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Part 1:

How are family, culture, and diversity portrayed in the Media?- This assignment aims to examine diversity, culture, family carefully, etc., behavior as portrayed in the media using the knowledge they have gained throughout the course. This activity asks you to analyze a representative sampling of TV programs portraying families, following the guidelines below.

Observe the two families from GEORGE LOPEZ & FRESH PRINCE OF BEL-AIR and prepare a PowerPoint presentation. The PowerPoint presentation should include a minimum of 10 slides. 

Part 2:

Submit a 1-page (double spaced) summary of what you have learned about how culture/diversity/families are portrayed in the media and a summary of your family selections. You must also use a minimum of 2 references (you may include your textbook). Connections from portrayals in the show should be related to the information presented in the textbook or other resources. APA format is required. 

***A more thorough explanation and a rubric are available in the google doc attached***

Individual, Family, and Community Project

Assignment – Media Project- How is family, culture, and diversity portrayed in the Media?

The purpose of this assignment is for students to carefully examine diversity, culture, family, etc. behavior as portrayed in the media using the knowledge you have gained throughout the course. This activity asks you to analyze a representative sampling of TV programs with portraying families, following the guidelines below.

Each student will select two families portrayed in the media (television, movies, etc.).


Families should be of different racial backgrounds, meaning you should have one family from one racial background and the other from a different racial background. You will observe these two families and prepare a PowerPoint presentation. The PowerPoint presentation should include a minimum of 10 slides. You should include pictures, videos, etc.

1- Background information on the show/movie (when did the show air – years, time of day/day of the week, etc., who created the show, etc.)

2- Why you selected the families/shows that were chosen? What other shows were considered and why did you choose the shows for your project?

3- Who is included as a part of each family? Parents/siblings/grandparents/etc. Provide an overview and summary of the main characters on the show.

4- Based on class readings are there any stereotypes/bias being portrayed in the families from each show? Explain and provide examples.

5- The textbook describes various cultures and diversity in communities and families. How is culture/diversity represented on the show/movie? Give examples that you observed from the show.

5- Compare and contrast the two families? How are they alike? How are they different? How does race, ethnicity, and culture influence the differences (refer to your textbook) and what you have learned in class.

6- Define race and ethnicity and how they are different. How is race/ethnicity and issues surrounding race incorporated in the show? Provide examples.

7- Are gender roles present within the family? Specifically, gender roles that are specific to the race/ethnicity of the family (see the textbook for cultural, traditional values within the group. Provide examples.

8 – Conclusions (provide an overall summary and conclusions you have made about your shows and the assignment.

9- What is your perception on how race/ethnicity/culture is portrayed overall in the media?

You are encouraged to include pictures and/or video clips of each family chosen for the assignment. Video clips should center around diversity, culture, or family issues. In addition, you are expected to identify terminology used in the course such as fictive kin, extended kin, parenting styles, culture, marriage, blended families, etc.

Submit a 1-page (double spaced) summary on what you have learned about how culture/diversity/families are portrayed in the media and summary of your family selections. You must also use a minimum of 2 references (you may include your textbook). Connections from portrayals in the show should related to information presented in the textbook or other resources. APA format is required.


Presenter Name:


Title of Presentation:

Oral/ Visual Presentation

Maximum Points

Points Earned


Introduction/Overview (title slide with shows and student name, introduction slide provides a brief overview of presentation)


Presentation address: (Are course concepts evident in the presentation; How well is content covered

· Culture/Diversity/Gender


· Race/Ethnicity/Stereotypes


· Use of course terminology


Creativity/ Originality (Visual presentation showed flair, originality, style, energy, creativity. Effort was apparent/ evident in presentation. Presentation was attention-grabbing, fascination, and held my attention).


Followed Guidelines: Instructions were followed; Information presented was accurate


Organization: Does the presentation flow in a well thought-out, structured manner?


1 page Summary/report (includes well-written summary on project and summarizes what was learned, met criteria)





Chapter 10

Chapter terms

■ Santeria – an African Cuban religious and folk-healing method
■ Espiritismo – another faith healing method led by a medium or spiritual counselor, who

helps clients through an exorcism of spirits
■ Lineality – accountability is defined by the social structure and relationships are

hierarchically ordered
■ Familialism – belief in and valuing of the nuclear and extended family systems and

– Center of Latino families

■ Enmeshment – involvement among Cuban family members (viewed as positive and

■ Personalismo – a concern for personal dignity, combined with a personal, rather than
conceptual, approach to social relationships,


■ Currently the largest ethnic-minority group in U.S.

■ 3 main groups are:
– Mexican Americans – 66.9%
– Cuban – 3.7%
– Puerto Ricans 8.6%

■ Many other nationalities from central and south America have arrived in the last few
decades. 20.8%


■ Geographically, Cubans have not had to travel far to get to the U.S.
– Emotionally their journey has been long and arduous

■ Migration has meant giving up family, friends, property, a way of being, a lifestyle – and
their paradise island

■ Today about 1 million Cuban Americans compromise the 3rd largest and most prosperous
group of people of Latino decent living in the United States.

– Despite sharing a common language, Latino heritage, and Catholic ideology,
Cubans are also distinct from other Latinos in terms of their history, migration, their
geographic clustering, and their demographic characteristics.

– Cuban culture is a blend of Spanish, African, and Amerindian cultural patterns.


The Immigration
■ Cuban migration to the U.S. is relatively recent and is

primarily politically motivated.

■ After the Spanish- American War, U.S. occupied Cuba
(assumed control for a few years)

– 1902 Cuba was technically independent
– U.S. still had considerable influence in Cuba

politically and economically for the next 50 years.

■ Short distance from the United States and well established
ties to U.S. economy

■ Estimated that 10% of Cuba’s population came to the U.S.
between 1959-1980

■ Mostly in Key West and Tampa Florida


■ Fidel Castro’s rise to power and his declaration in 1961 that his regime would
follow Marxist-Leninist ideology stimulated the sudden exodus of thousands of

■ Five Waves of immigration
– 1st wave “the golden exiles”: social, economic, and political elite – Jan

1959 – Oct. 1962 (215,000)
– 2nd wave – numbers greatly reduced; mostly middle class – 1962- 1965
– 3rd wave – 1965 U.S and Cuba agreed to two daily “freedom flights”;

275,000-340,000 largely working class until 1973
– 4th wave – early 1980 – not greeted warmly by American public;

– 5th wave- 1985-1992; about 6000; took hazardous trips over the seas

from Cuba to Florida

■ 1st 3 waves received more of a
generous welcome

– Refugee program spent 1.5
billion on settling them

– Special scholarships provided
by the federal government

– Granted permanent legal

– Univ. of Miami created course
to prepare Cuban doctors for
licensing exams/provided

■ Refugee Act of 1980 – Cubans
would have to prove political or
religious persecution

Traditional and Emerging Family
■ The Cuban value or familialism makes the family the most important social unit in

Cuban society.

■ Although Cubans tend to be actively involved with the family, extended families do
not necessarily live in the same household, but do usually live nearby.

■ The Cuban family, characterized by loyalty and unity, includes:
– Nuclear family
– Extended family
– Fictive kin
– Compadres

Household Size & Composition

■ Cuban Americans tend to live in two-parent nuclear family households (norm since
the 1930’s)

■ The majority live in married couple families (76.1%), with about 19% living in female
headed households.

■ Tend to have small families (2.81 persons per household)

■ Uncharacteristically (Catholic and Latino culture) low fertility rates
– Lower rate than all Hispanic subgroups and lower than non-Hispanic Whites
– Families and children very well planned and thought out

The Socialization of Children

■ Changed with migration to the U.S.
■ The need and desire for mothers to work and more dual earner household has led to

children being more independent.
– Children are still often pampered despite busy work schedules, mothers

manage to do a lot such as cooking, cleaning, and other chores that children
are capable of doing?

