+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com


1. the course name: Organisational Analysis

2. I have three articles to do the work on and slide 8 to connect the Theories.

3. the writing should be mix 2500 words and not less than 2100 words double space.  

4. the writing should be Harvard format and no Plagiarism 

I attached the Report Structure and articles the names also slide that has the theories. 

this assignment should finish in 3 days starting from my local time 2:30 am 18/20/2019. 

Organisational Analysis

Analysing and Codifying Organisational Knowledge



To discuss knowledge as an organisational resource (VIRO)

To discuss knowledge creation cycles in organisations

To build on your understanding of knowledge cycles organisations.

Codifying knowledge

Controlled dictionaries, vocabularies



Organisational Implications


Definition of Knowledge Management

“Knowledge Management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge.”

Davenport, T. and Prusak, L. (1998)

This definition does not commit any stakeholder to any particular form of method or technology.


Job Profiles in Knowledge Management


Knowledge and Competitive Advantage

As a Resource:

Knowledge, in the organisational context, is:

the sum of what is known among organisational members.

Organisational success requires organisations to develop new techniques and competencies to fully utilise the intelligence & knowledge among its organisational members.

To become aware of and utilise both explicit and tacit knowledge.


Knowledge – Resource Based View

Competitive Advantage

Part of strategy is taking a resource based view of the organisation

Knowledge, learning are intangible resources

Competition in the ‘knowledge economy’ requires organisations:

to acquire & make use of (i.e. exploit) existing knowledge (within and beyond the organisation)

manage and utilise knowledge innovatively through exploration and searching for new options


Explicit versus Tacit Knowledge

Explicit knowledge:

Can be codified (tangible)

Precisely and formally articulated

Easy to transfer, share, document and communicate

"Explicit knowledge is emphasised as a management tool to be exploited as organisational knowledge. Groupware, intranets, list servers, knowledge repositories, database management and knowledge action networks allow the sharing of organisational knowledge”

Scarbrough et al. (1999)

“Managers hope that these tools will retain knowledge within the company when employees have left, and also that this will encourage learning and the flourishing of communities of interest across functional boundaries"

Radcliffe-Martin, Coakes and Sugden (2000)


Explicit versus Tacit Knowledge

Tacit knowledge:

Subconsciously understood or applied

Difficult to articulate and often context-specific

Developed from direct action and experience

Shared through conversation or story-telling

"Tacit knowledge is not available as a text. . . .It involves intangible factors embedded in personal beliefs, experiences, and values" (Pan and Scarbrough 1999).


Knowledge as a Resource

Resource Analysis (VIRO)

Organisational Analysis examines resources as:

V – Valuable

I – Imitable (or non-imitable)

R – Rare

O – Organised (well deployed)

Preparing some business students for their Capstone course

How do we put a “value” on knowledge as a resource?


Challenges to Knowledge Management

A number of challenges exist to KM

Different knowledge formats in organisations

Lack of systems integration

Knowledge creation – how does this occur?

Knowledge loss

focus on artefact rather than process


Knowledge Formats

Whether we are aware, knowledge is held in organisations in various ways:

Think of all the paper based instances you can encounter

Digital: Databases, and serialised in different formats

What has been missed?


Diversity of Applications in Organisations



Manufacturing Planning




No system is integrated – different formats

Nor may it desirable for systems to integrated


Lack of Systems Integration

Does digitisation offer the solution?

The challenge:

once digitisation occurs, knowledge can become more difficult to discover

No system is integrated, with different data formats causing problems

Nor is it always desirable for systems to be completely integrated


Knowledge loss

Remember Organisational Learning Cycles

Single, Double and Triple Loop Learning

Organisational Learning Occurs through a number of activities, e.g.


Human Resources

Project management – Project start to completion

Human interaction, e.g. Concurrent Engineering

Design thinking, e.g. Controlled Convergence




All of these are value adding activities – How?


The Richness of Knowledge

Focus on artefact (end result) rather than process

A large part of learning is a social activity

Remember organisational isomorphism: how do we become the same?

Or rather, should we be the same?

……….. and therefore knowledge loss


Spiral of Knowledge Creation

Let’s discuss these four steps

When value adding activities occur: (i) existing knowledge is drawn upon and (ii) new knowledge is generated.

Nonaka I, Toyama R and Konno N (2000)


The Challenge of Knowledge Management – the “Sociology” of Knowledge Creation

Knowledge is constantly being constructed

What we often think of as being “knowledge” is only the end result

What is often missed out, is the process of knowledge creation.


