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 Items to include in your description:

  1. History of the Tribe/Nation before European contact, where did they live, estimates of their population numbers before European contact.
  2. Using census data, produce a statistical portrait of its median household income, years of schooling, proportion below poverty level, and employment status. Compare the data to the appropriate figures for either Whites or the entire American population. 
  3. What have been the major challenges they have faced?
  4. Future prospects for this group (economically, educationally, culturally, assimilation v. pluralism)

 List of major tribal groupings:

  1. Apache
  2. Blackfeet
  3. Cherokee
  4. Chippewa
  5. Choctaw
  6. Iroquois 
  7. Navajo
  8. Pueblo
  9. Sioux

THE NATIVE AMERICANS

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EARLY EUROPEAN CONTACTS

  • Misunderstood and ill treated by their conquerors for several centuries
  • Diverse Ethnicity
  • Culture; Kinship system; Political – economic
  • In 1500, 700 distinct languages spoken in the area north of Mexico

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NATIVE AMERICAN POPULATION

In 1500 Native North American –10,000,000

By 1800 less than 600,000

By 1900 less than 250,000

This loss of human life can only be judged as catastrophic

In 2000 census—2.5 million and

1.6 million listed American Indian as part of their ancestry

In Census 2010—2.9 million people

2.3 million listed American Indian as part of their ancestry

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EUROCENTRIC AND NATIVE AMERICAN VIEWS OF EXPANSIONISM

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  • Anglo expansionism led to a series of Wars and treaties

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Show video clip black hills

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MAJOR ISSUE B/N INDIANS AND ENGLISH: LAND

  • Indians driven from their land either through
  • Assimilation
  • Removal
  • European Diseases

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SUMMARY OF CONTACT AND POLICIES

1492 Arrival of Columbus

1607 Jamestown was founded

1620 Pilgrims landed at Plymouth

1622 First major Indian retaliation

1744 Treaty of Lancaster

1778 First treaty between US and Indians

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1803 US Louisiana Purchase

1824 BIA established placed in the Department of War

1830 Indian Removal Act

1854 Indian Appropriation Act

1862 Railroad Act

1868 Fort Laramie Peace Conference

1887 General Allotment Act (Dawes)

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1924 Indian Citizenship Act

1944 National Congress of American Indians

1947 Indian Claims Commission Act

1948 Indians allowed to vote in Arizona

1953 Termination Act

1962 Indians allowed to vote in New Mexico

1968 Indian Civil Rights Act

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1972 Indian Education Act

1975 Indian Self-Determination Act

1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act

1978 Indian Child Welfare Act

1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act

1990 Indian Art & Craft Act

1994 American Indian Religious Freedom Act

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TABLE 6.2 MAJOR FEDERAL POLICIES

1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act

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“TRAIL OF TEARS” 1838-1839
AMONG THE LARGEST GROUPS RELOCATED WERE THE CREEK, CHOCTAW, CHICKASAW, CHEROKEE, AND SEMINOLE

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TREATIES AND WARFARE

  • The Allotment Act (1887)
  • The Reorganization Act (1934)
  • Tribes could adopt a written constitution and elect a tribal council with a head

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The Western Indians (after 1860’s)

  • Suppression of Ghost Dance religion.
  • Broken treaties and military force
  • Wounded Knee Massacre (Sioux Indians).
  • Plains also decimated by disease and extermination of the buffalo.

POLICIES IN WESTERN US

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RESERVATION LIFE AND FEDERAL POLICIES

  • Fort Laramie Treaty (1868)
  • Whites entered Sioux territory spurred by Col. George Custer’s exaggerated reports of gold
  • Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
  • Last great Sioux victory

© 2015, 2012, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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RESERVATION LIFE AND FEDERAL POLICIES

  • Over 1/3rd of Native American live on 557 reservations and trust lands in 33 states
  • A bit more than 2% of the land throughout the US
  • Many 20th century policies were designed to “get out of the Indian business”

© 2015, 2012, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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NATIVE AMERICAN LEGAL CLAIMS

From 1836 to 1946 Native Americans could not bring a claim against the government without an act of congress

Only 142 claims were heard during this period

In 1946 congress established Indian Claims Commission to hear claims against the govt.

