I need the 3 slides completed with speaker notes
Topic: Impact of Cellphone Technology
Slides needed to be done are:
Impact of Health (2 slides)
Analysis of Cultural Impact.
Must include pictures to go along with the slides.
See attached paper to help with the slides
5 bullets each slide, speaker notes must be maximum 2 minutes each.
Running head: Cell phone technology: health, behavior, & relationships 1
Cell phone technology: health, behavior, & relationships 25
Throughout this paper, we will cover the effects of cell phones on human health, behavior, and relationships. Also, we will conduct an in-depth review of some of the most current research that has been done showing the effects cell phones have on humans and how cell phones have changed the way humans interact. Also, we will explore the impact of this technology on society and the environment. Humans use cell phones daily, and this can cause some major effects. The excessive use of cellphones has caused health issues, abnormal behavior, and relationship issues. Cell phones have also caused parents and teenagers to build better relationships. We will also explore how cell phones cause people to interact with others around them. The intent is for people to realize that good technology can have a negative impact if we do not manage it correctly.
Keywords: Health, Behavior, Relationships
Table of Contents – Jared Altic Abstract 2 Cell Phone Technology: Health, Behavior, & Relationships 5 Historical Timeline 6 Predecessors Assessment 7 Mobile Telephone Service 7 Post Office Radiophone Service 8 1G and AMPS 8 2G 8 3G 9 4G 9 Smartphones 9 Analysis of Impact 10 Social Impact 10 Cultural Impact 10 Political Impact 10 Economic Impact 11 Environmental Impact 12 Ethical Implications 12 Health 12 Behavior 16 Relationships 22 References 27 Figures 30
Cell Phone Technology: Health, Behavior, & Relationships
All over the world, technology has received great embracement and perceived as a move towards a more automated world. The common is a term that the world is just a village on one's palm. The claim has been affected by the rise of cell technology with mobile industries and companies growing each new day like bush fire. New applications and operating systems are joining the market aimed at reaching new markets and simplifying things for mobile phone users. Developers are working tirelessly to identify any flaws in the use of technology and return to provide a suitable solution. Network coverage in the different parts of the world has been boosted to enable everyone to enjoy the device they got to hit customer satisfaction. The mobile phones have impacted peoples' lives at greater depth. The effects of cell technology are very much evident all over and profoundly felt. Efforts have been made by researchers to examine in the broader stance the impact of mobile phones on people's lives. The results from those researchers indicated that cell phone users portrayed majorly positive implications of the cell phone technologies, but also some adverse effects linked to the constant use of the cell phones were raised. Every individual can see how cell phone technology has changed their way of life with the effects spreading to groups, companies, governments, and generally different life sectors. The impacts can thus be looked at from sector levels for relaxed discussion and analysis. Positive and negative effects of cell phone technology have been witnessed on behavior, social behavior, relationship, and health sectors.
1908- Wireless telephones were invented.
1946 June 17th- Bell Labs began offering Mobile Telephone Service for motor vehicles in St. Louis Mo.
1948- Mobile Telephone Service was offered in about 100 towns.
1949- AT&T launched its version of Mobile Telephone Service
1952- A-Netz Network launched in West Germany.
1957-1961- Russia inventor, Leonid Kupriyanovich, developed several mobile devices that looked like today’s devices.
1959- Manchester, United Kingdom launched its Post Office Radiophone Service.
1960’s- Researchers create the First Cellular Network.
1965- London received Post Office Radiophone Service.
1972- Post Office Radiophone Service branched out into major cities in the UK.
1972- B-Netz Network launched in West Germany.
1973- The first mobile telephone call was made by Motorola researcher named Martin Cooper.
1979-1981- 1G Cellular Network was deployed throughout Japan, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark.
1983- 1G Cellular Network was introduced in North America as Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS).
1983 March 6th- DynaTAC, the world’s first cell phone, was launched.
1990- AMPS was replaced by Digital AMPS (D-AMPS).
1990- 2G Cellular Network started to emerge.
1993- The first SMS text message was sent in Finland.
1993- The world’s first smartphone was released as The Simon Personal Communicator.
2001 May- 3G launched in Tokyo.
2008- 3G launched in the USA with the launching of the iPhone 3G.
