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Overview

In this discussion, we will explore some of the most important characteristics and events of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Europe.

Instructions

Select one (only one!) topic from the below and write a response to the prompt by the initial post due date.

Option 1: Using at least two sources (primary or secondary sources) as evidence, explain what you believe to be the most important of Charlemagne’s reforms and why. You may focus on any aspect – military, monetary, political, cultural, or ecclesiastical – but choose only one.

Option 2: Based on at least one primary and one secondary source (not your e-text) pretend you are a resident of the High or Late Middle Ages (1000 – 1500 CE). Be gender specific and clearly identify your class (Estate). Write a description of your typical day and explain how you interact with the other Estates. (Note: You must include ALL three Estates in your description for full credit). Identify major historical events (with supporting evidence) that have impacted or transformed your life. Finally, make sure you identify your geographical location (i.e. England, France) and approximate year in your description.

Option 3: Based on evidence from at least one primary and one secondary source, assume the role of an ordinary individual (i.e. not a famous artist or politician) in Italy during the 15th century and compose a post that introduces yourself, your role, and then answers the following question: What do you believe are the most important factors of the Italian Renaissance and why?

  • Consider the cultural, economic, political and social changes in your story. For example, if you were a woman in Renaissance Florence, what factors of the Italian Renaissance would be most important to you and why?

Make sure you use evidence from the sources and source types noted in your prompt to support your points. You may use sources other than those found in Recommended Resources, but you should write at least 300 words in your response.

Reply to at least two other students’ posts with substantive responses of at least 100 – 150 words, and be sure to reply to your instructor.

INSTRUCTOR:  Judy (INSTRUCTOR)

“Hello Class,

In this episode of Inside the Medieval Mind, Professor Robert Bartlett takes a closer look at the medieval class system, especially the role of the nobility. What were the three estates, or levels, of the medieval class system?”

Module 4 Web Resources Page.html

Module 4: Web Resources Page

Suggested Readings and Resources:

The following are a list tertiary sources to assist you in our class. These sources may help you dive deeper into the content. Many of them contain links to primary and secondary sources that can help you answer the discussion questions. You do not have to read all the suggested readings, and you may search for other sources to help with your discussions, but always be sure to use a mix of sources to support your points.

General Resources

The British Library. Turning the Pages. The British Library. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/virtualbooks/index.html.

Fordham University. Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. Accessed March 27, 2020. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/sbook.asp.

Fordham University. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/modsbook.asp.

Georgetown University. The Labyrinth: Resources for Medieval Studies. Georgetown University. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://blogs.commons.georgetown.edu/labyrinth/.

The Met. “Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.” The Met. Accessed March 15, 2020. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/.

Victoria University. Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies. University of Toronto. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://crrs.ca.

Americas

Archeology News Network. “2,000-Year Old Burial of Maya Queen Discovered.” Archeology News Network. September 25, 2011. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2011/09/2000-year-old-burial-of-maya-queen.html#.UjtlJ7xQ1D9.

Europe

BBC. Middle Ages. BBC. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/.

BBC. Normans. BBC. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/.

Bie, Søren. Jeanne d’arc la pucelle. 1997. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.jeanne-darc.info.

Henry Ransom Center. The Gutenberg Bible. University of Texas. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.hrc.utexas.edu/gutenberg-bible/

Magna Carta. US National Archives Exhibits. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured-documents/magna-carta.

Nelson, Lynn Harry. “The Hundred Years’ War, 1336 – 1453: Lectures in Medieval History.” University of Kansas. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.vlib.us/medieval/lectures/hundred_years_war.html.

Oxford University. “The Post-Roman West.” Oxford Centre for Late Antiquity. Accessed May 18, 2020. https://www.ocla.ox.ac.uk/the-post-roman-west.

University of Rochester. The Camelot Project. University of Rochester. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot-project.

University of Rochester. The Robin Hood Project. University of Rochester. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://d.lib.rochester.edu/robin-hood.

The Renaissance

Renaissance Secrets Team. “OU on the BBC: Renaissance Secrets.” The Open University. Last Updated September 1, 2005. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.open.edu/openlearn/whats-on/ou-on-the-bbc-renaissance-secrets.

PBS. Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. PBS. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.pbs.org/empires/medici/.

PBS. “Mona Lisa.” Treasures of the World. PBS. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.pbs.org/treasuresoftheworld/a_nav/mona_nav/mnav_level_1/3technique_monafrm.html.

Web Gallery of Art. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.wga.hu/index.html.

European Empires

BBC. “How the Tudor Dynasty Shaped Modern Britain.” BBC: Teach. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.bbc.co.uk/teach/how-the-tudor-dynasty-shaped-modern-britain/zrhdbdm.

PBS. Conquistadores. PBS. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.pbs.org/conquistadors/.

RGriffith. “Columbus and the Age of Discovery.” Millersville University. Last Modified January 31, 2011. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://wiki.millersville.edu/display/HIST/Columbus+and+the+Age+of+Discovery.