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Lead to an increase in claims

Commission was extended until 1978 – now cases are heard by U.S.Court of Claims

The case of the Black Hills

Desire to recover land over financial settlement

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LEGAL CLAIMS

  • The federal government agreed to a settlement of $3.4 billion
  • Including individual payments of at least $1,000 to 300,000 individual American Indians

© 2015, 2012, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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LEGAL CLAIMS

  • Congress agreed to pay $106 million for land seized in aftermath of Little Big Horn
  • The original settlement, the subsequent unaccepted payments, & accrued interest brought the 2012 total of funds being held for the Sioux to more than $800 million

© 2015, 2012, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Federal services were stopped immediately
  • The effect of the governmental order was disastrous
  • In 1975, the government resumed the services

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EMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

  • (1952) BIA began programs to relocate young Native Americans
  • (1962) Employment Assistance Program (EAP)
  • Provided educational and business assistance
  • Impact on the economic development of the reservation and the brain drain

© 2015, 2012, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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FIGURE 6.1 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE POPULATION

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FIGURE 6.2: NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS AND COMMUNITIES

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TABLE 6.3 LARGEST AMERICAN INDIAN GROUPINGS

© 2015, 2012, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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FIGURE 6.3 AMERICAN INDIAN POVERTY RATES

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TABLE 6.4 A SNAPSHOT: NATIVE AMERICANS

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COLLECTIVE ACTION

Pan-Indianism

Intertribal movement and solidarity

National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), founded in 1948

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AIM- founded in 1968

Fishing rights in the Northwest and fish-ins

Take over of Alcatraz in 1969

Red Power

Aim and the Ogallala Sioux and Wounded Knee

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WHAT’S UP WITH THE MASCOTS?

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WE SIMPLY CHOSE AN INDIAN AS THE EMBLEM. WE COULD HAVE JUST AS EASILY CHOSEN ANY UNCIVILIZED ANIMAL.

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  • Because virtually the only image that non-native children view of Native people are of the mascots, most children assume that Native people are dead or were war-like people. This stereotype diminishes the Native culture and is hurtful to Native people.

TEAM NAME CHANGES

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STEREOTYPES

  • Common stereotypes: heathens, primitive, brutal savages, and culturally homogeneous.

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High rate of unemployment and poverty

Tourism

source of income but also a source of degradation

Cottage industries

Income from mineral rights

Government Employment

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Casino gambling—good or bad?

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Federal control of Native American education

BIA schools

Some tribes formed their own education systems

Drop out or pushout rate is 50% higher than for Blacks or Hispanics

Good development: About 23% receive bilingual education

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Underenrollment at all levels, from the primary grades through college

The need to adjust to a school with values sometimes dramatically different form those of the home

The need to make the curriculum more relevant

The underfinancing of tribal community colleges

The unique hardships encountered by reservation-born Native Americans who later live in and attend schools in large cities

The language barrier faced by the many children who have little or no knowledge of English

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Federal control of Native American education

BIA schools

Some tribes formed their own education systems

Drop out or pushout rate is 50% higher than for Blacks or Hispanics

Good development: About 23% receive bilingual education

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Underenrollment at all levels, from the primary grades through college

The need to adjust to a school with values sometimes dramatically different form those of the home

The need to make the curriculum more relevant

The underfinancing of tribal community colleges

The unique hardships encountered by reservation-born Native Americans who later live in and attend schools in large cities

The language barrier faced by the many children who have little or no knowledge of English

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High rate of:

1.Alcoholism and mortality

2.Under nutrition

3.Tuberculosis and death

4.High rate of teenage suicide

Lack of access to health care resources

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RELIGIOUS EXPRESSION

American Indian Religious Freedom Act passed by congress in 1978

Native American Church – ritualistic use of peyote.

In 1994, Congress amended the American Indian Religious Act to allow use of peyote.

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CERT was formed in 1976 – Council of Energy Resource Tribes

Purpose to protect and develop tribal natural resources such as natural gas

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Continued land disputes

Environmental justice

Balance between environmental and economic needs

Spiritual needs

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Figure 6-4 Intergroup Relations Continuum

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144 Chapter 6 Native Americans: The First Americans

clear from the beginning that the non-Indian government would deal harshly with tribal
groups that refused to agree to treaties. Federal relations with the Native Americans were
the responsibility of the secretary of war. Consequently, when the Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA) was created in 1824 to coordinate the government’s relations with the tribes, it
was part of the Department of War. The government’s primary emphasis was to main-
tain peace and friendly relations along the frontier. Nevertheless, as settlers moved the
frontier westward, they encroached more and more on land that Native Americans had
inhabited for centuries.