2008- All AMPS was shut down across the USA.
2010- 4G was introduced to the USA.
Mobile Telephone Service was the first service offered to the public. It was originally designed to go inside of motor vehicles so that people can have access to a phone while on the go. Bell Labs began to offer this service in St Louis MO to customers on June 17, 1946 (Hur, 2018). They were inspired by the military. Beginning in World War I and continued through World War II, military forces around the world began to test radio-based cell phones on the battlefield. After Bell Labs began its service, AT&T began to offer a very similar service. This service was only available to a small number of people. In 1948, the service had spread to about 100 cities and functioned similarly to a walkie-talkie (Hur, 2018). Users had to hold a button down to talk and release it to listen. There were only 3 channels available so only 3 people could use the service at one time. When a user wanted to make a call, they would have to be manually connected by an operator. This service was very expensive. It would cost users $15 a month which converts to $200 in today’s dollars (Hur, 2018). AT&T eventually created a new and improved Mobile Telephone Service called Improved Mobile Telephone Service. This service eliminated the need for the operator, added more radio channels, and the high demands caused many customers to have waiting times of 30 minutes or more.
In 1959, Manchester, UK launched its Post Office Radiophone Service. This service was connected by an operator and it allowed people to be connected to subscribers across Great Britain. This service became very popular and was offered in major cities across the UK in 1972. This service was very similar to the Mobile Telephone Service that AT&T offered in the USA.
1G was first accessible in Tokyo in 1979 (Hur, 2018). It spread throughout the rest of Japan and into Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway in 1981. It was not accessible in North America until 1983 and was known as Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) (Hur, 2018). AMPS was not a secure network and it was vulnerable to eavesdropping using a basic scanner. During this time, people were not worried about security, so it did not matter if their phones were susceptible to security breaches. With the invention of 1G, the world’s first cell phone, the DynaTAC, was created and launched on March 6th, 1983 (Hur, 2018). This phone was created by Motorola and was priced at $3,995 when it was available to the market.
The creation of 2G was a major development for the phones we have today. It began emerging in the 1990s and it used digital transmission technologies instead of an analog technology (Hur, 2018). This upgrade in technology allowed for better security and faster networking. This development also allowed for SMS messaging communication to be available. This is how the first SMS message was sent in Finland in 1993 (Hur, 2018). This was a major development for today’s world because text messaging is one of the major uses of our cell phones.
The first 3G network was launched in Tokyo on May 2001. This allowed for faster-transmitting speeds. The USA did not see 3G until the launch of the iPhone 3G. This was launched by AT&T and Apple. This phone introduced apps to people and made touchscreens the hot new thing. Apple has made important contributions to the cell phone world and this first iPhone helped introduce the USA to media streaming over the internet.
4G was introduced before the end of 2010. It was created to increase the speed of devices by up to 10 times the speed of 3G. This is what phones today use. This is important because of all the features that cell phones today use. Between social media, text messaging, media streaming, and emails a faster network was needed to improve the growing number of bandwidth-intensive applications.
The first smartphone was released in 1993. This smartphone was known as the Simon Personal Communicator. It had a calendar, clock, PDA, address book, notepad, email service, QWERTY keyboard, and touchscreen (Hur, 2018). It had a stylus, predictive texting, and apps. This is what the smartphones we have today were designed after. It was marketed and sold across the United States. It did well, selling 50,000 units between August 1994 and February 1995 (Hur, 2018). It sold at $899 with a two-year contract or $1099 without the contract. It was sold by Bell Labs and was offered to each of their 15 states that they provided services to.
The social impact of cell phone technology can be seen all over the world. Company’s such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are good examples of the social impact of cell phone technology. Now, with the touch of a screen, we can be socially connected to individuals from all over the globe. The days of social gatherings being the only way to communicate with friends are long gone, thanks to the development of smartphone technology. Social interactions are no longer limited to in-person contact. We can now stay connected with family and friends via cell phones, and this can all be accomplished without ever leaving your home.
The continuous growth of smartphone technology is quickly making the world a smaller place. With instant access to information for everyone being a daily occurrence, smartphone technology has bridged the gap between different cultures and made the world a more accepting place. Not only can we reach people from different cultures all over the world, but we can communicate with them too. With a multitude of different translation apps available, communication barriers are becoming a thing of the past. The more we communicate, the more we can learn, and the possibilities to learn from different cultures are endless.