■ Gender differences in traditional Cuban families
– Boys are waited on by their mothers and other women within the family; as

they grow they are given more freedom
– Girls are overprotected; have strict curfews, and are discouraged from going

away to school

■ Many girls are introduced to society through a

quinceanera on their 15th birthday.
– A traditional party that can as extravagant

as a wedding
– Consists of couples, including the birthday

girl, that dress formally and have an
opening choreographed dance

– Friends and family join the festivities
■ Music
■ Dance
■ Lots of food!

■ Despite years of living in the U.S. some Cuban families still expect children to live in the
parental home until they get married.

– Adult children may make financial contributions to the household but it is not
necessarily expected.

■ How children are socialized depends on a number of factors:
– Parents level of acculturation
– Parents level of education
– Socioeconomic status
– Where they live regionally

■ Children growing up the Miami area have more exposure to Cuban traditions and culture
because of the density of the Cuban community there.

■ No matter where they live, speaking Spanish and having pride in being Cuban are


■ Through traditions have relaxed somewhat, female virginity is still valued and ideal
among Cuban American families.

– Young women traditionally are never left alone with a man in public or private
unless they are married.

■ Strict rules against sexual activity in adolescents

■ Although many Cubans identify as Catholic, as a whole they are not against

■ Average age of first marriage – 24 for men and 22

for women
■ Likely to marry
■ Marriage and gender roles among Cuban

Americans vary according to socioeconomic status,
level of acculturation, stage of migrations, and

■ Similar to other Latino groups machismo and
marianismo are present in marital relationships

■ The image of a macho man is not as embraced by
more recent generations of Cuban Americans

■ Younger couples seem to be moving to more
egalitarian relationships.


and the

■ Cuban families have become less traditional
with regard to work and family relationships.

■ Higher rates of employment for women in
recent decades

– Achieved greater equality and more
decision-making authority in families.

– Domestic help from husbands to include
child care and grocery shopping

■ History of lack of employment for men who
migrated to the U.S. in the past, however the
work situation has improved

– 73.3 % are employed full time; lower
rates of unemployment (5.2 %) than
Cuban women

■ Still experience some occupational differences


■ Of the largest Latino groups in the U.S., Cuban
Americans have the highest level of income.

– Cuban women are less likely to wok in
managerial positions or professional jobs
than in specialty and technical sales &
administrative jobs

– Cuban men are likely to work in precision
production, craft, and repair

– Both men and women work in service

Life Cycle Transitions

■ Birth Rates – lowest among Cuban women (tend to be more educated and marry
later in life)

■ Divorce rate has increased in recent decades

■ Greater proportion of elderly in Cuban population

■ Older adults are more likely to depend on government (Social Security) or retirement
resources rather than extended family for support

■ Elderly are less likely to seek medical care (language and cultural differences)

Family Strengths and Challenges

■ Varying immigration histories have contributed to major

educational, occupational, and economic differences among the
three Hispanic subgroups.

– On average Cubans are better off among Hispanic

■ Many Cubans arrived in American with their entire families –
adding to emotional support but their population has a higher
proportion of middle aged and older adults

■ Close family relationships

■ Capacity to adapt to new environments

■ Religion and spirituality

■ Sense of pride in heritage

■ Rapid rate of change has caused

dislocations for those who have
adapted too quickly

■ Cultural is threatened by mainstream

■ Language barriers
■ Varying levels of acculturation based

on family experiences (waves of

Misconceptions and Stereotypes

■ Sense of “specialness”
– May stem from the fusion of European, African, and indigenous cultures
– Often perceived as arrogance and grandiosity
– Clannish – viewed this way when they are trying to preserve the love for their

culture and traditions
■ Choteo – Humor

– Has been defined as ridiculing or making fun of people, situations, or things
which once served as a defensive function in the social reality of Cubans

– Characterized by exaggeration, tis type of humor is a way of making light of
serious situations through jokes
■ Can be perceived as insensitive and in appropriate by others

Similarities Among
Hispanic Families
■ High levels of familism

■ Emphasizes collective family welfare and requires
individuals to defer to family goals and behave
according to their role

■ Interpersonal and interdependent relationships

■ Hispanic families tend to live near or with extended

■ Have frequent interaction with family members

■ Exchange goods and resources

■ Of the ethnic minority groups, Hispanic Americans
have the largest portion of family households.


Arab American Families


• The Arab American community
originates in several Arabic-speaking
countries in the Middle East

• There is not one family type but several
• Based on different historical periods of

migration, diverse socioeconomic levels,
and varying religious beliefs

• They do however share certain cultural,
historical, linguistic, and social features

• Religion plays a key role in Middle Eastern culture and serves as an important
social boundary, across which marriage is difficult.

• Skin color and language are not as strong determining factors as religious

• Churches and mosques established by Arab American communities remain major
centers of organization and socialization (for both Christian and Muslim groups)

• Social values other than religion that organize Arabs include ideology of the
extended patrilineal family, the village, and national or regional affiliation.

• Patrilineality – the father’s line of descent

• Kinship and marriage are of primary importance in the
system of chain migration, whereby one son in a family
immigrates to the U.S. and establishes himself, then brings
other members of the family, and so on, until many relatives
have settled together.

• Relatives often provide the economic basis for an enterprise or
business such as a store.

• The honor of these lineages and families is a strong factor in
everyday lives of Arabs in America.


• The Arab immigration experience can be divided into two major historical

• First commencing around the end of the 19th century

• The second beginning after WWII and continuing today

• Migrants initially entered the U.S. on the East Coast or from Mexico.
• Some traveled to states such as WV, Texas, and South Dakota and later to California

and Michigan.

• Early immigration – primarily peasants from small villages; Primarily worked in
agriculture and had few skills that were marketable; many became peddlers or owners
of small stores


• Understanding the Arab family as the basic unit of social organization is crucial
to understanding the values of Arab Americans.

• As a vehicle for migration and socialization, the family cushions the economic
and emotional difficulties of adjustment to a new country.

• The family’s reputation is dominant in the training of the individual who thinks
of the family first (and then of himself/herself).

• The family provides protection, emotional and economic support, and identity.
• Ideally the family is large and extended (grandparents and other relatives close by)

• More recently Arab immigrants are not in close proximity to other family


• A small portion of Arab American households have
one or two people

• Large families are only slightly more prevalent among
those born in the Middle East than Among American-
born Arabs.

• Large families are desired
• Household composition may be extended or nuclear
• Even in a nuclear family, extended family relationships

continue to be significant

• After marriage, young couple may try to live near or
sometimes in the residence of their fathers or brothers
(especially in new immigrant communities)

• Women often want to live near their male patrilineal

• Tradition includes marriage of first and second cousins

• Structurally, conjugal relationships
(relationships through marriage), are not as
close as consanguineal relationships (through

• Children help connect in-laws and must be
respectful to relatives on both the mother’s
and father’s side of the family, but particularly
the father’s side (patrilineal authority).

• Socialization into large family networks may
be understood by many mainstream
Americans who come from such a tradition,
such as Italian Americans and African

• For those raised in a nuclear family, extended
family relationships may be difficult to

• In marriage, one becomes deeply involved with the family of the
spouse, and because families are extensive and relationships
intensive, much of the couple’s time, emotion, energy, and even
money is expected to be spent on the family.

• Nuclear families – most important relationships husband and wife;
independence is expected

• Large families – husband/wife unit is competing with other relationships
and see the nuclear family as less independent.

• Many cross-cultural marriages do not survive the different role

• Arab Americans marry outside the culture or increase their wealth,
they may move far away, and family ties may weaken.

• Settlement in a new country can be difficult for large and extended
families. This is particularly true for poor families who may have to
crowd into a small house.


• In Arab American families, children are valued and given a great
deal of attention, but they are expected to respect their parents.

• Young children- given lots of attention from parents; cared for by
many extended family members who have the authority to
praise and discipline them

• Boys are considered more of a blessing than girls; Sons more
opportunities and emphasis on education

• Adolescents-
• Girls expected to be modest and help around the house

• Boys expected to help fathers in the family business and are generally
allowed more freedom

• The traditional lines of authority in the Arab American family are patriarchal,
favoring males over females and parents over children.

• Not all families follow this tradition today

• Arab American second-generation children may resent the pressure their
parents use to make them conform to their standards.