The Indian Removal Act, passed in 1830, called for the relocation of all Eastern tribes
across the Mississippi River. The Removal Act was popular with non–American Indians
because it opened more land to settlement through annexation of tribal land. Almost all
non-Indians felt that the Native Americans had no right to block progress—which was
defined as movement by White society. Among the largest groups relocated were the five
tribes of the Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Seminole, who were resettled in
what is now Oklahoma. The movement, lasting more than a decade, is called the Trail
of Tears because the tribes left their ancestral lands under the harshest conditions. Poor
planning, corrupt officials, little attention to those ill from a variety of epidemics, inad-
equate supplies, and the deaths of several thousand Native Americans characterized the
forced migration (Hirsch 2009).

The Removal Act disrupted Native American cultures but didn’t move the tribes far
enough or fast enough to stay out of the path of the ever-advancing non-American Indian
settlers. After the Civil War, settlers moved westward at an unprecedented pace. The
federal government negotiated with the many tribes but primarily enacted legislation
that affected them with minimal consultation. The government’s first priority was almost
always to allow the settlers to live and work regardless of Native American claims. Along
with the military defeat of the tribes, the federal government tried to limit the functions
of tribal leaders. If tribal institutions were weakened, it was felt, the Native Americans
would assimilate more rapidly.

The more significant federal actions that continue up to the present are summarized
in Table 6.2.

TABLE 6.2
Major Federal Policies

Year Policy Central Feature

1830 Removal Act Relocated Eastern tribes westward
1887 Allotment Act Subdivided tribal lands into individual household plots
1934 Reorganization Act Required tribes to develop election-based governments and

leaders
1934 Johnson-O’Malley Act Aided public school districts with Native American

enrollments
1946 Indian Claims Commission Adjudicated litigation by tribes against the federal

government
1952 Employment Assistance Program Relocated reservation people to urban areas for jobs
1953 Termination Act Closed reservations and their federal services
1971 Alaska Native Settlement Act Recognized legally the lands of tribal people
1974 Indian Financing Act Fostered economic development
1975 Indian Self-Determination and

Education Assistance Act
Increased involvement by tribal people and governments

1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Allowed states to negotiate gaming rights to reservations
1990 Native American Graves and

Repatriation Act
Returned Native remains to tribes with authentic claims

1990 Indian Arts and Crafts Act Monitored authenticity of crafts
1994 American Indian Religious

Freedom Act
Sought to protect tribal spirituality, including use of peyote

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142 Chapter 6 Native Americans: The First Americans

Southwest, Northwest, northern Great Plains, and Alaska. Fourteen states have at least
100,000 American Indian and Alaska Natives—Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado,
Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma,
Oregon, Texas, and Washington (Bureau of the Census 2013d; Norris, Vines, and
Hoeffel 2012).

Early European Contacts
Native Americans have been misunderstood and ill-treated by their conquerors for sev-
eral centuries. Assuming that he had reached the Indies, Christopher Columbus called
the native residents “people of India.” The European immigrants who followed Columbus
did not understand them any more than the Native Americans could have anticipated
the destruction of their way of life. But the Europeans had superior weaponry, and the
diseases they brought wiped out huge numbers of indigenous people throughout the
Western hemisphere.

The first explorers of the Western hemisphere came long before Columbus and Leif
Eriksson. The ancestors of today’s Native Americans were hunters in search of wild game,
including mammoths and long-horned bison. For thousands of years, these people
spread through the Western hemisphere, adapting to its many physical environments.
Hundreds of cultures evolved, including the complex societies of the Maya, Inca, and
Aztec (Deloria 1995, 2004).

It is beyond the scope of this chapter to describe the many tribal cultures of North
America, let alone the ways of life of Native Americans in Central and South America

Percentage of
Country Population

8.0 or more
3.0 to 7.9
1.5 to 2.9
Less than 1.5
American Indian/
Alaska Native Areas

U.S. percent 1.7

FIGURE 6.1
American Indian and Alaska Native Population

Source: Norris, Vines, and Hoeffel 2012: Figure 4 on p. 9.

Explore the Map Land Controlled by Native Americans, 1784 to Today

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Chapter 6 Native Americans: The First Americans 153

TABLE 6.3
Largest American Indian Groupings

Reservations
1. Navajo (AZ, NM, UT) 169,321
2. Pine Ridge (SO, NE) 16,906
3. Fort Apache (AZ) 13,014
4. Gila River (AZ) 11,251
5. Osage (OK) 9,920
6. San Carlos (AZ) 9,901
7. Rosebud (SD) 9,809
8. Tohono O’oodham (AZ) 9,278
9. Blackfeet (MT) 9,149
10. Flathead (MT) 9,138