Cellphones have been a central topic to the most recent political movements. Cell phones, specifically smartphones, have been the main communication channel to spread ideas and learn about new political campaigns. They allow users to stay up to date on political campaigns and gain information easily. For example, in the last months, we have had an increasing number of people attending Fridays for the Future. The movement started with one person in Sweden and now it is a worldwide movement in which more than a million people are participating. Another example is Egypt in which the use of social media allowed people to show the reality of their living conditions and helped them to remove the president from power. The use of cell phones and their access to social media has created transparency in social movements and has helped people to spread their ideas. People can share their political views with anyone using their cell phones. However, by enabling everybody to share and load information, we are increasing the possibility of having a bias or untruthful information.
Cell phones have a huge economic impact. With the continued development of new phones and services, it creates the ability for companies to generate income. There is always a need for a new better phone. Every year, companies, like Apple and Samsung, create new and improve phones that are placed on the market to sell. These phones are purchased around the world and those sales help our economy to grow. The more of a product that a company sells, the better it leaves our economy. Creating new products also creates new jobs and fulfills the need for that product. Therefore, cell phone companies constantly create a new cell phone that can offer more options for users. This will appeal to their needs and cause them to purchase the phone and increase the company’s profit.
Finally, one of the most critical impacts is environmental. It is believed that by 2040 the cellphones will have the biggest carbon footprint in the tech industry. According to research, the smartphone components such as the motherboard and the chip require the most amount of energy to be produced. While these phones consume little energy to operate, 85% of their emissions are generated during the manufacturing process. Not to mention that they have a short shelf life and users constantly upgrade their phones for a marginal change. It is worth to mention that the network companies also consume a significant amount of energy to operate. Humans must understand their relationship with the environment to move forward with technological advancements while using resources rationally and preserving nature. This will require a complete renovation of our current economic and political structure. If we continue to encourage development and expansion, we will see major effects not only in the climate change and in ecosystems, but also in societies and in the way, we relate to each other (Boylan, 2014). The cell phone has many effects on society and the most affected is the environment. On the topic of cell phone and environment, it has many effects that many may not be aware of. For example, a recyclable cell phone contains battery and carbon footprints (Boylan, 2014).
First, we will start talking about the health effects cell phones have on humans. Cell phones use electromagnetic radiations to receive and transfer data. During data transmission, the device gives off harmful radiation, which affects human health. The radiation cannot be felt and when released, the radiation penetrates the body affecting the DNA and structure of the human cell. (Borelli, 2013). The radiations are of different frequencies and wavelengths. Several diseases are induced by radiations such as infertility, hearing impairment, and brain tumors. Hearing impairment cans result from loud disturbance. Tumors result when the tissues of the body grow abnormally. Cell phone radiations lead to the death of somebody cells and during replacement by other cells, tumors may develop. Some tend to be cancerous such as the malignant brain tumor while others are non-cancerous like the benign tumor.
Besides, cell phones not only carry important personal data but also germs, which are harmful to the heath of a person. Most people who use cell phones tend to place them in different places where they may collect germs. A report from researches indicated that one in every six cell phones is contaminated with some sort of fecal matter. (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011). This is probably because the owners of the phones do not wash their hands thoroughly with soap after using the restroom. The bacteria found on some of the cell phones was the E. coli bacteria, which is normally found in the fecal region. Ingestion of the bacteria leads to severe health problems such as diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Dirty hands also have different kinds of bacteria, which can contaminate the phone. Thus, upon sharing the phone with another person, the bacteria may be transferred leading to health problems if the person fails to clean his or her hands thoroughly.
Bright screens and small texts also affect the health of the eyes. Since most cell phones are handheld, this means that they are being viewed at a close range. The user is required to constantly focus and reposition the device to process the text and graphics on the screen. According to the Vision Council, most people in the United States spend six to eight hours a day glued to their smartphones. As the frequency and length of usage time increases, the greater the potential of getting vision problems. (Borelli, 2013). Irritation and redness of the eye result from eyestrain. Blurred vision, neck pain, and headaches are also associated with the excess use of cell phones. Other than vision problems, cell phones also increase the risk of chronic pain. In most cases, the device is required to be in our hands when in use like when sending an email or a text message. The phone is normally held between the neck and the shoulder. Rapid responses to text messages in that position may result in the inflammation of the joints causing pains. Back pain is the most common for frequently mobile users. (Naeem, 2014). In extreme cases, cell phone usage can cause a person to arch the neck or develop a strange relaxation posture.