• Generation gap is often wider in the U.S. than Middle East.

• Concept of leisure differs between parents and children.
• Arab parents born abroad spend time with friends and relatives, however Arab

American teens may want to attend activities, movies, sporting events, etc.


• Marriage in the Arab American community is highly
endogamous, favoring marriage between cousins and people
within the same religion, village, or national community.

• Marriages are often arranged or pressure to choose certain
mates is exerted by controlling group activities and
regulating dating practices.

• Contemporary American dating habits threaten several
requirements of the patrilineal family and Arab society causing
major concern in the Arab American family.

• Double standard for sons and daughters; Boys are given
more privileges

• Arab Americans tend to marry much younger than other
• Depends on education and generation
• Male’s family initiates the marriage and is responsible for wedding


• Wedding is contracted and witnessed by men
• Among Muslim families, a sum of money may be paid by the groom’s family to

the family of the bride

• Women retain rights to their property and inheritances after marriage though
some are pressured to give it to their husbands


• The family has been a critical unit for many Arab American

• During the early wave of immigration, many stores were created
and run by families.

• Women and children played an important role in the enterprise.
• A high percentage of Arab Americans are employed in entrepreneurial


• More likely to be self employed, less likely to work for local
government, and much more likely to be in managerial and
professional specialty occupations than are other ethnic groups

• Unemployment rate for Arab Americans born abroad is higher than
the U.S. average but lower than the national average for U.S. born
Arab Americans.

• Poverty rate is higher than the national average but educational level
is higher than the average for the general population.

• Educational levels and unemployment rates reflect the diverse SES
levels in Arab American families (Some may have few skills
especially in terms language) and others may be in the upper
professional classes and have numerous graduate degrees


• Divorce is discouraged and carries a stigma
• Divorce rate is generally low because of the

emphasis on family.

• Traditionally women are left at a disadvantage
since children ultimately “belong” to the father’s

• Attitudes towards child custody are changing.
• Single parenthood is considered abnormal unless

the parent is a widow or widower.

• Females often marry younger than males posing a
dilemma for young women who aspire to higher

• Arab American women twice as likely as Arab-
born women to be single after age 15.


• Expansive network of family.

• Protection, security, and indulgence of

• Education and assistance from family
during migration

• Closeness of family relationships

• Emphasis on family and community
rather than the individual is different than
dominant culture of U.S.

• Marriage within the group

• Restrictions on dating

• Gender roles (changes causing strain
within families)




• Patrilineal rules give older generations power over younger generations, and men
privileges over women (not just about the father) however women have more power than
perceived by Westerners (power is in their ability to influence relationships).

• Loyalty to family rather than the individual, customs of having a big family may be strange
to others.

• Language is often a barrier between members of different cultures.

Chapter 12


• The history of Hawaiian Islands is embedded in culture, values,
beliefs, and practices that help define and characterize the Native
Hawaiian family today.
• People first cam to the Hawaiian Island around A.D. 700. Coming in search of

new land a new a home, they brought with them pigs, dogs, fowl, and various
plants such as the taro and coconut.
• People referred to as Polynesian by early European explorers, meaning

“people of the many islands”


• Papahanaumoku – Earth mother
• Wakea – Sky father
• Genealogy – Hawaiian

genealogy is from the land;
therefore their relationship to
the land is familial (Children of
mother earth)

• Mana – spiritual force and
power shared by all living things

• The Hawaiian initial contact with the
Western world was on January 18, 1778.
• Captain James Cook, a British sea captain,

arrived at the Hawaiian Island with his crew
and two ships.

• Hawaiians thought the captain was Lomo, the
God of agriculture, but within a year it
became clear that he and his crew were using
resources without replenishing them.

• About 300,000 Natives upon arrival,
population dropped by 90% within 100 years.
• High rates of diseases from foreigners to which

natives had no immunity.
• Tuberculosis, small pox, gonorrhea, and other

diseases brought death and infertility.

• Conflict between the cultures began to

Colonization, Statehood, &
Cultural Renewal
• Like Native Americans, Aboriginal Hawaiians are not immigrants to

the United States but are indigenous to the land.

• Hawaii and its people were recognized by the United States and the
world as a sovereign nation.

• 1883 – Queen Lili’uokalani, last queen of Hawaii, attempted to
return Hawaii to Hawaiian people by writing a new constitution, but
the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown by American businessmen
and government officials.
• Hawaiian flag removed and American flag raised

• 1898 – Hawaii becomes U.S. territory
• 1959 – Hawaii becomes 50th state

Traditional and Emerging Family Systems

• From ethnic perspective, modern Hawaiian American families are a very
heterogeneous group.

• Cross cultural marriages, a continuous influx of visitors and immigrants, and
children born to parents of diverse ethnic backgrounds have all transformed
identity of Native Hawaiians.

• While their ancestors were unified politically, religiously, socially, and culturally,
contemporary Native Hawaiian families are highly differentiated in religion,
education, occupation, politics – and even in their claims to Hawaiian identity.

• In general, Polynesian family systems, including Native Hawaiian families, are very
different from the nuclear family systems typical European American societies.
• Multiple caretaking or parenting
• Sharing the care of children within the extended family
• Early indulgence of infants, followed by distinct and rapid initiation into a

system of sibling caretaking.

Household Size and Composition

• The census reveals that Native American Hawaiians
and part Hawaiians make up about 12.5% of the
population in Hawaii. Other resources put the
number at closer to 19%.
• Caucasians – 33.4%
• Japanese – 22.3%
• Filipinos – 15.2%
• Chinese – 6.2%
• Others – 10.4%

• Average household size for Native Hawaiians – 3.7
• Larger than all other ethnic groups in Hawaii except Filipinos (4.3)
• Children account for the higher average household

• Native Hawaiian families are overrepresented in:
• Households with 4, 5, 6, and 7 or more people
• Married couples with their own children
• Groups of families with female-headed households.
• Female-headed households with their own children under 18 years

• Households on public assistance
• Households with no telephones (the norm now)
• Owner-occupied housing units below the poverty level.


Socialization of Children

• Contemporary Hawaiian Americans measure
accomplishments by the efficient and effective use of time.

• The concept of family time brings into focus the importance
of quality time with children.

• The Hawaiian family acknowledges the belief that the mind
and body, along with nature, influence the perception of

• Children socialized to be laid back (Hawaiian families
criticized for this)

• Much of Hawaiian culture has been lost to acculturation
(adapting to majority culture)

• Hawaiian language reflects the importance

of social and interpersonal relationships
extended far beyond the immediate
biological family.

• Love, affection, and caring are very much an
open part of the ‘ohana way of life’.

• Courtship process follows most Western
norms. Parental permission for marriage is
the norm, but there is no absolute rules of
parental control over mate selection.

• Rates of Intermarriage fairly high

Work Relationships with the Family

• Work and family life in contemporary Hawaii remains linked to the
• Between households within the ‘ohana, there was constant sharing

and exchanging of food, utilitarian articles, and services.
• ‘Ohana living in one community raising taro, for example, would take a gift to

some ‘ohana living near the shore, and in return would receive fish or
whatever was needed.
• The ‘ohana also emphasized the value and importance of communal labor.
• Today the practice of communal labor emerges in the form of shared

responsibilities for major family celebrations such as the family luau, or feast.
• Women in contemporary Hawaiian households continue to be viewed

as homemakers and men the breadwinners.

Life Cycle Transitions

• Among Native Hawaiians over 15 48% are married 36% are

• The divorce rate of Native Hawaiians is among the highest
of the major ethnic groups (50-60%)
• Contributes to the higher number of female headed

single parent households
• Native Hawaiian families are overrepresented in low-

income group
• Cost of living in Hawaii very expensive

• Higher education is the pathway to additional income
(underrepresented in college enrollment)


• Native Hawaiian families are perhaps the ethnic group with the highest
health risk in Hawaii
• High levels of stress in their lifestyle and behaviors
• Lack of access to healthcare
• High incidence of disease, ailments, early disability, and premature


• Overrepresented in the following:
• Diagnosed with lung, thyroid, and uterine cancer
• Mothers under the age of 18
• Mothers of low birth weight babies
• Have hypertension or heart disease
• Have diabetes
• Have respiratory diseases

Family Strengths and Challenges

• Native Hawaiians are survivors,
resilient in their own ways, and
adaptive without fully
compromising their identity
• Family’s ability to effectively

communicate to solve problems.
• Since of pride in being Hawaiian.

