+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Name (2) Parenting Styles.  Tell what are the Pro’s and Con’s in each style in raising an Adolescent. (focus on the teenage years) Answer this question only.   PLEASE** Use scientific research and facts to support the respond. I’ve uploaded some documents that might be helpful. Read  Pages 139-151.

Content Attribution
Except where expressly noted otherwise, the contents of this course are based on materials published in the
Open Course Library by Laura Overstreet. These materials were originally published freely under a Creative
Commons Attribution License (you can review the license at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). The
original version of the materials as published as Psyc 200 Lifespan Development may be accessed for free
at http://opencourselibrary.org/econ-201/.

Lifespan Development

Lifespan Development

Lumen Learning

Lifespan Development Copyright © 2017 by Lumen Learning.

CONTENTS

Module 1: Lifespan PsychologyModule 1: Lifespan Psychology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
• Introduction to Life Span, Growth and Development …………………………………………………………………………….. 5
• The Cohort Effect…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
• Culture …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
• Periods of Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
• Research Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
• Video: 49 Up …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
• Video: Meet Neil ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
• Lecture: Introduction to Life Span, Growth and Development ………………………………………………………………. 21
• PowerPoint: Introduction to Life Span Development …………………………………………………………………………… 25
• Discussion: Life Stages ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Module 2: Developmental TheoriesModule 2: Developmental Theories……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2727
• Introduction to Developmental Theories ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
• Psychodynamic Theory ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
• Psychosocial Theory………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
• Exploring Behavior…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
• Exploring Cognition………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
• Research Designs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
• Lecture Transcript: Developmental Theories……………………………………………………………………………………… 41
• Slideshow: Developmental Theories ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
• Essay: Lifespan Psychology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47

Module 3: Prenatal DevelopmentModule 3: Prenatal Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4848
• Introduction to Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth…………………………………………………………………… 48
• Prenatal Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
• Environmental Risks ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
• Pregnancy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
• Childbirth………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
• Maternal Mortality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
• Video: “Life’s Greatest Miracle” ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
• Lecture: Prenatal Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
• Slideshow: Prenatal Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
• Study Guide: Introduction and Prenatal Development…………………………………………………………………………. 68

Module 4: InfancyModule 4: Infancy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7070
• Introduction to Infancy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
• Physical Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
• Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
• Language Development………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
• Psychosocial Development and Attachment ……………………………………………………………………………………… 79
• Temperament ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
• Lecture: Infancy …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
• Slideshow: Infancy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86

Module 5: Early ChildhoodModule 5: Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8888
• Introduction to Early Childhood………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
• Physical Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
• Family Life ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

• Childhood Stress and Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
• Lecture: Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
• Slideshow: Early Childhood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
• Discussion: Labeling and Children …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
• Essay: Childhood…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107

Module 6: Middle ChildhoodModule 6: Middle Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108108
• Introduction to Middle Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
• Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
• Developmental Problems………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
• Learning and Intelligence………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 119
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
• Lecture: Middle Childhood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
• Slideshow: Middle Childhood…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
• Study Guide: Childhood………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
• Practice Test: Childhood……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136

Module 7: AdolescenceModule 7: Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 139139
• Introduction to Adolescense ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
• Social Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
• Lecture: Adolescence …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
• Slideshow: Adolescence……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151

Module 8: Early AdulthoodModule 8: Early Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152152
• Introduction to Early Adulthood………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
• Types of Love ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
• Activity: Love Attitude Scale ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
• Assignment: Love Styles ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
• Lecture: Early Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
• Slideshow: Early Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 173
• Essay Assignment: Adolescence and Early Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………… 174
• Study Guide: Adolescence and Early Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………. 174
• Practice Test: Adolescence and Early Adulthood……………………………………………………………………………… 175

Module 9: Middle AdulthoodModule 9: Middle Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178178
• Introduction to Middle Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 181
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
• Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
• Work and Personality……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
• Lecture: Middle Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
• Slideshow: Middle Adulthood…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198

Module 10: Late AdulthoodModule 10: Late Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199199
• Introduction to Late Adulthood……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
• Physical Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
• Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 210
• Psychosocial Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 211

• Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
• Listen: Treating Delirium……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
• Lecture: Late Adulthood………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
• Slideshare: Late Adulthood……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
• Additional Links……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221

Module 11: Death and DyingModule 11: Death and Dying ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222222
• Introduction to Death and Dying …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
• Most Common Causes of Death…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
• The Process of Dying …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
• Five Stages of Loss ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
• Palliative Care and Hospice…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
• Euthanasia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
• Bereavement and Grief…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
• Lecture: Death and Dying ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
• Slideshow: Death and Dying………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235
• Additional Links……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
• Essay: Middle and Late Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
• Study Guide: Middle and Late Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
• Practice Test: Middle and Late Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 237

MODULE 1: LIFESPAN PSYCHOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO LIFE SPAN, GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT

Learning Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

1. Explain the study of human development.
2. Define physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development.
3. Differentiate periods of human development.
4. Analyze your own location in the life span.
5. Judge the most and least preferable age groups with which to work.
6. Contrast social classes with respect to life chances.
7. Explain the meaning of social cohort.
8. Critique stage theory models of human development.
9. Define culture and ethnocentrism and describe ways that culture impacts development.

10. Explain the reasons scientific methods are more objective than personal knowledge.
11. Contrast qualitative and quantitative approaches to research.
12. Compare research methods noting the advantages and disadvantages of each.
13. Differentiate between independent and dependent variables.

Welcome to life span, growth and development. This is the
study of how and why people change or remain the same over
time.

This course is commonly referred to as the “womb to tomb”
course because it is the story of our journeys from conception to
death. Human development is the study of how we change over
time. Although this course is often offered in psychology, this is
a very interdisciplinary course. Psychologists, nutritionists,
sociologists, anthropologists, educators, and health
care professionals all contribute to our knowledge of the life
span.

We will look at how we change physically over time from early
development through aging and death. We examine cognitive
change, or how our ability to think and remember changes
over time. We look at how our concerns and psychological state
is influenced by age and finally, how our social relationships
change throughout life.
There are several goals of those involved in this discipline:

1. Describing changeDescribing change-many of the studies we will examine simply involve the first step in investigation, which
is description. Arnold Gesell’s study on infant motor skills, for example.

2. Explaining changesExplaining changes is another goal. Theories provide explanations for why we change over time. For
example, Erikson offers an explanation about why our two-year-old is temperamental.

Think about how you were 5, 10, or even 15 years ago. In what ways have you changed? In what ways have
you remained the same? You have probably changed physically; perhaps you’ve grown taller and become
heavier. But you may have also experienced changes in the way you think and solve
problems. Cognitive change is noticeable when we compare how 6 year olds, 16 year olds, and 46 year olds
think and reason, for example. Their thoughts about others and the world are probably quite different. Consider
friendship for instance. The 6 year old may think that a friend is someone with whom you can play and have fun.
A 16 year old may seek friends who can help them gain status or popularity. And the 46 year old may have
acquaintances, but rely more on family members to do things with and confide in. You may have also
experienced psychosocial change. This refers emotions and psychological concerns as well as social
relationships. Psychologist Erik Erikson suggests that we struggle with issues of independence, trust, and
intimacy at various points in our lives. (We will explore this thoroughly throughout the course.)

Our journeys through life are more than biological; they are shaped by culture, history, economic and political
realities as much as they are influenced by physical change. This is a very interesting and practical course
because it is about us and those with whom we live and work. One of the best ways to gain perspective on our
own lives is to compare our experiences with that of others. By periodically making cross-cultural and historical
comparisons and by presenting a variety of views on issues such as healthcare, aging, education, gender and
family roles, I hope to give you many eyes with which to see your own development. This occurs frequently in the
classroom as students from a variety of cultural backgrounds discuss their interpretations of developmental tasks
and concerns. I hope to recreate this rich experience as much as possible in this text. So, for example, we will
discuss current concerns about the nutrition of children in the United States (for a middle-class boy of 11 years
who is 130 pounds overweight and suffering with Pediatric Type II diabetes) as well as malnutrition experienced
by children in Ethiopia as a result of drought. Being self-conscious can enhance our ability to think critically about
the systems we live in and open our eyes to new courses of action to benefit the quality of life. And knowing about
other people and their circumstances can help us live and work with them more effectively. An appreciation of
diversity enhances the social skills needed in nursing, education, or any other field.

