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Instructions:

In this unit, you will produce your completed capstone project. You will accomplish this by completing the Unit 9 Final Capstone Template which includes the following elements:

  • Title Page (1 page)
  • Abstract (1 page)
  • Dedication (1 page)
  • Acknowledgements (1 page)
  • Table of Contents (1 page)
  • Background (4–5 pages; minimum 10 scholarly references)
    • Introduction paragraph (1/2 page)
    • General Problem Statement (1 page)
    • Specific Problem Statement (1 page)
    • Purpose Statement (1 page)
    • Research Questions (1/4 page)
  • Annotated Bibliography (10 pages; minimum 20 scholarly references)
  • Findings (4–5 pages; minimum of 5 scholarly references)
    • Introduction paragraph (1/2 page)
    • Use and Application of Findings (1/2 page)
      • Recommendation 1 (1 page)
      • Recommendation 2 (1 page)
      • Recommendation 3 (1 page)
  • Reference Page (1+ pages; minimum of 30 scholarly references)

Submitting your work:

Submit your Assignment to the appropriate Dropbox.

Please be sure to APA Central under Academic Tools for help with meeting APA expectations for written Assignments.

Running Head: FINAL CAPSTONE 1

FINAL CAPSTONE 2

Manuscript Title Here

Student Name

A Capstone Presented in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Healthcare Administration

PURDUE UNIVERSITY GLOBAL

Month Year

Abstract

Type your abstract here. Write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.

Dedication

This is where you can write a dedication. This occurs ONLY when you submit your final capstone in Unit 9.

Acknowledgements

This is where you can write acknowledgements. This occurs ONLY when you submit your final capstone in Unit 9.

Table of Contents

Abstract 2

Table of Contents 5

Background 9

General Problem Statement 9

Specific Problem Statement 9

Purpose Statement 9

Research Questions 10

Annotated Bibliography 12

Findings 15

Use and Application of Findings 15

Recommendation 15

Recommendation 15

Recommendation 15

References 17

Manuscript Title Here (from the title page)

Type your introduction here. Remember to include an overview of what your manuscript aims to do (e.g. research a problem, identify a new management concept, etc.).

Background

This is an informative paragraph that helps the reader understand why you chose this topic. Review the background of the topic and elaborate here. Use language such as, The following section will discuss the background of the topic.

General Problem Statement

This paragraph piggybacks on the previous paragraph. Now that you have discussed the background, tell the reader what the general problem is and why you want to research it. Your general problem is a broad overview of the general problem. Oftentimes, the general problem is viewed at the national level with supporting evidence from governmental websites that provide quantitative statistics. The paragraph must begin with, The general problem is…

Specific Problem Statement

This paragraph piggybacks on the previous paragraph. Now that you have discussed the general problem, tell the reader what the specific problem is and why you want to research it. Your specific problem statement usually encompasses a specific population, demography, or geographic location. Oftentimes, the specific problem is viewed at the local level with supporting evidence that provides quantitative statistics. The paragraph must begin with, The specific problem is…

Purpose Statement

This paragraph simply tells the reader the purpose of your research. (Example: The purpose of this research is to determine whether a relationship exists between nursing assistant staffing levels and quality of care in skilled nursing facilities). The paragraph must begin with, The purpose of this research is…

Research Questions

This paragraph provides an overview of the specific research questions you plan to investigate. You are only required to have one research question; however, you may use more if needed. This section is where you unfold your research to the reader. What do you want to uncover? This is where you ask the question(s). Use language such as: The research addressed the following research questions.

RQ1: Ask your research question here.

RQ2: Ask your research question here.

Annotated Bibliography

Findings

Briefly introduce your next capstone section. While this may seem redundant at each section, it is important to remind the reader at the beginning of each section. The following section will discuss the limitations, use and applications of findings, and recommendations of the research.

Use and Application of Findings

Summarize your findings from your research. (For example: The use and application of these findings may contribute to…by….). There should be at least 3 recommendations (each a separate paragraph).

Recommendation: Type here. Thinking outside the box, think of what recommendations you can make to improve the problem you have identified previously. Elaborate why your recommendation is appropriate.

Recommendation: Type here. Thinking outside the box, think of what recommendations you can make to improve the problem you have identified previously. Elaborate why your recommendation is appropriate.

Recommendation: Type here. Thinking outside the box, think of what recommendations you can make to improve the problem you have identified previously. Elaborate why your recommendation is appropriate.

References

Type your references here. Remember that any reference in your reference list must be present in your paper in the form of a citation (Author, year). Likewise, any citation in your paper must be present in your reference list. Refer to your APA Handbook 6th edition for more detailed information on developing a reference list.