Tribes
1. Navajo 286,731
2. Cherokee 284,247
3. Ojibwa/Chippewa 112,757
4. Sioux 112,176
5. Choctaw 103,916
6. Apache 63,193
7. Lumbee 62,306
8. Pueblo 49,695
9. Creek 48,352
10. Iroquois 40,570

Cities
1. New York City 111,749
2. Los Angeles 54,236
3. Phoenix 43,724
4. Oklahoma City 36,572
5. Anchorage 36,062
6. Tulsa 35,990
7. Albuquerque 32,571
8. Chicago 26,933
9. Houston 25,521
10. San Antonio 20,137

Source: 2010 Census in Norris, Vines, and Hoeffel 2012:
Tables 4, 6, 7

The most visible recent AIM activity has been its efforts to gain clem-
ency for one of its leaders, Leonard Peltier. Imprisoned since 1976,
Peltier was given two life sentences for murdering two FBI agents the
year before on the embattled Sioux reservation of Pine Ridge, South
Dakota. Fellow AIM leaders such as Dennis Banks organized a 1994
Walk for Justice to bring attention in Washington, DC, to the view that
Peltier is innocent. This view was supported in two 1992 movie releases:
the documentary Incident at Oglala, produced by Robert Redford; and
the more entertaining but fictionalized Thunderheart. To date, clem-
ency appeals to the president to lift the federal sentence have gone
unheeded, but this issue remains the rallying point for today’s remnants
of AIM (Matthiessen 1991; Sandage 2008).

Collective Action: An Overview
Protest activities have created a greater solidarity among Native
Americans as they seek solutions to common grievances with govern-
ment agencies. Research shows that tribal people born since the collec-
tive action efforts of the 1960s are more likely to reject negative and
stereotypic representations of American Indians than those born before
the self-determination efforts. Whether through moderate groups such
as the NCAI or the more activist AIM, these pan-Indian developments
have awakened Whites to the real grievances of Native Americans and
have garnered the begrudging acceptance of even the most conserva-
tive tribal members, who are more willing to cooperate with government
action (Schulz 1998).

However, the results of collective action have not all been productive,
even when viewed from a perspective sympathetic to Native American
self-determination. Plains tribes dominate the national organizations, not
only politically but also culturally. Powwow styles of dancing, singing, and
costuming derived from the Plains tradition are spreading nationwide as
common cultural traits (see Table 6.3 for the largest concentrations of
Native Americans).

The growing visibility of powwows is symbolic of Native Americans in
the 1990s. The phrase pau wau referred to the medicine man or spiri-
tual leader of the Algonquian tribes, but Europeans who watched medi-
cine men dance thought the word referred to entire events. Over the last
hundred years, powwows have evolved into gatherings in which Native
Americans of many tribes come to dance, sing, play music, and visit. More
recently, they have become organized events featuring competitions and
prizes at several thousand locations. The general public sees them as entertainment, but
for Native Americans, they are a celebration of their cultures (Eschbach and Applebaum
2000).

American Indian Identity
Today, American Indian identity occurs on two levels: macro and micro. At the macro
level is the recognition of tribes; at the micro level is how individuals view themselves as
American Indian and how this perception is recognized.

Sovereignty
Sovereignty in this context refers to tribal self-rule. Supported by every U.S. president
since the 1960s, sovereignty is recognition that tribes have vibrant economic and cultural
lives. At the same time, numerous legal cases, including many at the Supreme Court level,

M06_SCHA0995_14_SE_C06.indd 153 12/27/13 9:57 AM

Chapter 6 Native Americans: The First Americans 149

Americans, the federal government decided to lead the more highly motivated away from
the reservation. This policy has further devastated the reservations’ economic potential.

In 1952, the BIA began programs to relocate young Native Americans to urban areas.
One of these programs, after 1962, was called the Employment Assistance Program
(EAP). The EAP’s primary provision was for relocation, individually or in families, at
government expense, to urban areas where job opportunities were greater than those on
the reservations. The BIA stressed that the EAP was voluntary, but this was a fiction given
the lack of viable economic alternatives open to American Indians. The program was not
a success for the many Native Americans who found the urban experience unsuitable
or unbearable. By 1965, one-fourth to one-third of the people in the EAP had returned
to their home reservations. So great was the rate of return that in 1959 the BIA stopped
releasing data on the percentage of returnees, fearing that they would give too much
ammunition to critics of the EAP (Bahr 1972).