• Income
• Health disparities
• High levels of stress
• Retaining culture/identity

Misconceptions and Stereotypes

• Characterized as being conflict avoiders, lazy, shiftless, irresponsible,
dumb, and also hostile.
• Do not value education for their children.

Chapter 1

In the news…..

• The value of family dinners
• https://www.today.com/video/today-anchors-share-why-family-dinner-


• What are your thoughts on family dinners? Do they help with the
development of family relationships?

• Imagine what it would be like if the who world were populated by people just like you
(appearance, habits, thoughts, etc.).

• If diversity is desired:
• Why are may people uncomfortable in the presence of other human beings who are different from

• Why are we, when in a group, most prone to seek the company of others just like ourselves?
• If diversity is important and uniqueness is admirable, why are people uncomfortable when taken away

from familiar surroundings and friends and placed in situations where they know nobody?
• Why is that people can understand and appreciate the uniqueness of themselves, but fail to appreciate

difference and uniqueness in others?

• United States includes people from all cultures.
• Diversity can be seen as a strength or weakness.

• Ethnocentrism-belief that one’s own ethnicity and its characteristics are superior
to those of other ethnic groups.

• Xenophobia – fear of a different culture; people with different skin color; a
conversation in a different language

• What state do you think is most diverse? Least diverse?


• A segment of a larger society whose members are thought, by themselves
and/or others, to have a common origin and to share important segments of
a common culture and who participate in shared activities in which the
common origin and culture are significant.

• Race, religion, national origin, language, or some combination of these are core
categories defining ethnicities for most people. (Gordon, 1964)

Family Ethnicity

• Thought of as a way people define
themselves as part of a group through
similarities in common ancestry and cultural
heritage (race, religion, or national origin).

• Text covers most minority groups
• Minority is used to describe groups who are

oppressed and do not share equally in the
power base of society

• Ethnic group is a more appropriate term and
used throughout the text

Culture and Values

• Ethnicity and culture are not always
the same thing.

• Culture may encompass many
different ethnicities.
• American culture is a mixture of arts,

beliefs, customs, etc. & is created by
many different ethnic groups.

• Culture is the sum total of ways of
living, including values, beliefs,
aesthetic standards, linguistic
expression, patterns of thinking,
behavioral norms, and styles of
communication which a group of
people has developed to assure its
survival in a particular physical and
human environment.

Culture and values

• Values and culture are linked and
often shape each other.

• Values guide behavior and generally
dictates what is good, proper, and
moral behavior.
• Culture
• Family

• Exploring cultural diversity can
assist with helping discover many
values and behaviors that are
different from your own.
• Example: Some cultures value

interdependence versus

Assimilation and Acculturation

• Cultural absorption of a smaller ethnic

group into the main cultural body.
• Usually occurs gradually as one group’s

set of cultural uniqueness is given up
and the characteristics of the dominant
culture are adopted (Kumabe, Nishida,
& Hepworth, 1985)

• The process of different cultures in

close contact adapting to each
• Occurs when minority and

mainstream cultural characteristics are
blended or exchanged (Kumabe, et al.,

Prejudice and Racism

• A judgement or opinion formed

without closely examining the
person or group you are evaluating

• Active expression of prejudice or

discrimination based on inherited
characteristics of ethnicity or
cultural group membership

• Prejudice and racism are still
prevalent in the United States.

• Many ethnic groups featured in the
course have been subjected to racial
discrimination because of their skin
color or other inherited differences.

The Search for Similarity

• Everyone is born into a culture whose values transmit to him or her a
significant social identity.
• Each person learns to perceive the world in specific ways
• Our social identity can be thought of as a lens that colors how we see the world

• Example: Do you see the world the same way as your parents, siblings, or friends?


• A stereotype is an oversimplified set of beliefs and
generalizations about an individual or group of people.

• Consciously held- be aware that are you are basing
judgement of an individual on generalizations from a group

• Descriptive – thoughts should be about describing people’s
behavior rather than judging behavior.

• Accurate – faulty negative stereotypes about people in
which you know nothing about or personally interacted.

• Modifiable – Be prepared to modify your thinking about
individuals in groups based on new evidence you acquire.


• Joel Parés, a U.S. Marine-turned-photographer, has created a photo series that
seeks to question the ugly prejudices that many of us harbor, to one extent
or another, against groups of people different from ourselves.

• Parés’ images at first present us with characters symbolic of the prejudices
suffered by various groups based on their ethnicity, socio-economic status or
sexual preference. Then, however, they show us the real people behind these
often false characters – the violent gangster turns out to be a Harvard
graduate and an exhausted gardener turns out to be the CEO of a Fortune
500 company.

Stanford Graduate Student
Sammi Lee

Fortune 500 CEO Edgar

Harvard graduate Jefferson

Pastor/Missionary Jack

Understanding without Judgement

• Because I do something it seems “normal” to me.
• Easy to judge behavior that differs from oneself as wrong
• Different behavior does not mean “abnormal”
• Example: Polygamy

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBdUpzfmY2A

Becoming a Pluralistic Society

• Pluralism – a social condition in which several distinct ethnic, religious, and
racial communities live side by side willing to affirm each other’s dignity,
ready to benefit from each other’s experiences, and quick to acknowledge
each other’s contribution to the common welfare (Smith, 1989, p. 38).

• The United States is becoming more diverse
• Important to understand and be knowledgeable about different ethnic groups


• I am Poem

• The purpose of this assignment is to explore your self-identity through words. You should consider

your roles as a family member, college student, campus leader, individual, personality characteristics,
etc. Your poem should be a minimum of 12 sentences and each line should begin with “I

• Examples include:

• Race: I am Native American.
• Age: I am 18.
• Favorite sports/hobbies. I am a Ravens fan.
• Favorite shows/music. I am a fan of R & B Music and ESPN.
• Family member: I am an aunt, sister, daughter, and friend.
• Career Goals: I am determined to pursue a career in Engineering.
• Personality/character traits: I am a friendly, kind, and smart.
• Creativity: I am as unique as a unicorn……

• Remember to be creative and include various aspects of who you are. Your “I am” poem should be

submitted in Blackboard by the due date listed on the course calendar.

FCCS 102 Individual, Family & Community
Important Concepts

Directions: Please study these terms.

1. Ethnocentrism—the belief that one’s own ethnicity and its characteristics are superior to
those of another ethnic group

2. Xenophobia—fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers

3. Ethnicity—common ancestry and social and cultural heritage that is passed down from

generation to generation

4. Family Ethnicity—the way in which a family defines itself in terms of common ancestry
and social and cultural heritage (race, religion, or national origin)

5. Assimilation—the process in which a smaller ethnic group adopts the characteristics of a

dominant culture and loses its original identity.

6. Acculturation—the process of adapting to patterns of a different culture

7. Prejudice—a judgment or opinion formed without closely examining the person or group
you are evaluating

8. Racism—an active expression of prejudice or discrimination based on inherited

characteristics of ethnicity or cultural group membership

9. Discrimination—making a distinction in favor of or against a person on the basis of

10. Social Identity—the way an individual perceives the world based on social, physical,

economic, and cultural characteristics.

11. Stereotype—an oversimplified set of beliefs and generalization about an individual or
group of people

12. Pluralism—a social condition in which several distinct ethnic, religious, and racial

communities live in harmony and appreciate one another’s similarities and differences

13. Rite of passage—a ceremonial or formal observance or procedure in accordance with
proscribed rules or customs.

14. Lineality—a direct lines of descent or kinship from an ancestor

15. Consanguine– a relationship formed by common bloodlines

16. Conjugal— a relationship formed through marriage

Native America Families
Chapter 2


´ What did you learn in your previous courses in high school/college about
Native Americans?