New Assumptions and UnderstandingsNew Assumptions and Understandings

I took my first graduate course in life span over 20 years ago. Much time was spent on the period of childhood,
less on adolescence, and very little attention was given to adulthood. The message was clear: once you are 25,
your development is essentially completed. Our academic knowledge of the life span has changed and although
there is still less research on adulthood than on childhood, adulthood is gaining increasing attention. This is
particularly true now that the large cohort known as the baby boomers are beginning to enter late
adulthood. There is so much we need to find out about love, housing, health, nutrition, exercise, social, and
emotional development with this large group. (Visit your local bookstore or search the internet and you will find
many new titles in the self-help and psychology sections that address this population.)

I was also introduced to the theories of Freud, Erikson, and Piaget, the classic stage theorists whose models
depict development as occurring in a series of predictable stages. Stage theories had a certain appeal to an
American culture experiencing dramatic change in the early part of the 20th century. But that sense of security
was not without its costs; those who did not develop in predictable ways were often thought of as delayed or
abnormal. And Freudian interpretations of problems in childhood development, such as autism, held that such
difficulties were in response to poor parenting. Imagine the despair experienced by mothers accused of causing
their child’s autism by being cold and unloving. It was not until the 1960s that more medical explanations of
autism began to replace Freudian assumptions.

Freud and Piaget present a series of stages that essentially end during adolescence. For Freud, we enter the
genital stage in which much of our motivation is focused on sex and reproduction and this stage continues
through adulthood. Piaget’s fourth stage, formal operational thought, begins in adolescence and continues
through adulthood. Again, neither of these theories highlights developmental changes during adulthood. Erikson,
however, presents eight developmental stages that encompass the entire lifespan. For that reason, Erikson is

known as the “father” of developmental psychology and his psychosocial theory will form the foundation for much
of our discussion of psychosocial development.

Today we are more aware of the variations in development and the impact that culture and the environment have
on shaping our lives. We no longer assume that those who develop in predictable ways are normal and those
who do not are abnormal. And the assumption that early childhood experiences dictate our future is also being
called into question. Rather, we have come to appreciate that growth and change continues throughout life and
experience continues to have an impact on who we are and how we relate to others. And we recognize that
adulthood is a dynamic period of life marked by continued cognitive, social, and psychological development.

Who Studies Human Development?Who Studies Human Development?

Many academic disciplines contribute to the study of life span and this course is offered in some schools as
psychology; in other …

Boundless Lecture Slides

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.comAvailable on the Boundless Teaching Platform

Using Boundless Presentations

The Appendix

The appendix is for you to use to add depth and

breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and

drop slides from the appendix into the main

presentation to make for a richer lecture

experience.

Free to edit, share, and copy

Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies

of the Boundless presentations as you like. We

encourage you to take these presentations and

make them your own.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Boundless Teaching

Platform
Boundless empowers educators to engage their students

with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive

teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform

gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in

more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular

titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books,

or make switching to our platform easier by building from

Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned

textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they

need to assign readings and assessments, monitor

student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made

teaching resources.

Get started now at:

If you have any questions or problems please email:

[email protected]

http://boundless.com/teaching-platform

Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and

accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational

content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless

integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently

at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to

engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools

as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free

and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its

website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with

Boundless, visit boundless.com.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

About Boundless

• Physical Development in Adolescence

• Cognitive Development in Adolescence

• Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

• Cultural and Societal Influences on Adolescent Development

Adolescence

Human Development > Adolescence

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

www.boundless.com/psychology

• Some of the most significant parts of pubertal development involve distinctive

physiological changes in an individual’s height, weight, body composition, and

circulatory and respiratory systems.These changes are largely influenced by

hormonal activity.

