meaning and harmonization that is the result of the interaction of two people

Third Culture

Created when dyad of persons from different cultures comes together and establishes relational empathy

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Empathetic Listening

Paraphrase

Reflect feelings

Reflect meanings

Summarizing

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Similarity

Attitude Similarity between persons leads to positive affect which leads to attraction

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Perceptions of Relational Intimacy Across Cultures

Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures

Humanism

Faithfulness

Propriety

Wisdom

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Eastern & Western Cultures & Relationships

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Interethnic & Interracial Relationships & Marriages

Serial monogamy

Polygamy

Polygyny

Polyandry

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© iStockphoto.com/Elena Elisseeva

Interethnic & Interracial Relationships & Marriages

In U.S. in 2013, 12% of newlyweds married someone of different race

Interethnic & Interracial Relationships more likely to end in divorce than intraracial marriages

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Obstacles Interethnic & Interracial Partners face:

Stared at in public

Negatively stereotyped

Face Social Network opposition

Discriminated against by restaurant staff, real-estate agents, hotel managers, retail clerks

Experience obscene phone calls, hate mail and vandalized property

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Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

Interethnic & Interracial Relationships & Marriages

Intercultural Relational Maintenance

Self-disclosure

Relationship talk

Positivity

Understanding

Assurances

Networks

Tasks

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© iStockphoto.com/FernandoAH

Intercultural Relational Maintenance

Open Communication

Lack of topic avoidance

Lack of communication about cultural differences

Support

Giving advice

Offering comfort

Providing reassurance

Support for culture

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Intercultural Relational Maintenance

Gay and Lesbian Relationships

Seeking out Gay/Lesbian supportive environments

Being the same as heterosexual couples

Social support

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© iStockphoto.com/Hongqi Zhang

Initiating an Intercultural Relationship

Perceived similarity

Availability

In-Group Influence & Group Identification

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The Internet as Relational Maintenance

Social networking sites as tools for initiating and maintaining relationships

Extraversion and Openness to experiences were positively related to social media use

Role of culture in self-expression on Facebook pages

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Culture and Internet Use

Japan

India

Africa

Mexico

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Mate Selection & Desirability Across Cultures

Desirability enhancement effect

Desirability diminution effect

Different perspectives of mate selection:

Evolutionary biologists

Sociologists

Geneticists

Social Psychologists

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Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

International Mate Selection Project

Identify which characteristics individuals value in potential mates

Identify similarities and differences among countries in their values

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International Mate Selection Project

Identify clusters of countries that are similar to one another

Identify sex differences in the degree of variation in mate selection within each country

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Mate Selection & Desirability Across Cultures

Characteristics individuals value in mates:

Kindness

Intelligence

Exciting personality

Healthy

Similarities and differences in countries:

Most polarizing characteristic = chastity

Gender differences in cultures

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Cultural Concepts of Love

Love Songs in China & U.S.

Metaphors

History

War

Mystery

Pornography

Fantasy

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Arranged Marriages

Hmong

India

China

Africa

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Marital Dissolution and Divorce Across Cultures

Divorce customs vary across cultures.

Social and economic issues play a role.

In general, monogamy is correlated with lower divorce rates than polygyny.

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Summary

Explored initiating, maintaining and dissolving relationships

Examined concepts of uncertainty reduction, intercultural communication apprehension, and sociocommunicative style and how they affect the relationship processes

Compared perceptions of relationships in a variety of cultures

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,

Name

Date

FLAN 3440

Gaby Semaan

Reflection: Chapter 10

(Your Own Title)

Conflicts are an unavoidable part of life. No one can go their entire lives without coming

across an opposing idea from one’s own. Conflicts are so common that conflict resolution has

become a full time occupation for millions across the world. From lawyers to judges to

professional mediators, conflict resolution has become a money making industry. We can see

this in shows such as Judge Judy, Divorce Court, and more barbarically Jerry Springer. Conflicts,

however, do not have to be fights or arguments and how a person handles a conflict not only says

a lot about their conflict resolution style but also about the cultural they were raised in.

I come from a high-context home but a low-context culture country. At home my parents

dealt with conflicts by silently ignoring them until they, hopefully, went away. If they didn’t go

away naturally then the end result was a very loud argument until both parties felt like they were

satisfied. This is in line with the high-context cultures of preferring a non-confrontational

conflict resolution. The United States as a low-context culture means that on average most

people prefer to deal with the conflict in a direct style and become frustrated when all parties are

not being open and honest. Both of these styles have shaped the way in which I handle my own

conflict resolution.

Not surprisingly my conflict resolution style has changed over time. When I was younger

and still living with my parents I had a more individualistic style of conflict resolution. I didn’t

like my parent’s avoidance style and so I took on the opposite resolution strategy of being direct

and very assertive with my feeling; such as the engagement style. I would become agitated when

other people were not as forth coming with their feelings and I wanted a quick and speedy

resolution. This led to more aggressive conflicts that were very emotionally expressive. As I got

older and experienced conflicts away from my family and more in a professional setting, I

learned to adapt to a more collectivist style. Now I have a mix between the low-context and high-

context cultures conflict resolution characteristics. On one hand I still want a quick and speedy

resolution where everyone is up-front and direct with their feelings. I now, however, understand

that some conflicts go away naturally with time and that a more direct style can actually add to

the conflict.

Despite one’s conflict resolution style when it comes to successful intercultural

communication we have to adapt in order to resolve conflicts. There can be no resolution to a

conflict if all sides are refusing to be open about their opinion. In addition, both sides need to be

willing to listen and be empathetic to the opposing party. As long as this is the foundation to any

conflict resolution strategy then there is bound to be some resolution no matter the differing

styles of resolution.