´ Should sports teams consider changing their mascot from names that may
offend Native Americans?

Historical and Cultural
´ Native American tribes flourished long

before the invasion of the Americas by
European immigrants.

´ Each Native American tribes have their
´ Distinct language
´ Spiritual belief system
´ History

´ *each passed on from generation to
generation sometimes in written

´ Creation stories document the
existence of Native Americans in the

´ The natural environment played a
major role in Native American religions,
philosophies, and value systems.

´ Contact with other tribes through
trade led to the realization that
most Native Americans shared
common values:

´ Respect for the environment

´ Sharing of resources

´ Generosity


´ Europeans established governments and stole territory and institutionalized
a series of barriers to prevent Native Americans from continuing their

´ U.S. Government uprooted Native Americans from the primary source of
their cultural identity – the natural environment and forced them into
migrating to distant reservations
´ Indian Removal Act

´ Despite changes Tribal elders have worked to preserve their peoples’
distinctive heritage by passing down language, traditions, stories, and oral
histories from generation to generation.

Forced Migration

´ Entire tribes were forced to move from
cultural homelands they had inhabited
for thousands of years to tracts of land
designated by the invaders to serve as

´ Bleak and inhospitable areas

´ Enslavement

´ Government sponsored boarding school

´ Ability to earn a living denied; forced into
dependence on the federal government

Trail of tears



Former Current

Traditional and Emerging Family
´ The characteristic of Native American Families are extremely diverse.

´ Available literature on normative families is light because researchers tend
to focus on problems in human behavior.

´ Stereotypes/community problems: Alcohol abuse, impoverished; Ignornat

´ Diversity within the Native American community takes many forms.

´ Geographic and cultural differences

´ Members of tribes, bands, clans

´ Rural and urban areas (reservations)

´ Most are Patrilineal (family structure); some still hold important lineage through
the mother

Family Systems Terms

´ Kinship systems – varies by tribe but considers family membership the most
important membership.

´ Conjugal – related by marriage

´ Consanguineal – related by blood

´ Fictive Kin – support system provided by non-relatives (viewed as family)

Household Size and Composition

´ Native American households are
fairly small.

´ Economic limitations

´ Lack of living space

´ More likely to take in/support
community members, extended
family, fictive kin

´ Elders often take in young single

Socialization of Children

´ Socialization in Native American families is similar to traditional American
´ Respect for elders

´ Treasuring children

´ Strong family bonds

´ Gender Roles
´ Males – warrior; works with hands (hunting, fishing, building etc.); Because of

tradition some males feel families do not respect college education; teamwork
and commitment rather than competition

´ Females – socialized to be wives, mothers, and career women; primary
responsibility for family including elders; currently encouraged to pursue
education and be leaders

´ Parents and the community have

tremendous respect for children.

´ Cradleboards are used to prop up
babies so they can see the people
around them and be on a more even
level with the rest of the household.

´ Children play independently and
parent foster creativity helping to
boost their confidence.

´ Parenting not always gender specific;
taught that their may be different
roles but both are respected for their
contributions to the family.


Intimate Relationships

´ Assimilation into mainstream Western culture has
changed courtship and marriage rituals.

´ In most native American communities dating
begins in adolescence.

´ In previous generations a young man had to
demonstrate he was prepared for marriage by
accumulating sufficient goods or resources to
support a family before being granted
permission to marry by the elders.

´ Today young people have more freedom to
choose when they will marry.

Intimate Relationships

´ Many native Americans marry in
traditional American style with a church
service, wedding cake, etc. Others
celebrate their union with more
traditions. The majority will merge both.

´ Mate selection is impacted by images
presented in society.

´ Increased numbers of intermarriages.

´ Merging of cultures can be difficult.

´ Research conducted on impact of
intermarriage, education,
socioeconomic status, etc. on divorce

´ Boarding schools impacted cultural
values and traditions.
´ Those who attended boarding schools

are more likely to intermarry.

´ Tribal colleges – focus on education,
health, law, and social service programs.

Work Relationships and the family

´ Dual income households

´ Require a second income to
maintain middle class status

´ Share household tasks and child
care responsibilities

´ Neighbors and family members
often assist with child care

´ Income varies among he

´ Majority work

Life cycle transitions

´ About half of native American families consists of two parent biological
families (Reddy, 1993).

´ Life cycle transitions such as divorce, single parenthood, and remarriage
occur at similar or greater rates than the national average.

´ Native American communities honor elderly but have smaller numbers than
other groups.

´ Death viewed as “going over to the other side”. Few think of it as an
ending but as another transition of the life cycle.

´ Practice at making decisions based on the interest and wishes of the three
preceding generation, one’s present generation, and the three succeeding
generations. “What would great grandparent do?”

Family strengths and challenges

´ After enslaving native Americans and seizing their land the federal
government enforced a blood quantum – this insured that the Bureau of
Indian Affairs (BIA) could monitor the rules that restricted individuals with less
than a certain percentage of native American heritage to benefit from
federal programs designed to aid this community.

´ 1950s and 60s saw large scale migration and relocation to urban areas
where the government promised access to training and jobs
´ Many returned to reservations by the 70s frustrated by pressure to assimilate

´ Primary concerns today surround maintaining heritage and cultural traditions

´ Poverty, domestic violence, drug and alcohol abuse
´ Attempts to maintain culture while embracing change.

Misconceptions and Stereotypes

´ “Native Americans do not exist in the U.S.” – 510 federally recognized tribes;
1.5-2 million

´ Childlike, need to be under the care of the Government; less civilized – ploy
to seize control of land and resources

´ Alcoholics – higher than national rates however vast majority are not

´ No feelings or emotions – taken a toll on self-esteem in Native American

American Families of African

Chapter 3


u African American population = 36 million or 13% of the U.S. Population

u Population has increased significantly since the 1790 census (760,000).

u Vast majority (about 96%) are native born

u Roots go back as much 10 generations

u Native language – English

u Main Religion – Christianity

u Considered one of the most acculturated racial minorities in America.

u Diversity among African Americans

u Immigrants coming from Africa, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad, &
other west Indian countries

u Economically, in recent decades, African Americans
have experienced increased prosperity and education

u Diverse in family structure

u Fictive kin often included

u Close extended family relationships

Historical and Cultural Background

u Most social science descriptions of African American families have been

u AA families have not been viewed constructively.

u Primarily the focus is on lower-class family formation, lifestyles, and problem

u Because of the unique experiences of AA in the USA a special approach is
needed when studying these families.

u Andrew Billingsly – Black Families in White America (1968)

u Highlighted strengths in marital relationships, parental performance

Historical and Cultural Background

u Research findings (since the 1970’s) have focused on:

u Family organization/structure

u Parent-child relationships

u Parental expectations

u Patterns of control

u Husband-wife interaction/relationships

u Support system (kin)

u Life-cycle episodes

u Intergenerational continuity

u Family and Cultural Heritage

u Family rites and rituals

u Men were head of clans, tribal villages, and families

u Religious ceremonies

u Characterized the way of life before arrival in Americas

u Especially important were ancestor worship and the belief in a “Spirit world”

u African American families cannot be logically described nor understood without exploring
their unique background in the United States (displaced Africans – new surroundings
contributed to changes in family organization, values, parenting, etc.