• Puberty is the stage in life in which a child develops secondary sex characteristics

(such as a deeper voice in boys; and development of breasts, and more curved

and prominent hips in girls), as his or her hormonal balance shifts strongly

towards an adult state.

• Girls usually complete puberty by ages 15 to 17, and boys usually complete

puberty by ages 16 to 17.Girls attain reproductive maturity about four years after

the first physical changes of puberty appear.

• The first places to grow are the extremities (head, hands, and feet), followed by

the arms and legs, then the torso and shoulders.This non-uniform growth is one

reason why an adolescent body may seem out of proportion.

• Primary sex characteristics are those directly related to the sex organs, whereas

secondary sex characteristics include every change that is not directly related to

sexual reproduction.

Physical Development in Adolescence

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/human-development-14/adolescence-73/physical-development-in-

adolescence-282-12817

Puberty

View on Boundless.com

Human Development > Adolescence

• Jean Piaget describes adolescence as the stage of life in which the individual’s

thoughts start taking more of an abstract form, and egocentric thoughts

decrease.This allows an individual to think and reason in a wider perspective.

• The constructivist view, based on the work of Piaget, takes a quantitative, state-

theory approach, hypothesizing that adolescents’ cognitive improvement is

relatively sudden and drastic.

• The information-processing perspective derives from the study of artificial

intelligence and attempts to explain cognitive development in terms of the growth

of specific components of the thinking process.

• The final stage of Piaget’s developmental theory is the formal operational stage.It

marks a movement from an ability to think and reason from concrete visible

events, to an ability to think hypothetically, and to entertain ‘what-if’ possibilities

about the world.

• Metacognition is relevant in social cognition, resulting in increased introspection,

self-consciousness, and intellectualization.Adolescents are more likely to question

others’ assertions, and less likely to accept facts as absolute truths.

Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/human-development-14/adolescence-73/cognitive-development-in-

adolescence-283-12818

Jean Piaget

View on Boundless.com

Human Development > Adolescence

• Adolescents must explore, test limits, become autonomous, and commit to an

identity, or sense of self.

• Early in adolescence, cognitive developments result in greater self-awareness;

greater awareness of others, and their thoughts and judgments; the ability to think

about abstract, future possibilities; and the ability to consider multiple possibilities

at once.

• Differentiation occurs as an adolescent recognizes the contextual influences on

his or her own behavior and the perceptions of others, and begins to qualify

personal traits.

• Unlike the conflicting aspects of self-concept, identity represents a coherent

sense of self stable across circumstances and inclusive of past experiences and

future goals.

• Self-esteem is one’s thoughts and feelings about one’s self-concept and identity.

• When an adolescent has advanced cognitive development and maturity, he or

she tends to resolve identity issues more so than peers who are less cognitively

developed.

Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/human-development-14/adolescence-73/socioemotional-

development-in-adolescence-284-12819

Identity

View on Boundless.com

Human Development > Adolescence

• When children go through puberty, there is often a significant increase in parent-

child conflict, and a less cohesive familial bond.

• As children begin to gain bonds with various people, they start to form friendships,

which can be beneficial to development.Strong peer groups are especially

important during adolescence when parental supervision decreases and

interaction with peers increases.

• Culture is learned and socially shared and affects all aspects of an individual’s

life.Social responsibilities, sexual expression, and belief system development are

all things that are likely to vary by culture.

• Peer groups offer members the opportunity to develop social skills but can also

have negative influences via peer pressure.

• Often, crowd identities may be the basis for stereotyping young people, such as

jocks or nerds.In large, multi-ethnic high schools, there are often ethnically-

determined crowds as well.

• Culture is learned and socially shared, and it affects all aspects of an individual’s

life.Social responsibilities, sexual expression, and belief system development, for

instance, are all likely to vary based on culture.

Cultural and Societal Influences on Adolescent Development

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/human-development-14/adolescence-73/cultural-and-societal-

influences-on-adolescent-development-285-12820

The parent-child relationship

View on Boundless.com

Human Development > Adolescence

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Appendix

Key terms

• adolescence The transitional period of physical and psychological development between childhood and maturity.