Social interaction

Individual thinking

Nonaka I, Toyama R and Konno N (2000)


Knowledge Capture Must be Continuous

The process of socialisation, i.e. Design, Development

Codifying is continuous and the meaning of codes changes, i.e. easily forgotten

In a neohumanist – postmodernist sense, the organisational narrative changes


Knowledge Management – Understanding Ontology

Remember, there may be different ontological assumptions

Therefore, if you understand ontology, the neohumanist (postmodernist) paradigm views knowledge as liberating.


Role of Consultants in Analysis

As a consultant or manager, you must become aware that ‘ideas’ and ‘values’ influence social and organisational behaviour.

The social world is negotiated, organised and reproduced (i.e. constructed) by our interpretations of events, the action of others and the symbols around us.

The social world is ‘objectified’ through repeating past behaviours and shared experience, understanding (i.e. meaning) and interaction.

Inter-subjectivity: an individual’s internalisation and interpretation of shared experience and meaning.

The Social Construction of Reality (Berger and Luckmann,1966)


The Neohumanist Perspective

Each organisation has its narrative… captured in language and imagery.


Meta-Data, Tagging

We now examine the technical aspects of knowledge management

Not in terms of technical platforms, but how knowledge is “highlighted”

Assuming individuals recognise patterns

Wants to highlight an aspect of knowledge that is interesting

For the purpose of creating interest and sharing



Example of tagging

Do you use document properties?


Document Meta-Data

Purpose of “tagging” is to give more information about an artefact

Make knowledge “discoverable”

Microsoft Word Document

Document Properties

Opportunities for you to “tag”


Tagging – Making Knowledge Discoverable


Knowledge Management Platform



Knowledge Management solutions exist – often technology driven.








How do You Codify Knowledge?

We will discuss some ways of “codifying” knowledge.

Codes identify and associate meaning

Taxonomies (enterprise taxonomies)





How do you codify knowledge?

Codes that identify and associate meaning

Taxonomies (enterprise taxonomies)





Enterprise Taxonomies

Formal Classification structure

Developed top-down

Namespace – contextual

Hierarchical (parent-child relationships)

Controlled – rules are created for each taxonomy term

Taxonomy terms tend not to appear in more than one branch

Vocabulary tagging makes knowledge visible, i.e. findable/retrievable/discoverable, but organisations tend to lack the time or resources to build a taxonomy


A system of collating and harvesting concepts

User generated, i.e. own vocabulary







The Rise of Fake-News

In a social media sense, just because something trends, is it “correct”?


Critical Thinking – Consequences

Could the notion of “fake news” affect organisations? How would you manage it?

The requirement of "truth" is part of the analysis of knowledge" (Tienson J., 1973)


Analysing the Organisational Narrative

As a tool, we look at a further perspective which is the organisational narrative.

What or who controls language use?

the meaning (semantics) e.g. dictionary, meta-data?



We have covered a number of issues relating to knowledge management

Technology solutions exist

You now understand the sociology behind KM

More equipped to understand what needs to be captured

Focus on the social process and not the artifact



Davenport, T. and Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: how organizations manage what they know. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Hislop, D., 2018. Knowledge Management in Organizations: A critical introduction. 4th ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Nonaka I and Takeuchi H (1995) The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nonaka I, Toyama R and Konno N (2000) SECI, Ba and leadership: a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation. Long Range Planning 33(1): 5-34.

Laucuka, A. (2018). Communicative Functions of Hashtags, Economics and Culture, 15(1), 56-62

Donald, H., 2018. Knowledge Management In Organizations. Oxford University Press.



Cover page

Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Problem statement 3 2 Methodology – Demonstration of Critical analysis – thinking (how) 3 3 Literature Review (Find and Generate) 4 4 Analysis/Response: Solution Development and Proposal 5 5 Discussions 5 6 References 5 7 Discussion 6 8 References 6 9 Appendices 6


Students need to articulate the various issues they have identified drawn from the case study details. 

Students should identify the issues and make substantive or critically engaging comment about the relevant paradigm perspectives involved, as well as identifying related course concepts, including. Do not be descriptive, make sure you engage with the paradigm.

Problem statement

The problem statement is an incisive, insightful, powerful and engaging statement of the problem. This section conveys your groups’ identification of the problem. Remember, what an organization states as being the problem may be vague and it is the result of your group’s critical engagement with the problem that has resulted in your group’s statement of what you present the problem to be.

How do you, as an individual, see what the problem is? This problem statement also drives your search for literature for inspiration to solve your problem. What themes did you identify? What have others done?

· The pre-campaign functionalist approach of the mining company. Assumptions such as: that it is merely an organisation going through a commercial process – 'making money = sustainability ?

Methodology – Demonstration of Critical analysis – thinking (how)

To help you write the methodology, you must draw from the given readings from Assignment 1 when constructing this section.

As reminder, one of the required readings is: Hirschheim, R. and Klein, H. K. (1989). Four Paradigms of Information Systems Development. Communications of the ACM, 32(10), pp. 1199-1216.