Image Galleries

Barbar, Richard. “The Legend of the Holy Grail.” BBC. Last Updated February 17, 2011. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/hg_gallery.shtml.

“Leonardo da Vinci.” Web Gallery of Art. BBC. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/l/leonardo/index.html.

MacLeod, Dave. “The Bayeaux Tapestry: Unpicking the Past.” BBC. Last Updated February 17, 2011. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/bayeux_tapestry_gallery.shtml.

“Michelangelo Buonarroti.” Web Gallery of Art. BBC. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/m/michelan/index.html.

“Raffaello Sanzio.” Web Gallery of Art. BBC. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/r/raphael/index.html.

Games and Other Fun Stuff

BBC. “The Battle of Hastings Game.” BBC. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/launch_gms_battle_hastings.shtml.

BBC. “Viking Quest.” BBC. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/launch_gms_viking_quest.shtml .

“Coloring Pages Middle Ages.” Edupics. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.edupics.com/coloring-pages-middle-ages-c134.html.

Eakins, Lara. “Food and Drink.” TudorHistory.org. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://tudorhistory.org/links/food.html.

Wendelken, David and Rebecca. Gode Cookery. Accessed March 31, 2020. http://www.godecookery.com/godeboke/godeboke.htm.

PEER 1: Samantha Davis (RESPOND TO BOTH PEERS OF 150 WORDS EACH)

My name is Fiammetta de Monte and today is June 12, 1378. I live in the city of Florence, Italy with my family. We are survivors. We survived the Great Famine that wiped out our agricultural economy with unseasonably warm weather and livestock disease (Aberth). Even more recently we have survived a pandemic, the likes of which we had never seen.  The Black Death Plague decimated this city, and every city near us. We have struggled every day since then to recover our once grand city to its rightful glory. I am a wool maker by trade, but recently the city has been taxing our work to the point that it has put me out of business. As a result, I have been doing whatever I need to feed my family. While at the local tavern last week, I got to talking to a fellow former wool maker about rebelling against the taxation. I am considering joining forces with them and fighting back. There is an old idea I’ve heard has resurfaced and is floating around lately that I find very important to today, that is humanism. This is the thought that human beings that make up our civilization are of the utmost importance. That there is an inherent value and goodness to all of us (Ruggiero). With half of the workforce than we previously had, we should be more valuable than ever, but get treated like slaves. Demanding that our leaders use human logic to solve human problems, and challenge them to be more empathetic to our plight. 

References

Aberth, John. From the Brink of the Apocalypse Confronting Famine, War, Plague and Death in the Later Middle Ages. Taylor and Francis, 2013. 

Ruggiero, Guido. The Renaissance in Italy: A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento. Cambridge University Press, 2015.

PEER 2: Sarah Svenson

Throughout Charlemagne’s rule from 768 to 814 CE he established many important reforms in the Carolingian Empire. Though he made important steps in education, religion, and military, his most important work was that in his administration and political power. He had complete control over all his territories, leading in judicial matters, laws, military, and offered aid to the church and the poor. (McLean) This was to organize figures of power surrounding him. His next moves were in legislation in particular, reforming “…the local system of administering justice and created the scabini, professional experts on law. Every count had the help of seven of these scabini, who were supposed to know every national law so that all men could be judged according to it.” (McLean) Scabini are a cruder version of the judges we have in today’s legal courts. These advancements in judicial systems formed a common ground for judicial systems in other empires to expand upon. Next on Charlemagne’s list of reforms was in ruling his territories, in which “Charlemagne introduced administrative reforms throughout the lands he controlled, establishing key representatives in each region…” (BBC) These lands were separated into 3 distinct regions. The first was ruled directly by Charlemagne; the second was administrated by the counts; the third were under command of governors appointed by Charlemagne. Dividing his territory made it easier for him to rule. One final important step in his political reforms was an annual meeting in his court at Aachen. It was called to discuss politics, religious campaigns, and to declare judgements. (McLean) This annual meeting continues even today in legislative systems, as it is mandated that the U.S. Congress must meet once a year to discuss similar albeit more modern issues and judicial matters. Charlemagne’s political and administrative reforms lasted far longer than just his life and empire, making an impact in today’s societies.

 

Works Cited

“History – Charlemagne.” BBC, BBC, https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charlemagne.shtml.

McLean, John. “Western Civilization.” LumenLearning, Lumen, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-herkimer-westerncivilization/chapter/charlemagnes-reforms/.

PEER 1:

Samantha Davis

(RESPO

ND TO BOTH PEERS OF 150 WORDS EACH)

My name is Fiammetta de Monte a

nd today is June 12, 1378. I live in the city of Florence, Italy with my

family. We are survivors. We survived the Great Famine that wiped out our agricultural economy with

unseasonably warm weather and livestock disease (Aberth). Even more recently we hav

e survived a

pandemic, the likes of which we had never seen.