With all these problems associated with the use of a smartphone, we are still just scratching the surface. The use of smartphones by children may also affect their quality of sleep. According to a recent study, adolescents that own smartphones will sleep less on school days than their peers (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). In addition to sleeping less than non-owners, long-term smartphone owners will sleep less than new owners of smartphones as well (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). Parents may be able to identify whether their child is getting enough sleep by looking out for the signs (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). Signs may include problems at school, low grades, difficulty in concentrating, and unusual daytime drowsiness (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). While most parents would see the obvious cure to these problems as simply taking their smartphone away, they may find that easier said than done (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). If your child has been using their smartphone device for many years, addiction-like symptoms are likely to occur.
According to a 2016 study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), children spend 3.3 hours daily with their smartphone, and 85% of them treat their smartphone as the most important thing in their lives (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). In today’s modern society, it seems that smartphones have become a part of our everyday lives. However, in the case of children and smartphones, it may just have negative consequences (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). In the case of 256 school-aged children, with age between 9-16 years, this just may prove to be the case. The practitioners of this study used a questionnaire that revealed demographic data of the students, as well as a section used for self-reporting free-time, physical activity, and smartphone-use related habits (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). The results showed, conclusively, that children who placed a higher value on a smartphone-use scale reported more deprivation related symptoms (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). Furthermore, younger children proved to be at a higher risk of developing smartphone-use habits than the older children did (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). Another interesting find was that children who reported less physical activity were at a higher risk of developing deprivation symptoms (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). No matter what the age group, however, all reported users of smartphones had significantly higher results of deprivation than those children who reported not to use a smartphone (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). The report concluded with children that own their smartphones, in general, “utilize them from an increasingly early age for relationships, movie watching, and playing” (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). Furthermore, smartphone use has become “a rapidly increasing habit raising even the level of addiction among children, backing such components of a healthy lifestyle as physical activity and different forms of sports” (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). The excessive misuse of smartphones by children might become permanent and continue to be a risk-associated behavior among school-aged kids (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016).
Cell phones increase the rate of absorption of the electromagnetic waves into their bodies. During the installation of the WLAN, a network is created using a router and the connected devices communicate through the network. During data transmission, electromagnetic radiations are emitted, and the presence of a child around may result in a major impact on the human physical structure of the child. Young children are at a greater risk than adults are because their skulls and neural systems are not fully developed. The effect of a cell phone on children at a young age is a very big topic in today’s time. Just as cell phones affecting young adults and older adults, we must not forget nor ignore the major effect on children at a young age. In today’s world, the requirement for both parents to work is at an all-time high. After long days at work, some parents give their kids their cell phone or iPad to play a game or watch videos to make them stop crying or keep them occupied (Sagoff, 2008). These behavior habits are creating an addiction to children. This has created many effects today with children developing health issues because they do not stay active. They would rather play video games or play on any device than to go outside and play. This has caused an increase in obesity and medical conditions occurring in children at young ages. For example, low vitamin D due to lack of doing outdoor activities. Anger issues because they are not interacting with others at a young age, they always think everything must be there way and once it does not happen, they have a tantrum (Sagoff, 2008).
Have you ever let your child use your cell phone just to keep them entertained? If you are a parent like me, I am sure you are guilty of doing just that. Have you ever stopped to think of the potential harm that you may be doing though? With the rapid advancements in technology, kids are being exposed to smartphones increasingly at a younger age. It is not uncommon to see children that are barely old enough to hold a cellphone, let alone operate one. I know most parents do not see a problem with this practice, especially if the child is learning something new. Unfortunately, there is a darker side to this all too familiar story. The use of smartphones by children can have tremendous effects on their behavior because smartphones are directly linked with the development of Attention Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), short-term and/or long-term emotional conditions, and various learning disorders such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have published two studies in recent history concerning children and smartphones (Edwards, 2017). The first study, conducted in 2011, showed a direct correlation between the increase in ADHD diagnosis with the increase in reported screen time by the parents (Edwards, 2017). They conducted a follow-up study in 2016 that, not only confirmed their original data but showed the largest increase in ADHD cases reported to children that are born into lower-class families (Edwards, 2017). Putting all this information together, it is reasonable to conclude that smartphone use by children is potentially dangerous. Not only does it increase the likelihood of developing issues with attention, but it is also increasing the likelihood of developing additional behavioral problems in the future.
