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 For the reflections, pick a concept or two from the chapter of your choice (e.g. muted group from chapter 3) explain the concept in a couple of sentences then state your experience, concrete examples from your life or other’s that you witnessed, explain how the concept explains what you experienced and how does knowing and understanding this concept would have made a difference on your experience if any (e.g. increased understanding, reduced weirdness, improved communication…etc.)  personal experience connected to it

  Two pages , double spaced

The Verbal Code

Intercultural Communication: Principles and Practice.

FLAN 3440

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Relationship Between Language & Culture

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis:

“Human beings do not live in the objective world alone…but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society.”

Principle 1: Linguistic Determinism

Principle 2: Linguistic Relativity

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Relationship between Language & Culture

Languages reflect Nonverbal elements of culture

Geographic

Climatic

Kinesic

Spatial

Proxemics

Syntactic Features

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

4

The Structure of Human Language

Sounds and Symbols

Phonemes

Morphemes

Symbol

Syntax

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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The Structure of Human Language

Universality of Language

Language learning is uniform among children within and across cultures

Children across cultures acquire linguistic generalizations that experience alone could not give them

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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© iStockphoto.com/Henk Badenhorst

Universals of Language

Speech sounds emit from their source of origin

Speech is

transmitted via vocal-auditory channel.

transitory

interchangeable

Specialized

reflexive

able to be displaced from time and space

able to be false

Speakers can learn other languages

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Generative Grammar

From a finite set of sounds and a finite set of rules, speakers of any language can create an infinite number of sentences

Syntax can free the mind to create new words and sentences

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Gendering of Language: Are Languages Sexist?

Grammatical Gender Languages

Gender Equality and Language

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Elaborated and Restricted Codes

Language vs. Speech

Language symbolizes what is possible

Speech symbolizes what actually occurs

Restricted Code (options to what speakers can say or do verbally are limited)

Elaborated Code (speakers can choose from among a variety of linguistic options to communicate)

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Direct and Indirect Styles

Direct Style (overt expressions of intention)

Assert self-face needs

Examples: U.S., England, Germany, Israel

Indirect Style (speakers intents are hidden or only hinted at in interaction)

Prevents face threats to either speaker

Examples: Japan and France

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Communication Styles

Elaborate Style

flashy and embellished language

Exacting Style

no more or less than is needed

Succinct Style

concise statements

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Personal and Contextual Styles

Personal

communication that amplifies the individual identity of the speaker

Contextual

communication that accentuates and highlights one’s role identity and status

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Instrumental and Affective Styles

Instrumental

sender based and goal-outcome based.

Affective

receiver based and process oriented.

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Gendered Language Style Across Cultures

Members of a speech community conform to prescribed rules of their specific language

Language used by men and women differs across most cultures

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Gendered Language Style Across Cultures

One’s sex and gender are communicated through language

Teamsterville

Japan

Mandarin Chinese

Hindi

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Language & Ethnic Identity

Group Identity maintained through language.

Status and Hierarchy recognized through language

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Language & Ethnic Identity

Immigrant groups may maintain cultural heritage and identity by using native language

Immigrant groups may discourage use of native tongue to establish themselves legitimate members of new culture

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Language & Ethnic Identity

Dialect

Regional variety or subset of a language distinguished by vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation

Ebonics

Chicano English

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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American Speech & Language Variety

Standard English

Appalachian English

Cajun English

R-Less Dialects

California English

Texas English

Midwest

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Richard Howard/Getty Images

Summary

Human language made up of a system of sounds, syntax and semantics

Sole purpose of language is to communicate

Explored Traditional and Contemporary Linguistic approaches to language

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Summary

Humans born with a universal grammar

Children acquire language in the same way at about same time

Children able to construct grammatically correct sentences without guidance

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

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Summary

Language is a guide to social reality

Explored the different cultural styles of language

Direct to Indirect

Personal to Contextual

Instrumental to Affective

Elaborate to Succinct

Neuliep, Intercultural Communication, 7e. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

23

,

Name

Date

FLAN 3440

Gaby Semaan

Reflection: Chapter 10

(Your Own Title)

Conflicts are an unavoidable part of life. No one can go their entire lives without coming

across an opposing idea from one’s own. Conflicts are so common that conflict resolution has

become a full time occupation for millions across the world. From lawyers to judges to

professional mediators, conflict resolution has become a money making industry. We can see

this in shows such as Judge Judy, Divorce Court, and more barbarically Jerry Springer. Conflicts,

however, do not have to be fights or arguments and how a person handles a conflict not only says

a lot about their conflict resolution style but also about the cultural they were raised in.

I come from a high-context home but a low-context culture country. At home my parents

dealt with conflicts by silently ignoring them until they, hopefully, went away. If they didn’t go

away naturally then the end result was a very loud argument until both parties felt like they were

satisfied. This is in line with the high-context cultures of preferring a non-confrontational

conflict resolution. The United States as a low-context culture means that on average most

people prefer to deal with the conflict in a direct style and become frustrated when all parties are

not being open and honest. Both of these styles have shaped the way in which I handle my own

conflict resolution.

Not surprisingly my conflict resolution style has changed over time. When I was younger

and still living with my parents I had a more individualistic style of conflict resolution. I didn’t

like my parent’s avoidance style and so I took on the opposite resolution strategy of being direct

and very assertive with my feeling; such as the engagement style. I would become agitated when

other people were not as forth coming with their feelings and I wanted a quick and speedy

resolution. This led to more aggressive conflicts that were very emotionally expressive. As I got

older and experienced conflicts away from my family and more in a professional setting, I

learned to adapt to a more collectivist style. Now I have a mix between the low-context and high-

context cultures conflict resolution characteristics. On one hand I still want a quick and speedy

resolution where everyone is up-front and direct with their feelings. I now, however, understand

that some conflicts go away naturally with time and that a more direct style can actually add to

the conflict.

Despite one’s conflict resolution style when it comes to successful intercultural

communication we have to adapt in order to resolve conflicts. There can be no resolution to a

conflict if all sides are refusing to be open about their opinion. In addition, both sides need to be

willing to listen and be empathetic to the opposing party. As long as this is the foundation to any

conflict resolution strategy then there is bound to be some resolution no matter the differing

styles of resolution.