• differentiation The act of distinguishing or describing a thing, by giving its different, or specific difference; exact definition or

determination.

• egocentrism The constant following of one’s egotistical desires to an extreme, usually involving a severe lack of extroverted

tendencies.

• gonad A sex organ that produces gametes; specifically, a testicle or ovary.

• introspection A looking inward; the act or process of self-examination, or inspection of one’s own thoughts and feelings; the

cognition which the mind has of its own acts and states; self-consciousness.

• mnemonic device Any specific learning technique that aids information retention.

• peer pressure encouragement by others in one’s age group to act or behave in a certain way.

• precocious Characterized by exceptionally early development or maturity.

• prefrontal cortex The anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas; a part of the

brain associated with higher cognition

• puberty The age at which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction

• puberty The age at which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction

• self-esteem confidence in one’s own worth; self-respect

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

Identity

Adolescence is the period of life between the onset of puberty and the full commitment to an adult social role.It is the period known for the formation of

personal and social identity.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

WordPress. “Personal Identity | Bodhi Leaf.” License: Other http://bodhileaf.wordpress.com/2010/01/12/personal-identity/ View on Boundless.com

Human Development

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget describes adolescence as the stage of life in which the individual’s thoughts start taking more of an abstract form, and egocentric thoughts

decrease.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Wikipedia. “Jean Piaget.” GNU FDL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget View on Boundless.com

Human Development

Community

Culture is learned and socially shared, and it affects all aspects of an individual’s life.Social responsibilities, sexual expression, and belief system

development, for instance, are all things that are likely to vary by culture.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Wikipedia. “Community.” GNU FDL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community View on Boundless.com

Human Development

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development includes four stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Wikispaces. “mcmETEC5303 – My Stance on Educational Technology, by Jean Piaget.” CC BY

http://mcmetec5303.wikispaces.com/My+Stance+on+Educational+Technology,+by+Jean+Piaget View on Boundless.com

Human Development

The parent-child relationship

When children go through puberty, there is often a significant increase in parent-child conflict, and a less cohesive familial bond.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Wikipedia. “Parents.” GNU FDL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parents View on Boundless.com

Human Development

Puberty

Girls usually complete puberty by ages 15 to 17, and boys usually complete puberty by ages 16 to 17.Girls attain reproductive maturity about four years

after the first physical changes of puberty appear.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Wikipedia. “Adolescence.” GNU FDL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescence View on Boundless.com

Human Development

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

What change(s) occur during puberty?

A) There is increased hair growth in certain parts of the body

B) Puberty is a time of increased strength and endurance

C) All of these answers

D) Hormones signal the body to grow faster

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Saylor OER. “Psychology « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors.” CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Psychology/

Human Development

What change(s) occur during puberty?

A) There is increased hair growth in certain parts of the body

B) Puberty is a time of increased strength and endurance

C) All of these answers

D) Hormones signal the body to grow faster

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

Which of the following is a reason adolescents feel that they are

invincible?

A) Personal fable

B) Abstraction

C) Scientific thinking

D) Imaginary audience

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Boundless – LO. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/

Human Development

Which of the following is a reason adolescents feel that they are

invincible?

A) Personal fable

B) Abstraction

C) Scientific thinking

D) Imaginary audience

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

The behavior of an adolescent will most likely be guided by:

A) Peer influence

B) Parental conflict

C) Religious beliefs

D) Cognitive skills

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Boundless – LO. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/

Human Development

The behavior of an adolescent will most likely be guided by:

A) Peer influence

B) Parental conflict

C) Religious beliefs

D) Cognitive skills

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

Young adolescents are most likely to identify what as their main

identity source?

A) Social aspects

B) Gender

C) Race

D) Sports played

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Boundless – LO. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/

Human Development

Young adolescents are most likely to identify what as their main

identity source?

A) Social aspects

B) Gender

C) Race

D) Sports played

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

What characterizes the parent-teen relationship during

adolescence?

A) The frequency and intensity of parent-teen conflict is high.