Slave Legacy

u African American families have a social past that differs from other ethnic groups

u Harsh and brutal experience of violent uprooting and being placed in captivity
molded the slave identity and a transition to domestic service

u Estimates vary of the number of Africans who were brought and sold in the U.S.,
South America, West Indies, etc.

u 10-20 million

u Brought to harvest crops, build, and work on sugar and tobacco plantations.

u Indentured servants – men and women who signed a contract by which they agreed to
work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once
they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter

u Shipped under inhumane conditions

u Represented several different cultures (Angola, Congo Basin) – tribal groups were
sought for their special skills.

u The first Africans arrived in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619

u https://wtvr.com/2019/08/24/1619-anniversary-a-commemoration-of-slaves-journey-

u https://www.cnn.com/videos/us/2019/08/25/400-anniversary-arrival-captured-african-

u Most free African Americans resided in the North.

u Entrepreneurs, artisans, landowners, labors

u 8-12 % of Black population

u Slavery was institutionalized in other countries but only reached widespread
prominence in the United States until the Emancipation proclamation and civil

u Slavery did not completely crush family bonds but reinforced close bonds that
existed between mother and child in African society

u The kinship connections between African
slaves and European slaveholders created
a divisive prestige system among African
Americans based on color.

u Colorism is still prevalent in the African
American community.

u Slaves carried the names of their owners

u Linkages between slaves ad those who
owned, sold them prevailed throughout
slave communities in the south.

u SES and special privileges were based on
kinship connections

u Example: Sally Hemmings

u With the reconstruction of the U.S. economy as it evolved from agricultural to
industrial, the norm of patriarchy endured.

u Mother, daughters, grandmothers, and aunts retained the traditional
housekeeping and caretaking roles.

u Following the termination of slavery, many African American women took on
the role of domestic workers in European American homes.

u Due to lack of education, most male and female African Americans were
limited in occupational options.

u Sharecroppers

Traditional and Emerging Family Systems

u Gendered-role behaviors – offer insight into the characteristics of a group of people
that has a defined and conventional division of labor

u Gender-role training and status distinctions within the family mirror an African cultural

u African American family has thrived as an essential communal network of sharing, support,
protection, emotional reinforcement, and adaptation to the regularity of change.

u Reconstruction, Jim Crowism, and civil rights era – African Americans faced
discrimination & racial barriers.

u Schools

u Transportation

u Businesses

u Employment

u Hindered political participation

African American households

u Marriage has declined.

u 1975 – 87% of Blacks in their early 30’s married

u 1990- 61%

u Mid 90’s – 48% of AA households headed by women

u Currently – numbers continue to decline; 70% of AA children
live in single parent households

u Suggested that in the future that about ¾ will marry at some

u Fertility rates have dropped

u Marriage postponement

u Economic disparities

Families in Poverty

u In the U.S. poverty is systemic and thus
predictably high among African
Americans. Nearly 1/3 of these
families were below the poverty level
(low income is a separate category)

u Perpetual unemployment

u Under employment

u Lack of access to adequate housing

u Increase in divorce rate

u Cultural changes

u Decline in two-parent households

u Lack of credit/financial management

Non-Poor working class

u Differ in composition and functioning then those families that are below the

u Employment of two partners in a household is necessary and improves the
financial situation of the family.

u Generally these families do not have the educational attainment of middle
and upper class families.

u Extended family may assist with financial and emotional support.

Middle Class

u More likely to be married and have
come from intact nuclear families

u Increased opportunity for higher
education and college training has
shifted more African Americans into
middle class

u Middle class families tend to live in
suburban areas, participate in church
activities and social clubs, and
volunteer in community

u Many will care and provide for
elderly relatives.

u Characterized by:

u Sufficient family income

u Home Ownership

u Conformity to American norms of morality

u Close supervision of children

u Dual employment of both partners

u At least one spouse with a college education

u A belief in upward mobility

u Close attachment to and involvement with
their children’s goals and lives

u Expectation that children will look to their
parents as role models.

Established Upper Class

u Number of upper class is small but

u This group has different family
structures, values, behaviors, and
cultures than those of poor or
working class.

u Dual career marriages of college
educated partners are frequent in
this class

u Most have children and rules are
strictly outlined.

u Characteristics of the group:

u Inherited wealth

u Home Ownership (typically in
racially diverse suburban

u History of intergenerational family

u Background with both partners
having been born into middle or
upper class families

u Active in organizational
memberships such as churches,
Greek organizations, etc.

Family Strengths and Challenges

u 20th century – improvements in African American families

u Life Expectancy increased

u Infant and adult mortality rates have dropped

u Substandard housing and poverty decreased

u African American families and communities need to be understood in the
context of their unique history in the U. S. that represents a far different
history than that of any other ethnic group in America (Borum, 2007, p. 119).

u More diversity is needed across social class


u Resiliency

u Strong sense of communalism

u Extensive extended and fictive kin networks

u Close knit communities

u Informal adoption – taking in children for caregiving

u Other mothering

u Black Churches/Religion

Chapter 4
Families of Mexican Origin

Overview of Latino Families

u Currently the largest ethnic-minority group in U.S.

u 3 main groups are:

u Mexican Americans – 66.9% (most recent numbers)

u Cuban – 3.7%

u Puerto Ricans 8.6%

u Many other nationalities from central and south America have arrived in the last
few decades. 20.8%

u The fastest growing group in the U.S. as a whole.

u Mexican Americans are distinguished from other Hispanics by their cultures
long established roots in the United States – dates back to 1600s

u Hispanics – term used by U.S. Government to categorize a large homogenous
group that includes people of Spanish/Latin origin or background.

u Research tends to focus on the group collectively

u Failed to address differences in values, beliefs, behaviors, and patterns of
interaction (fostered stereotypes)

u Mexican American culture

u High rates of family formation, extended family, and close kinship ties

u Familialism – a collective term for strong and persistent family orientation,
widespread and highly integrated extended kinship systems, and a consistent
preference for relying on the extended family for support

u Cultural pattern handed down through generations

u Response to historical conditions of economic deprivation

u Positive form of social organization that facilitates adaptation to marginal
existence (Hoppe & Heller, 1997)

u Chain migration – kin help each other find housing and employment

u Religion has been central in Mexican families

u Religiosity – extreme religiousness is often formed throughout the process of
assimilation and adaptation

u Religious instruction is generally the responsibility of women within the family

u Each subgroup of Hispanics has a distinct form of church in the homeland.

u Majority of Mexican and Mexican-origin individuals are Catholic

Curanderos – folk healers, use the forces of good and evil to remedy just about
any human ailment.

u Curanderismo

Immigration Experience

u Wall issue (current issue) – https://www.newsweek.com/donald-trump-

u Historically U.S. welcomed Mexicans (cheaper labor costs)

u Appeared in America before other Hispanics

u Often fled the country during unrest

u …



Although they suffered multiple forms of
discrimination Asian Americans are doing
well in U.S.

Median Income and Education higher
than an other group

Levels of poverty is slightly higher than
Whites and significantly lower than any
other ethnic minority group

High percentages of family households

High rates of married couples

Low single-parent household rates

Divorce increase among younger


Majority of Asian Americans are foreign born

Only a small percentage are descendants of people who
experienced discrimination in U.S.

Many come to U.S. with high levels of education and money

Today Asian Americans are the second-fastest growing
racial group.

­ In China 5% have college education; 48% of Chinese

Americans have college degree
­ 1 child law – began in late 70’s; ended in 2016


Birth tourism is the practice of traveling to another
country for the purpose of giving birth in that
country. The main reason for birth tourism is to
obtain citizenship for the child in a country with
birthright citizenship


The Chinese were the first group of Asians in the U.S. and faced relentless

When Chinese first arrived on the West Coast they were able to secure work in a
variety of occupations

After Gold Rush, influx of European Settlers
­ Limited Chinese and other racial minorities to low-status labor

1850 – California passed the Foreign Miner’s Tax
­ required Chinese to pay higher taxes
­ Chinese businesses and products were boycotted



The Chinese in the U.S. today are a diverse group of people whose
ancestors originated in various parts of China.

Two major groups are Cantonese speaking (primarily low socioeconomic
status in China) or Mandarin speaking (primarily immigrants who came
to the U.S. for economic reasons before WWII-more recent immigrants
and tend be middle class)

19th century – Chinese immigration began; the Chinese government
supported the values of the traditional family system
­ Ideologies of the family system and the state were mutually

supportive both being based on Confucianism (a way of life) – that
held a sacred system of hierarchies based on generation, age, and

­ Filial Piety – ancestors and elders are viewed with great reverence
and respect.
­ Members of the older generation are regarded as deserving a

higher status than individuals in the younger generation.