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Running Head: TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN MISSISSIPPI AND HEALTHCARE PRINCIPLES

TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN MISSISSIPPI AND HEALTHCARE PRINCIPLES 7

Teenage pregnancy in Mississippi and healthcare principles

Mitchelle Baker

HA599 Masters Capstone in Healthcare Administration

Dr. Susan MacCready

Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Where is month and year…page template not adhered to here

Introduction Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: This should state Background

As the teen pregnancy cases have been declining in the industrialized nations, it’s absurd to assert that in the region of Mississippi teenage pregnancy numbers has been increasing. As per 2012, Mississippi happened to be the third state with the high number of adolescent pregnancies in the whole nation. According to Sedgh et al. (2012), "roughly one in four teens will become pregnant at least once by their 20th birthday. One in five births to girl’s ages 15 through 19 is not the teen’s first” (p.223-230). However, teenage pregnancy can harm the teenager as a different aspect of their life is affected. The law in most American states allows specific healthcare principle to respect the sexual health life of the teenagers. There are several healthcare principles such as justice, autonomy, confidentiality, beneficence, and non-maleficence that affects the adolescents directly in the course of making the decision. Some healthcare principles such as autonomy and privacy may prevent handling teenage pregnancies in the Mississippi area where less power is given to the adolescents. Conservative beliefs limit the use of contraceptives among many other factors. Adolescent teens are not only allowed to make decisions, but their cases should be kept private or confidential. Therefore, the paper will focus on the effect of theoretical healthcare principles on teenage pregnancy. Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Nice background

General problem Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: This needs left aligned and not centered…adhere to template!

The general problem is the increased teenage pregnancy in the United States; and increases also increases the ethical dilemma to deal with confidentiality and autonomy in factors such as contraceptives and abortion. The federal law of confidentiality states that the physician should not share the information or data related to the patient. However, this can only be done as a result of the legal cause as well as the written authorization from the patient (McDavitt et al. 2016). The penalty faced by professional who pass around information related to the patient faces different penalties. In cases of sexual abuse, the patients may be adamant about reporting the issue to the authorities or the patient; as such, this becomes an ethical issue. Once the teen realizes that the doctor cannot keep the secret, they will never report to them again. Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: This first sentence must be cited

The issue of autonomy and confidential care for teens in the area of reproduction has raised many discussions in the country. In the United States, there are various ethical issues that conflict with handling teenage pregnancy. Mississippi as a state is equally affected as it also works under federal law. Autonomy is one of the pillars of healthcare principle that focuses on patient decisions. Autonomy states that patients should have the power to decide concerning their health. However, in some states; the adolescent may not have the cognitive ability to make a certain decision. The care provider has the power to protect the adolescent from harm, and as they make individual decisions, it may be against the law that protects teens. Robinson, Kunnuji, Shawar, & Shiffman (2018) asserts that “due to the respect for the autonomy of the patient, the doctor can be put in difficult situations, requiring discernment to decide on issues related to health, self-care and its impact on the individual who is under his care. Many professionals claim that adolescent patients, given their young age, are not able to take responsibility for their health and should, therefore pass the scrutiny of their legal representatives. In practice, however, the professional cannot guarantee that these tutors seek the benefit of minors under their guardianship; thus, this proposition can be questioned” (p. 1807-1819) Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Entirely too long here……this must be paraphrased Mitchelle. You need to paraphrase majority of your content to maintain credibility as the content expert on your topic.

Specific Problem Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Again template not adhered to here

The specific problem understudy is the high prevalence of teen pregnancies issues in Mississippi and the effect of healthcare principles in combatting the issue. In 2003, the governor of Mississippi the, asserted that DNA of pregnant teens should be conducted. The DNA is then run in the state DNA database, to see if at all the man who is responsible for the teen pregnancy and is over the age of 21 has been previously arrested. The assertion went against the principle of privacy as well as autonomy concerning the pregnant victim. However, it was the right thing to do to reduce the rate of teenage pregnancy in the state. Campbell-Lewis, Bondurant & Bush (2016) states that” The governor is correct that Mississippi has a serious problem, though not necessarily the issue he claims. Mississippi has the country's highest teen birth rate. Of Mississippi high school teens, 58 percent have had sex (the national average is 47 percent), and by the end of 12th grade, 70 percent are sexually active. Young people aged 15-24 make up only 15 percent of Mississippi’s population, but they account for 76 percent of chlamydia cases and 70 percent of gonorrhea cases. Not coincidentally, over one in three sexually active high school students do not use condoms” (p. 318-321). Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: This first sentence must be cited Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Needs cited Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Again not original here.. Paraphrase this.