B) Parent relationships are generally undermined by peer relationships.

C) Although peer influence grows, parents continue to be the most

influential in the life of teens.

D) Teens report having religious, political, and general beliefs very

different from their parents.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Saylor OER. “Psychology « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors.” CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Psychology/

Human Development

What characterizes the parent-teen relationship during

adolescence?

A) The frequency and intensity of parent-teen conflict is high.

B) Parent relationships are generally undermined by peer relationships.

C) Although peer influence grows, parents continue to be the most

influential in the life of teens.

D) Teens report having religious, political, and general beliefs very

different from their parents.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

How do peer friendships in adolescence differ from those in

childhood?

A) Friendships tend to be more complex and teenagers tend to have

multiple layers of friend groups.

B) Friendships tend to be more dynamic and subject to change.

C) Friendships tend to be more complex and teenagers tend to have

multiple layers of friend groups, AND friendships tend to be more

dynamic and subject to change.

D) Teenagers tend to have friends dissimilar to themselves in terms of

gender, age and interests.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Saylor OER. “Psychology « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors.” CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Psychology/

Human Development

How do peer friendships in adolescence differ from those in

childhood?

A) Friendships tend to be more complex and teenagers tend to have

multiple layers of friend groups.

B) Friendships tend to be more dynamic and subject to change.

C) Friendships tend to be more complex and teenagers tend to have

multiple layers of friend groups, AND friendships tend to be more

dynamic and subject to change.

D) Teenagers tend to have friends dissimilar to themselves in terms of

gender, age and interests.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

An adolescent is most likely to experience high self-esteem when:

A) They have a good relationship with their parents.

B) All of these answers.

C) They have not been rejected by their peers.

D) They have at least one close friendship.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Boundless – LO. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/

Human Development

An adolescent is most likely to experience high self-esteem when:

A) They have a good relationship with their parents.

B) All of these answers.

C) They have not been rejected by their peers.

D) They have at least one close friendship.

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

Which of the following describes a behavior from Piaget’s formal

operational stage of development?

A) Hypothetical thinking

B) Abstract reasoning

C) Both hypothetical thinking and abstract reasoning

D) Neither hypothetical thinking nor abstract reasoning

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Boundless – LO. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/

Human Development

Which of the following describes a behavior from Piaget’s formal

operational stage of development?

A) Hypothetical thinking

B) Abstract reasoning

C) Both hypothetical thinking and abstract reasoning

D) Neither hypothetical thinking nor abstract reasoning

Attribution

• Wikipedia. “Developmental psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developmental_psychology#Adolescence

• Wikipedia. “Adolescent psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescent_psychology#Biological_development

• Wiktionary. “gonad.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gonad

• Wiktionary. “puberty.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/puberty

• Wiktionary. “precocious.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/precocious

• Wikipedia. “Adolescent psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescent_psychology#Biological_development

• Wikipedia. “Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.” CC BY-SA 3.0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaget%2527s_theory_of_cognitive_development#Formal_operational_stage

• Wikipedia. “Cognitive development.” CC BY-SA 3.0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_development#Formal_operational_stage

• Wikipedia. “Adolescent psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescent_psychology#Cognitive_development

• Wiktionary. “egocentrism.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/egocentrism

• Wiktionary. “introspection.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/introspection

• Wikipedia. “mnemonic device.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/mnemonic+device

• Wiktionary. “prefrontal cortex.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/prefrontal+cortex

• Wikipedia. “Developmental psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developmental_psychology#Adolescence

• Wikipedia. “Identity formation.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_formation

• Wikipedia. “Adolescent psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescent_psychology#Identity_development

• Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//management/definition/differentiationFree to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development

• Wiktionary. “self-esteem.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/self-esteem

• Wikipedia. “Identity formation.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_formation

• Wikipedia. “Adolescent psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescent_psychology

• Wikipedia. “Adolescent psychology.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescent_psychology

• Wikipedia. “peer pressure.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/peer+pressure

• Wiktionary. “adolescence.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/adolescence

• Wiktionary. “puberty.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/puberty

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

Human Development