Cities have not proven to serve as a simple solution to Native American economic
growth. In Figure 6.3, we see an analysis released in 2013 by the Bureau of the Census
of the most recent data available. Nationally at the time White non-Hispanics had an
unemployment rate of 9.9 percent, but in each of the 20 cities with the largest Native
American population, unemployment levels were higher—ranging from a “low” of
10.6 percent in Anchorage to 50.9 percent in Rapid City, South Dakota. As desperate

0.0 10.0

Anchorage, AK

Mesa, AZ

Los Angeles, CA

Verden Town, OK

Oklahoma City, OK

Chicago, IL

Houston, TX

New York, NY

Albuquerque, NM

Tuba, AZ

San Antonio, TX

Phoenix, AZ

Denver, CO

Farmington, NM

Tuscon, AZ

Zuni Puebio, NM

Gallup, NM

Shiprock, NM

Minneapolis, MN

Rapid City, SD

Poverty Rates for the American Indian and Alaska Native Alone Population
in the 20 Cities Most Populated by this Group, 2007–2011 ACS

Below poverty: american indian and alaska native alone

20.0 30.0

Percent

40.0 50.0

White non-Hispanic

16.6

22.8

20.4

23.0

24.0

25.1

25.4

26.2

27.4

28.0

28.5

28.9

29.1

29.6

31.0

31.8

31.8

39.6

48.3

50.9

9.9

60.0

B

White non-HispanicW

FIGURE 6.3
American Indian Poverty Rates

Note: Data from American Community Survey for 2007–2011 for 20 cities most populated by American Indian and Alaska
Native Alone population. White non-Hispanic rate is for entire nation.

Source: Macartney, Bishaw, and Fontenot 2013: 10.

M06_SCHA0995_14_SE_C06.indd 149 12/27/13 9:57 AM

156 Chapter 6 Native Americans: The First Americans

represent a team about which they have positive feelings. For Native Americans, however,
the use of such mascots trivializes their past and their presence today. This at best
puzzles if not infuriates most Native people, who already face several challenges today.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), which oversees college athletics,
has asked colleges to “explain” their use of mascot names, nicknames, or logos such as
savages, braves, warriors, chieftains, redmen, and Indians, to name a few. In some cases,
the NCAA has already banned the appearance of students dressed as such mascots in
tournaments. Typically, college alumni and most students wonder what the fuss is about,
while most Native people question why they should be so “honored” if they don’t want to
be (NCAA 2003a, 2003b; Wieberg 2006).

Any discussion of Native American socioeconomic status today must begin with empha-
sizing the diversity of the people. Besides the variety of tribal heritages already noted, the
contemporary Native American population is split between those on and off reservations
and those who live in small towns or central cities. Life in these contrasting social envi-
ronments is quite different, but enough similarities exist to warrant some broad general-
izations on the status of Native Americans in the United States.

The sections that follow summarize the status of contemporary Native Americans in
economic development, education, healthcare, religious and spiritual expression, and
the environment.

Economic Development
Native Americans are an impoverished people. Even to the most casual observer of a
reservation, poverty is a living reality, not merely numbers and percentages. Some visitors
seem unconcerned, arguing that because Native Americans are used to hardship and
lived a simple life before the Europeans arrived, poverty is a familiar and traditional way
of life. In an absolute sense of dollars earned or quality of housing, Native Americans
are no worse off now. But in a relative sense that compares their position with that of
non-Indians, they are dismally behind on all standards of income and occupational
status. Bureau of Indian Affairs (2005) surveys show that overall unemployment is about
50 percent.

Given the lower incomes and higher poverty rates, it is not surprising that the occupa-
tional distribution of Native Americans is similarly bleak. Those who are employed are
less likely to be managers, professionals, technicians, salespeople, or administrators. This
pattern of low-wage employment is typical of many racial and ethnic minorities in the
United States, but Native Americans differ in three areas: their roles in tourism, casino
gambling, and government employment.

TABLE 6.4
A Snapshot: Native Americans

Total Population Native Americans

Average Family Size 3.17 3.62
Never Married 34.2% 44.2%
High School Graduates 85.0 76.6
College Graduates 27.9 13.0
Veterans 9.9 9.3
Born in United States 85.9% 93.0%
Unemployment Rate (2010) 5.1 12.9
Median Household Income $51, 914 $36,779
Families below Poverty Level 10.1% 22.1%

Source: American Community Survey 2006–2010 American Indian and Alaska Native Tables DP02 and
DP03 in Bureau of Census 2012f.

Read the Document
Names, Logos, Mascots, and

Flags: The Contradictory Uses of
Sport Symbols

M06_SCHA0995_14_SE_C06.indd 156 12/27/13 9:57 AM