Additionally, according to Fouquier, “the law has several negative consequences. It puts doctors, nurses, and midwives in the position of law enforcement. They will be required to collect evidence for potential crimes without the consent of the mother, raising serious constitutional questions that will be disputed at the expense of the state. The DNA will be stored permanently, also at a cost to the taxpayer, even though much of it will never be used. In a state committed to small-government principles, it is disconcerting that many of our leaders believe it is in the public's interest to preserve the DNA of citizens who haven't even been charged with a crime” (Fouquier, 2017). Therefore, a solution is supposed to found with little or less ethical issues related to it. Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: I expect better at the master level here. Needs originality. Penalty applied for lack of originality in content within paper.

Purpose Statement Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Does not adhere to template

The purpose of the study was to find out the ethical and legal issues surrounding the issue of teen pregnancy in Mississippi. Also, the purpose of this study and research paper is to identify the strategies such as policy formulation that can be used for the reduction and minimization of the increment in the prevalent cases of teenage pregnancy in the United States, and more specifically in the Mississippi. The rationale behind the carrying out of this research is the increase in the cases of teenage pregnancies in the Mississippi. Besides, Mississippi might be a conservative state with wrong beliefs related to the use of contraceptive. Such beliefs limit teen's access to contraceptive education and services. Informed consent is one of the challenging issues whereby the teens make a less rational decision in the course of making sexual decisions. According to the Barlow, “While consent laws in most states apply to all minors age 12 and older, there are some states that allow certain groups of minors to consent –those who are married, pregnant or already parents. Several states 3 have no relevant policy on disclosure to parents or guardians, and the decision is left to the care provider” (Barlow, 2015). Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: First sentence must be cited Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: paraphrase

Some states allow the consent to the contraceptives in the country while others do not. Furthermore, most of the states in America do not allow teens to consent to the abortion. The argument supporting confidentiality care among teens asserts that giving the teens a chance to decide as it will enable then to be responsible. The adolescent is a stage of exploration and development among teens, and they have to grow emotionally and intellectually. According to the Austin “When physicians provide confidential care for adolescents, they are giving them the opportunity to learn how to interact with clinicians and to become responsible for their health care, and they are respecting and supporting the development of an emerging autonomous self” (Austin, 2017). Therefore, the only form of education that should be given to teens is on the type of contraceptives to use. It is like teens are not receiving relevant education as such they are not in a position to make informed decisions when it comes to sexual health education. Decision making has to do with how a person interprets the risk, benefits, and the consequences related to the act. The teens, as such, should only have consented when they possess the three aspects. Therefore, relevant education is the only means that can make the adolescents make an informed decision and give consent to the information in case they are sexually assaulted. Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: paraphrase and cite it properly

Research questions Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: template not adhered to and missing sentence required at start of research questions – The research addresses the following research questions. RQ1: Ask your research question here. RQ2: Ask your research question here. RQ3: Ask your research question here.

RQ1: what are the some of the healthcare principles that affect finding solution to teenage pregnancy in Mississippi? Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: indent

RQ2: Explain the effect of teenage pregnancy on the life of a teenage mother?

RQ3: What are some of the ethical and legal issues related to teenage pregnancy?

RQ4: What strategies and initiatives should be developed as a way of addressing the issue of teenage pregnancy in the Mississippi?

RQ5: Why is Mississippi State having higher cases of teenage pregnancy as compared to the other regions in the United States? Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Great questions

References

Austin, C. (2017). University of Mississippi Students’ Opinions Regarding Sex Education in Mississippi (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Mississippi).

Barlow, L. (2015). My Place Where I Must Stand: The Function of Mobility in Jesmyn Ward's Men We Reaped (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University).

Campbell-Lewis, N., Bondurant, S. W., & Bush, F. M. (2016). Teen Pregnancy in Mississippi: A History and Analysis of Recent Legislative and Governmental Attempts to Address Different Aspects of this Issue in Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association58(10), 318-321.

Fouquier, K. (2017). Legal and Ethical Issues in the Provision of Adolescent Reproductive Health in the United States. Online Journal of Health Ethics13(1), 3.

Oyedele, O., Wright, S., & Maja, T. (2015). Community participation in teenage pregnancy

prevention programs: A systematic review. International journal of Nursing Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Hanging indents?

Didactics, 5(05), 26-38.

McDavitt, L., Black, F., Grant, M., & Ko, J. Y. (2015). Addressing teen birth in southern urban communities in the United States. In NAAAS Conference Proceedings (p. 284). National Association of African American Studies.

Robinson, R. S., Kunnuji, M., Shawar, Y. R. & Shiffman, J. (2018). Prioritizing sexuality education in Mississippi and Nigeria: The importance of local actors, policy windows, and creative strategy. Global public health13(12), 1807-1819.