Which two of the given readings did you identify and de-construct as being Radical Structuralist and Neohumanist?

Importantly, how did you apply these perspectives in developing your solution?

Literature Review (Find and Generate)

Find scholarly resources, that will help you ground your solution proposal

What themes would you search? Do this on your own and try to identify researchable questions or themes, worth asking. These themes can help you to build your solution, you do not re-invent the wheel but identify gaps in knowledge.

You may create a hierarchy of themes based on “find and generate”. For example, you might think about:

· Risk management frameworks?

· Project planning, life-cyles?

· Reputational risk?

You might create a list of sub-themes if necessary to convey how you wish to organize your literature.


Importantly, identify gaps, are these frameworks too functional, and if so, what do they miss out?


Analysis/Response: Solution Development and Proposal

Students respond to the specific assignment questions in this section – having demonstrated that they understand the paradigm contexts and other relevant course concepts.

For example:

· Can Neohumanism be used as one of the two conflict based perspectives, explain the methodology for avoiding, as best as possible, individual employees from being partisan to this conflict;

· Would radical structuralism be better as the second conflict based perspective, explain in your report why there is a predicable negative backlash from the public against this marketing campaign;

· What if the organization does not want to believe the proposed risk management proposals?

· propose a set of questions that the project teams may ask in the future, to avoid the pressure on individuals (to avoid inciting /escalating issues within the organization?

· At which point do you provide prompts? What prompts would you propose and why (relating to the conflict perspective) do you expect that employees in a company should consider?



Remember, this is a final report and you must substantiate your arguments with scholarly resources.



Must be in Harvard. Demonstrate that you can identify enough citations to support and convince. For group work, each individual, at the minimum, can identify 3 additional scholarly references (additional to the given readings).



Overview for referencing in written reports,

essays and assignments

College of Business

Dr Peter Chomley

The academic challenge: Understanding how

you communicate

The RMIT College of Business Guidelines are based on the Style manual for

authors, editors and printers (2002), referred to here as Style manual (2002)

which is published on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, and is the

Commonwealth Government’s preferred style. The Style manual (2002) can be

used to provide guidance on areas which are not covered in the RMIT Business

document, but if there is any inconsistency you should follow the RMIT

Business document.

RMIT University 2018 College of Business v.4 2010 2

What is referencing?

• Referencing means acknowledging someone else’s work or ideas. It is

sometimes called ‘citing’ or ‘documenting’ another person’s work.

• Referencing is a basic University requirement.

• It is mandatory for all students to cite or acknowledge information that has

come from other sources.

• Without appropriate referencing students are in effect ‘stealing’ the work of

others – this is tantamount to academic fraud.

There are consequences if students fail to reference their assignments. These

may include:

• Reduction in marks for assessment tasks.

• Failure in a course of study.

• Expulsion from a program.

Note: The Harvard system has many variations. You must use this version

known as the AGPS style.

3RMIT University 2018

When do I reference?

You reference whenever you have used a piece of information that comes from

• Text books

• Journals

• Published papers, (e.g. conference or working paper)

• Newspapers

• Websites

• TV/Radio interviews

• Personal communication

• Others

You must cite the origins of the information you are using, whether you have

copied the words directly or whether you have paraphrased.

• If in doubt—-REFERENCE!

4RMIT University 2018


Whenever you rely on someone else’s work you must acknowledge that by

providing details of the source.

In this system, each reference is indicated in two areas of your work:

• in the text (in-text citation) by using the name of the author(s) and the date of

publication of the work.

• In the reference list, where the full details of each reference, including the title

and publishing details are given

In-text citations

There are two ways of referencing in-text:

• Paraphrasing – ideas of the author(s) are expressed in your own words.

• Direct quotes

5RMIT University 2018

How to reference in-text

There are two options for in-text referencing

• Adding the citation at the end of the sentence.

• Using the author’s name as part of your sentence.

• When paraphrasing include the author’s name and date of publication.


– Lack of variability in a product is an important measure of its quality

(Shannon 2003).


– Shannon (2003) describes the role of statistics in minimising product


6RMIT University 2018

General rules for reference in-text (1)

Where the name(s) of the authors are given:

• For books, journals, websites, conference papers and newspapers, the

general rule is to use the family name and the date.


One author

Family name

Year of publication

Kumar (2007) argued that…

…(Kumar 2007).

Two or three authors

Family name

Year of publication

Brown and Lee (2008) offer the opinion that…

….(Brown & Lee 2008).

Four or more authors

The name of the first author followed by

‘et al.’

Year of publication

Note: Family names of all authors, and

initials, to be used in the reference list

Ng et al. (2004) stated that…

…(Ng et al. 2004).