Generation and age hierarchies were demonstrated in
several aspects of the functioning of traditional Chinese

Property ownership – parents retain legal rights to
family property

Members of younger generations usually depended on
the father or other close kinsmen for their occupations.

Education – wisdom of elders valued and is major source
of knowledge

Ancestor worship was the central family religious

Extended family is central to the social organization of
the Chinese village

Gender hierarchy is evidenced by the power vested in
the male family head.

Strict division of labor exist

Husband assumed the role of breadwinner

Wife provides emotional support and physical care of the children

Gender and age hierarchy impacts system of inheritance

Family property is divided up among sons either before or upon death of the

The eldest son is assigned the responsibility of taking care of parents and could
expect to receive a larger share than his brothers.

1949 – Communist victory brought about changes in
marriage, mate selection, and gender roles

Traditional China – marriage was the building block
for the basic institution of society – the family.

Younger men and women were not usually consulted
about whom they would marry

Marriage Law of 1950 – designed to intervene at the
basic level in the intimate affair of family – equality
among both partners in the marriage; banned
polygyny, child betrothal, bride prices and dowries
and the coercion of either party to the union

The first Asian immigrants (the Chinese) to
arrive in America were attracted by gold &
other minerals and by jobs that became
available as the American West developed.

First significant wave of Chinese immigrants
arrived in the 1840s and 1850s
­ China involved in two wars – over 25 million

­ Also a number of natural disasters (draughts

and plagues)

Discovery of Gold in U.S. (1848) pulled
Chinese to West Coast

19th century – most Americans had a negative impression of Chinese immigrants (starving beggars and
Opium addicts).

Targets of racial discrimination, violent outbreaks in the 1880’s all over the west; Americans feared losing
jobs to immigrants.

1850 – California passed law that prohibited Chinese Americans from marrying European Americans; 15
other states also passed laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
­ Cable Act – American women who married a person ineligible for citizenship would forfeit her own.

1882 Exclusion Act and subsequent extensions restricted Chinese immigration and completely prohibited it by
passing the 1924 immigration act.
­ Special taxes levied against Chinese immigrants
­ Discrimination in housing and employment
­ Forced into Chinatown “ghettos”
­ Prohibited entry of Chinese laborers or their relatives
­ Chinese officials, students, tourists, and merchants were exempt
­ 1888- Scott Act barred laborers from reentering if they left
­ 1925- Quota system based on nationality; stayed in place until 1965

Most early Chinese immigrants were men
because Chinese familial tradition (patriarchal,
patrilocal, etc.) prevented wives from
accompanying their husbands.
­ In China, marriages were arranged with little
or no input from the marriage partners

­ Typically first met when bride was arriving at
the groom’s home.

Split-household families – husband and wife
are residing in two different countries because
of the limitations the U.S. put on Chinese
­ Husband often didn’t leave for U.S. until wife
was pregnant

­ Occasional trips back to China with intention
of having additional children

­ Once father retired he would return to China
and eldest son replaced him.


Chinese have come to the U.S. to seek better standard of living and a higher level of
education for their children.

Majority emigrated from Taiwan, Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China, and

Because some Chinese families have been in the United States for five or six
generations and other have arrived recently, there is great diversity in the Chinese
­ Experiences of Chinese people in the United States vary considerably depending on the dates of their

entrance into the country.


Difficult to describe the size and composition of Chinese households in the U.S. from
1850-1920 because the majority of immigrants were men who did were either
never married or married but their spouses and children were in China

1900 – Sex Ratio was 18:1; 3.4% of the population consisted of children

Many immigrant men planned to return to China after accumulating enough money to
acquire land and retire; in the meantime they sent money back home to support

About 2/3 of the men returned to China

1910’s – families in urban Chinatowns began to grow despite obstacles in their

1900-1930 – population of children rose to 20.4%; most families were formed based
on earning from small businesses and accumulating sufficient capital

1930’s – 50’s – Continued increase in Chinese families due to the repeal of the
Chinese Exclusion Act and the creation of the Brides’ Act of 1946 and the Immigration
Act of 1953

Today – about 87% of Chinese American families consist of married couple with
children under age 18

Fertility is lower for Chinese American women than those that are foreign born


Parent-child relationships characterized as formal.

Behaviors that bring honor to family:
­ Achievement
­ Obedience
­ Obligation to parents
­ Activities that give the family a good name
­ Problem behaviors such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and disobedience brought shame to the

entire family and were strictly discouraged.

­ These values continue to be transmitted through socialization of Chinese children today. Most families
are dual income earners.


Asian American educational achievement often
explained solely by cultural values, such as
spiritual beliefs, obedience, and respect for

Asian parents supplement children’s schooling with:
­ Attendance at Chinese language schools
­ Math tutors
­ Other academic activities

­ Pressure to succeed is enormous

­ More Chinese American women are earning
college degrees.


In traditional China, partners were not consulted about
whom and when they would marry.

Parent chose brides for their sons who first met the needs
of the family and second met the needs of the son. This
practice was accepted as part of the filial duty.

Contemporary Chinese Americans still face parental
pressure but most choose their own partner based on love
and compatibility.

Marriage is often homogamous but more Asian Americans
are marrying outside of their race/ethnicity (out-

Affection (kissing, holding hands, hugs) generally not
displayed openly.


Historically, the division of work and family roles has
been shaped by structural and cultural forces.
Example: Split family, entrepreneurs, etc.)

Contemporary Chinese Wives have high rates of
labor-force participation.

Many Chinese American women occupy executive,
administrative, and managerial positions
­ Gender wage gap remains
­ Women still responsible for caring for the children

Average income is higher than that of European,
African, Latino, and Native Americans

Low Divorce rate among Chinese
American population
­ Reflects lack of choices of women rather

than marital quality
­ Traditions
­ Divorce rate generally under 5%
­ Lower than all other racial/ethnic groups
­ Little information on single parenthood but

the vast majority of Chinese American
children live with both parents (rates highest
amongst racial groups.



Cultural continuity, despite early
immigrant adversities

The absorption of extended family

Financial contribution from women


Hostility and discrimination faced in
previous generations.

Racism and discrimination by peers and

Workplace – feel they have to work
harder than others to attain same


Model minority myth – belief that Asian Americans have high levels of educational
attainment, low crime rates, and an absence of juvenile delinquency and mental
health problems.
­ Stress
­ Dropouts

Glass ceiling effect – the illusion that once can reach the top but in reality an invisible
ceiling prevents it.

Family relationships are still influenced by Confusian principles.

Chapter 7
Japanese American Families


• Asian Nation
• http://www.asian-nation.org/
• Multiple ethnicities and nationalities fall

under Asian.

• West Asian countries usually classified
as Middle Eastern.
• Cultural similarities
• Arabic language
• Practice of Islam

• East Asians have the largest
population and longest history in the
• Chinese largest Asian ethnic group in U.S.

followed by Filipinos, Asian Indians,
Vietnamese, and Koreans.

• Historically, until 1980 Chinese and Japanese were two largest Asian
groups in U.S.
• After WWII Japan’s economy grew in strength
• Fewer Japanese immigrated to U.S

• Changes in U.S. immigration laws in 1965 opened the doors for other
Asian groups

• Today Asian Americans are the second-fastest growing racial group.

• Includes Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Asian Indians and Filipinos

• Each of these ethnic subgroups arrived, one after the other

• As one was restricted another replaced them.

• Many sailed across the pacific and were processed at Angel Island in
San Francisco Bay

• Prime virtue in the Japanese feudal system was loyalty to the ruler
• Family lineage and honor are of great importance in medieval Japanese

society because of inheritance determined power and prestige and ownership
of property.

• Family continuity of vital concern.

• Leadership role inherited by oldest son who also inherits family estate

The Japanese American Experience

• 1880’s – Japanese immigration increased.
• Many experiences mimic Chinese
• Little distinction was made between the two
• Many laws implemented to hinder Chinese were also applied to other


• Some experiences were unique to Japanese.