Sedgh, G., Finer, L. B., Bankole, A., Eilers, M. A., & Singh, S. (2012). Adolescent pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates across countries: levels and recent trends. Journal of Adolescent Health56(2), 223-230.

Rubin, S. E., Coy, L. N., Yu, Q., & Muncie Jr, H. L. (2016). Louisiana and Mississippi family Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Not in alphabetical order and needs hanging indent

physicians' contraception counseling for adolescents with a focus on intrauterine

contraception. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology, 29(5), 458-463

,

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3

Annotated Bibliography

Mitchelle Baker

A Capstone Presented in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Healthcare Administration

PURDUE UNIVERSITY GLOBAL

September 2019

Annotated Bibliography

Robinson, R. S., Kunnuji, M., Shawar, Y. R., & Shiffman, J. (2018). Prioritizing sexuality education in Mississippi and Nigeria: The importance of local actors, policy windows and creative strategy. Global Public Health, 13(12), 1807-1819. doi:10.1080/17441692.2018.1449000 Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: This is to be left aligned and not all italicized…apply throughout. This is not proper format.

This article asserts that Mississippi and Nigeria are both regarded as conservative regions. In that case, it would be difficult for both regions to prioritize sexuality education. However, in 2011, Mississippi passed a bill that required all schools to offer sexuality education to the students. The law also encouraged all the state ministries to focus on and prioritize sexuality education in the state. Various reasons influenced the decision to offer sexuality education in both Mississippi and Nigeria. One of the reasons is that both countries’ local organizations and individuals are highly committed towards the strategy of offering sexuality education. Such individuals and organizations also got support from external factors. As such the policy on sexuality education was perceived as a pathway to ending teenage pregnancy in Mississippi. It was also regarded as an effective solution towards HIV/AIDs menace in Nigeria. Furthermore, the proponents of these solutions had a strategic plan for the social problems affecting the two countries. However, the author of the article notes that offering sexuality education in difficult contexts always requires commitment from organizations and individuals. It also requires the identification of external resources to support the implementation and building costs.

Florescu, L., Temneanu, O. R., & Mindru, D. E. (2016). Social and Medical Implications of Teenage Motherhood. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 52.

Adolescence among girls is a certain age segment that suffers exposure to a lot of risks complications especially when the girl is pregnant. Such complications may occur during birth or post-natal period which may affect the health of the child and that of the young mother. Examples of complications faced by teenage mothers include low birth weight, premature birth and high risk of infant mortality.

The authors of this article note that teenage mothers are usually socially, physiologically and psychologically unprepared to have children. As such they cannot make informed decisions about the child’s health and also their health. Lack of social and family support forces teenage mothers to abandon their children. Most of the teenage mothers are also forced to abandon school despite having the right to continue school. As a result, there are financial and professional failures.

It is worth noting that teenage mothers cannot form sustainable couples with the fathers of their children. Consequently, there emerge some socio-psychological repercussions. This article suggests that reducing the effects of teenage pregnancy would require sex education, especially within the socio-educational family setting. Thus, applying the strategy of sex education would assist in reducing cases of teenage pregnancies in Mississippi.

Du Plessis, R. (2015). SEXUAL HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT FOR TAMESIDE . Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: Not all caps. Where retrieved??

This article presents the sexual health needs assessment of Tameside borough. Mainly, the purpose of the article is to determine the sexual health needs assessment as well as service provision at Tameside. It also presents some interventions that would strengthen the Sexual Health Strategy implemented in the borough.

One of the objectives of this article is to reduce cases of abortions and unplanned pregnancies at Tame side. Notably, the intervention presented by the authors for this case is improving uptake of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives. In that sense, the article suggests that unplanned pregnancies would be lowered through increasing ellaOne access through pharmacy contract. It also suggests a thorough review of all pharmacy activities to ensure that there is equitable distribution of ellaOne throughout the borough. More pointedly, the authors of this article agree that improving access to LARCs serves as an effective strategy for reducing abortions and unplanned pregnancies. Similarly, Mississippi should also consider improving access to LARCS among adolescent girls to help reduce cases of unplanned pregnancies in the state.

Almeida, R., Lins , L., & Rocha, M. (2015). Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in adolescent health care. Retrieved 27 September 2019, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983- 80422015232071 Comment by Dr Susan MacCready: References on all pages should be in alphabetical order

This study aimed at explaining the ethical and bioethical issues affecting adolescent healthcare. The author of the article agrees that there exist conflicting situations between rules and ethical questions together with adolescent’s laws or codes. Autonomy is one of the key principles of bioethics that focuses on respecting the patient’s decision making on issues concerning their health. However, in cer