To understand the link between smartphone technology and the development of childhood behavioral, we investigate the published works of Doctor Hosokawa and Doctor Katsura of Japan. Throughout their research, Doctor Hosokawa and Doctor Katsura were able to establish a link between childhood behavioral issues and the duration of time spent on smartphone devices (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). The study concluded that children who spend longer durations of time on smartphones have a significantly higher chance of developing short or long-term emotional problems (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). Unusual mood swings, extreme lows followed by extreme highs are all common side effects of prolonged use (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). Reports of short-term outbursts where more prevalent in children who reported using smartphones with longer durations (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). On a good note, however, the emotional outburst was found to dissipate once the usage of smartphones was removed, and the child no longer had access to the device (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). While this part of the study is good news for parents, some problems that may develop that just will not go away.
Doctors Maja Ružić-Baf and Andrea Debeljuh are professors at the University of Juraj Dobrila of Pula, Faculty of Educational Sciences in Pula, Croatia (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Their associate, Ranko Rajović, is a professor at the University of Primorska, Faculty of Education in Koper, Slovenia (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Together they have published many peer-reviewed papers recorded in the Croatian Scientific Bibliography Database (CROSBI) concerning early childhood development and the effects of smartphones thereof (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Their research proves that children are spending more time online using smartphone devices (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). This type of behavior, they argue, promotes a sedentary lifestyle and an overall decrease in movement altogether (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). This may lead to certain types of disorders such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia, especially among children starting the first grade (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). As a parent, some things to watch out for in your child is their difficulty reading and/or writing (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Other areas of concern may be a difficulty with spelling and/or the inability to translate their thoughts to paper (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Additionally, as a result of continuous and long-term exposure, children may have severe difficulty in making arithmetical calculations without the aid of a calculator (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017).
Secondly, we will discuss the effects of cell phones on humans and the social impact it carries. People have become very dependent on their cell phones. Cell phones have made people stop developing skills since they rely on them for many tasks. For example, nowadays most of us do not even know our cell phone number or the cell phone number of our family members. We have stopped looking at the street names and we rely on other people’s reviews to make a simple dinner reservation (Boylan, 2014). Another issue that cell phones have caused is the increase in stolen individual’s data due to phone hacks or the use of applications that gather information from our cell phones without our knowledge. Cell phones are so central to our lives that we do not stop to think about how much personal information our cell phones have. Cell phones not only have our birth date, blood type, height, weight, house address, work address, credit, and debit card information, and fingerprints/face recognition, it also has our daily routines such as, where we work, where we go after work, and also it knows what we read and what we listen. With all this information added in our cell phones, it is extremely easy for hackers or applications to have access to all this sensitive information. Also, when we download applications to our cell phones, we are giving them access to some of our data. This can lead the application developers to sell this information to companies without the individual’s knowledge. Our cell phones have more information about us than we acknowledge, and companies can make a profit from it. If you notice on most applications, they want access to your camera or/and microphone. This leads up to hackers getting access to photos or ear dropping on the conversation through the microphone. There has been an increase in the development of cell phone applications that big companies, such as Walmart, Target, and Best Buy, create as a convenient way of allowing you to scan an item to check the price. This requires the individual to allow access to the camera and photos (Deutsche, 2017). These little sneaky moves open the doors to hackers and immoral photos that may be on the individual’s phone could be stolen. Once the information is loaded in the system, the content can be shared or exploited without the owner realizing it.
Nowadays our primary means of communication is text messaging and social media. We do not use the cell phone to talk as we use too. It seems that today’s technology has eliminated our skills to talk and communicate; it is more convenient to send a text message or a message through social media than to grab the phone and talk in real-time. This type of communication can lead to misunderstanding. When texting sometimes …