RMIT University 2018

General rules for reference in-text (2) Where the name(s) of the authors are NOT given:

• For books, journals, websites, conference papers and newspapers, the

general rule is to use the organisation name and the date.


Newspapers from a database or hard copy

Name of paper – in italics



Date viewed

Database if applicable

In-Text Reference

As stated in the Financial Review (1 August

2007, p. 62, viewed 27 August 2007, Factiva


…. (Financial Review, 1 August 2007, p. 62,

viewed 27 August 2007, Factiva Database).

Websites – corporations / institutions

An organisational publication with no

individual author e.g. a corporate website or

report, treat the company as the author

Name of authoring body, corporation /


Year of publication

Telstra (2007) provided the latest….

…,(Telstra 2007).

RMIT University 2018

General rules for reference in-text (3)

Several items with same author and year):


If you are referring to more than

one work written by the same

author in the same year, the

letters a,b,c etc are added to the

date to indicate which one you


In the reference list the works

are listed alphabetically

according to the title. If the title

starts with ‘A’, ‘An’, or ‘The’, the

alphabetical order is determined

by the second word in the title

Hill, CWL 2004a, Global

business today, 3rd edn,

McGraw Hill / Irwin,


Hill, CWL 2004b, Strategic

management theory: an

integrated approach, 6th

edn, Houghton Mifflin,


Hill (2004a) suggests that…

Hill (2004b) suggests that…

…(Hill 2004b).

…(Hill 2004a).

RMIT University 2018

General rules for reference in-text (4)

Secondary citation (citation within a citation):

• A secondary citation is when you refer to the work of one author cited by

another author.

• Primary sources are preferred.


If the original source is not

available you must include

the name of both writers for

in-text references.

Only the source you have

read appears in the reference


Horton, S 2006, Access by

design: a guide to universal

usability for web designers,

New Riders, Berkeley,


‘Form ever follows function’

(Sullivan, cited in Horton

2006, p. 1).

In 1896 Louis H. Sullivan

observed that ‘form ever

follows function’ (cited in

Horton 2006, p. 1).

RMIT University 2018

How to use quotes (1)

Direct quotes

• Direct quotes show where another person's original thoughts, words, ideas,

images etc have been used word-for-word in someone else's work. Direct

quotes should be kept to a minimum.

Quotations are used to:

• acknowledge the source of your information, eg ideas, words, thoughts, images


• enable the reader independent access to your (re)sources.

Using the author’s name as part of your sentence.


– Research shows the ‘Lack of variability in a product is an important measure

of its quality’ (Shannon 2003, p. 147).


– Shannon (2003) describes the ‘lack of variability in a product is an important

measure of its quality’ (p. 147).

11RMIT University 2018

How to use quotes (2)

Direct quotes (short)

• Follow these steps to use direct quotes in your assignments.

• Copy the exact words from the original source.

• Use quotation marks ' ' at the beginning and end of the copied text.

• Reference with appropriate author, year and page number information.

12RMIT University 2018

Also: McShane and Travaglione (2003) state ‘work motivation and performance

increase when employees feel personally accountable for the outcomes of

their efforts’ (p. 199).

How to use quotes (3)

Blockquotes (long direct quotes)

• For citations over 4 lines, blockquotes should be used. A blockquote is

indented and written as a separate paragraph. It does not have quotation

marks around it.

13RMIT University 2018

Reference lists (1)

A reference list:

• The publication details of every item cited / used in your writing need to be

included in the reference list at the end of your paper. Any websites used

must also be documented in full. This enables the reader to locate the source

if they wish.

• Each reference list entry requires a specific format depending on the

reference type i.e. whether it is a book, book chapter, journal article, website,


• You must use a variety of sources in your written work e.g. books, journals

and websites etc. This indicates that you have researched widely.

Note: RMIT Business requires all students to use a reference list in

assessment tasks unless otherwise instructed by your lecturers

14RMIT University 2018

Reference lists (2)

Order of entries:

Note: No full stops are used between an author’s initials, and no comma is

used after the last author's initials. The dots following the entries’ names

indicate the details of the reference that should follow.


Reference list order rules Reference list

The reference list is arranged first alphabetically by author, and if the authors are the same then by date.

A reference with multiple authors follows single author entries beginning with the same author name.

Where an item has no author it is listed by its title.

Where several works have the same author and year of publication, add the letters a, b, … etc according to the alphabetical order of the titles in the reference list, ignoring the initial articles A, An or The.

Jones, AB 2000, … Origin Energy 2005, …

Smith, AK 1990, …

Smith, AK 1999, …

Smith, AK 2004, …

Stein, B 2003, …(single author entry)

Stein, B, Lee, HK, Yin, CX & Singh,