The Black Death Plague decimated this city, and every

city near us. We have struggled every day since then to recover our once grand city to its rightful glory. I

am a wool maker by trade, but r

ecently the city has been taxing our work to the point that it has put me

out of business. As a result, I have been doing whatever I need to feed my family. While at the local

tavern last week, I got to talking to a fellow former wool maker about rebelling

against the taxation. I am

considering joining forces with them and fighting back. There is an old idea I’ve heard has resurfaced

and is floating around lately that I find very important to today, that is humanism. This is the thought

that human beings th

at make up our civilization are of the utmost importance. That there is an inherent

value and goodness to all of us (Ruggiero). With half of the workforce than we previously had, we should

be more valuable than ever, but get treated like slaves. Demanding

that our leaders use human logic to

solve human problems, and challenge them to be more empathetic to our plight.

References

Aberth, John. From the Brink of the Apocalypse Confronting Famine, War, Plague and Death in the Later

Middle Ages. Taylor and Fran

cis, 2013.

Ruggiero, Guido. The Renaissance in Italy: A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento. Cambridge

University Press, 2015.

PEER 2:

Sarah Svenson

Throughout Charlemagne’s rule from 768 to 814 CE he established

many important reforms in the

Carolingian Empire. Though he made important steps in education, religion, and military, his most

important work was that in his administration and political power. He had complete control over all his

territories, leading in

judicial matters, laws, military, and offered aid to the church and the poor.

(McLean) This was to organize figures of power surrounding him. His next moves were in legislation in

particular, reforming “…the local system of administering justice and create

d the

scabini, professional

experts on law. Every count had the help of seven of these

scabini, who were supposed to know every

national law so that all men could be judged according to it.” (McLean) Scabini are a cruder version of

the judges we have in to

day’s legal courts. These advancements in judicial systems formed a common

ground for judicial systems in other empires to expand upon. Next on Charlemagne’s list of reforms was

in ruling his territories, in which “Charlemagne introduced administrative ref

orms throughout the

lands

he controlled, establishing key representatives in each region…” (BBC) These lands were separated

into 3 distinct regions. The first was ruled directly by Charlemagne; the second was administrated by the

counts; the third were und

er command of governors appointed by Charlemagne. Dividing his territory

PEER 1: Samantha Davis (RESPOND TO BOTH PEERS OF 150 WORDS EACH)

My name is Fiammetta de Monte and today is June 12, 1378. I live in the city of Florence, Italy with my

family. We are survivors. We survived the Great Famine that wiped out our agricultural economy with

unseasonably warm weather and livestock disease (Aberth). Even more recently we have survived a

pandemic, the likes of which we had never seen. The Black Death Plague decimated this city, and every

city near us. We have struggled every day since then to recover our once grand city to its rightful glory. I

am a wool maker by trade, but recently the city has been taxing our work to the point that it has put me

out of business. As a result, I have been doing whatever I need to feed my family. While at the local

tavern last week, I got to talking to a fellow former wool maker about rebelling against the taxation. I am

considering joining forces with them and fighting back. There is an old idea I’ve heard has resurfaced

and is floating around lately that I find very important to today, that is humanism. This is the thought

that human beings that make up our civilization are of the utmost importance. That there is an inherent

value and goodness to all of us (Ruggiero). With half of the workforce than we previously had, we should

be more valuable than ever, but get treated like slaves. Demanding that our leaders use human logic to

solve human problems, and challenge them to be more empathetic to our plight.

References

Aberth, John. From the Brink of the Apocalypse Confronting Famine, War, Plague and Death in the Later

Middle Ages. Taylor and Francis, 2013.

Ruggiero, Guido. The Renaissance in Italy: A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento. Cambridge

University Press, 2015.

PEER 2: Sarah Svenson

Throughout Charlemagne’s rule from 768 to 814 CE he established many important reforms in the

Carolingian Empire. Though he made important steps in education, religion, and military, his most

important work was that in his administration and political power. He had complete control over all his

territories, leading in judicial matters, laws, military, and offered aid to the church and the poor.

(McLean) This was to organize figures of power surrounding him. His next moves were in legislation in

particular, reforming “…the local system of administering justice and created the scabini, professional

experts on law. Every count had the help of seven of these scabini, who were supposed to know every

national law so that all men could be judged according to it.” (McLean) Scabini are a cruder version of

the judges we have in today’s legal courts. These advancements in judicial systems formed a common

ground for judicial systems in other empires to expand upon. Next on Charlemagne’s list of reforms was

in ruling his territories, in which “Charlemagne introduced administrative reforms throughout the

lands he controlled, establishing key representatives in each region…” (BBC) These lands were separated

into 3 distinct regions. The first was ruled directly by Charlemagne; the second was administrated by the

counts; the third were under command of governors appointed by Charlemagne. Dividing his territory