• 1890 – 12,000 Japanese resided in
Hawaii and 3,000 on mainland
(mostly California).
• By 1930 – 140,000 (about 98,000 in

• Like Chinese, many men had

agriculture background
• Wanted to earn money and return to

their country
• Railroad building and gold mining

opportunities had declined by their

• 1907 Governments of U.S. and
Japan came to “gentleman’s
• Similar to the Chinese exclusion Act
• Prevented the entry of laborers
• Unlike Exclusion Act the agreement

did not prohibit laborers from
sending for wives

• 1909-1924 – “picture bride” era
• Arrangement of marriage through


• Bombing in 1941
• Japanese sank or severely damaged 18 ships (8

battleships, 3 light cruisers, and 3 destroyers).

• On the airfields the Japanese destroyed 161 American
planes (Army 74, Navy 87) and seriously damaged 102
(Army 71, Navy 31).

• 2,117 were deaths (Navy 2,008, Marines 109) and 779
wounded (Navy 710, Marines 69).

• The Army lost 228 killed or died of wounds, 113
seriously wounded

• 57 civilians were killed and nearly as many seriously

• FDR passed an
executive order
declaring most of West
Coast a military-
sensitive area
• More than 110,000

Japanese Americans
removed from their
homes; placed in army
style relocation camps
• Closed in 1946

Household Size and Composition (Japanese Americans)

• Japanese family structure is similar to traditional American nuclear family.
• Stem family still exists in which retied parents are likely to live with the

child who inherits the leadership role.
• Families who can afford to may have a separate wing or adjoining home for the


• Current Birth rate of 0.9% is much lower than earlier generations, other
Asian subgroups, European Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics.
• Most families are nuclear; only about 5% of Japanese American households

include other relatives.
• Japanese American households use to have more consanguineal relationships over

the years their has been more independence and separate households, thus more
recently Japanese American families place emphasis on conjugal relationships.

Socialization of Children

• Children were encouraged to speak English exclusively
• Educational achievement was considered by parents to be an indication of

their children’s successful acculturation
• Hierarchy by age (eldest son receives special treatment)

• Second to be served at meals (behind the father)
• Generally indulged
• Younger siblings instructed to obey him

• Expected to contribute to the household economy through work in the
family business by the time they reach adolescence
• Children are valued in terms of both their potential for helping parents in

the future and for males the ability to carry on the family name


• Changes in mate selection
• Before WWII parents were more likely to choose; post

WWII more children chose their own partner.

• Teens spent most leisure time away from (homes
were small and lacked privacy)
• Average age of marriage 27.8 for men and 24.4 for

• High rates of “out marriage” – marrying outside of

Japanese culture
• Exogamy – out marriage

• Generally little affection by couples in front of
children or others

Work Relationships and the Family

• Traditionally women had a subservient position while men enjoyed
superior social status.
• Men were breadwinners; women were homemakers

• Contemporary families are more egalitarian
• Increase in women in the workforce since 1960’s
• Women still lag in income (men more likely to be in executive, managerial

positions while women are more likely to be in clerical or sales support
• More dual earner families
• Gender gap in educational statistics
• Higher household expenses

Life Cycle Transitions

• One of the lowest divorce rates of any group in
the U.S. (1.6 %)
• Single parent households are at around 12%

• Strong commitments to family and caring for
• Tend to live near parents and provide financial

• Because of low birth rates and low levels of recent

immigration, the Japanese population is aging.

Family Strengths and Challenges

• Strong family solidarity despite adverse historical experiences.
• Strong feelings of obligation and commitment toward parents
• Tolerance toward family diversity.
• Economic parity.

• Glass ceiling effect: encouraged to be as successful as possible, but it
is virtually impossible to reach the top.

Misconception & Stereotypes

• Model minority myth – high educational attainment, low crime levels,
and absence of juvenile delinquency published by journalists (1960’s)
• Model viewed Japanese families as ideal

• Income is higher and divorce rate is lower than majority (Caucasians)
• Ideal minority

Asian American Families Today

• Although they suffered multiple forms of discrimination Asian
Americans are doing well in U.S.
• Median Income and Education higher than an other group
• Levels of poverty is slightly higher than Whites and significantly lower

than any other ethnic minority group
• High percentages of family households
• High rates of married couples
• Low single-parent household rates
• Divorce increase among younger generation
• Japanese has highest divorce rate

Puerto Rican Families Chapter 8


• Puerto Rican Migration to the U.S. – experienced many of the same
problems as other ethnic groups
• Poverty
• Family separation
• Sense of isolation

• Timing of migration is different
• Puerto Ricans are U.S. Citizens
• All Puerto Rican Americans have the right to travel between the island and


• Acculturation, or learning to live an environment with others whose
cultural values differ from one’s own, has played in an important role
for Puerto Ricans for centuries.
• Like many of the cultures of the U.S., Puerto Rican culture evolved as

Europeans, Africans, and indigenous Indians mixed with and
influenced each other.

• Despite the influence of the U.S. the island’s native culture retained
many distinctive characteristics.

• Puerto Rican culture has maintained the community orientation that
is part of its Spanish and African heritage.

• The high status accorded to the elders of the family, particularly the
patriarchs (men viewed as leaders), and the prevalence of traditional
gender-role expectations, indicate that Puerto Rican culture still
features a rigid social system in which hierarchies are respected,
within both the family and the larger community.

The Migration Experience

• Began as a Spanish colony
• U.S. took possession of the island in the late 19th century during

Spanish American war.
• American military general served as governor of Island

• 1917 – Jones Act gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans giving them
the right to travel freely between the island and mainland
• Currently over 50% of Puerto Ricans live on the mainland

• 1947 – held 1st popular election; 1st native born governor
• 1950 – granted the right to draft their own constitution – making it a

commonwealth – not a U.S. state or independent
• About 300,000 lived on the mainland (mainly in NY)
• The “Great Migration” – 20 year period after WWII 640,000 Puerto Ricans came to

• Primarily facilitated by the development of direct commercial flights from San Juan to NY City.

Much quicker than 5 day boat trip.
• 1970 – 1.5 million
• 2000 – 7 million
• 2012 Election

• Referendum on relationship with U.S.
• 54% to 46% (reject current status as commonwealth)

• Puerto Ricans DO NOT have full U.S citizenship unless born on the
• Islanders are not required to pay federal taxes
• They can not vote in presidential elections
• Only one nonvoting member of Congress

• Only 1% of Puerto Rican American population considered Foreign born
• They are not subject to immigration laws

• Adaptation to American culture
• Some have chosen the values and

customs of the dominant culture but
retain their connection to Puerto
• Others immerse themselves in

mainstream American Culture

Household Composition

• More Puerto Rican families conform
to the nuclear family model
• Family structures do not differ

significantly from that of the United
• Extended family lives together or in

close proximity
• Family is an extended social unit

that encompasses a wide variety of

Compadrazgo –

• Among Hispanic families strong sense of
family ties

• Roots in Catholicism
• Viewed as spiritual mentors
• Potential parents for the child should

anything happen to the parents
• In. U.S. Hispanics often use family

members as godparents
• Usually appointed infant’s baptism
• Traditionally different sets of godparents

chosen at child’s first holy Communion,
confirmation, and marriage


• Generational relationships play both a symbolic and practical role in
the survival of the extended family
• Elders treated with special respect
• Foundation on which the entire familial system is based
• Generally young and middle-aged go to elders for advice

• Importance of extended family in traditional Puerto Rican society can
not be overstated
• Familialism – strong orientation to the family as both the root of one’s

identity and a conduit to the outside world

of Children

• Child rearing holds special importance
• Raising children is primarily the mother’s

responsibility, the father is also involved.
• The goal of socializing children is to develop boys and

girls into adults who conform into traditional
masculine and feminine roles
• Boys and girls are raised differently (gender

• Boys – aggressive, and extroverted, allowed to

play outside of the household much earlier than

• Girls – expected to stay close to home, assume
domestic responsibilities at an early age, and to
behave in a restrained and obedient manner


• Gender based differences continue
into adolescence

• Selecting one’s future mate is a key
part of one’s personal life,
particularly in the family-oriented
culture (the larger life of the family

• Puerto Rican dating patterns are
different than traditional American
• Interests of the family and

those of the individual within
the family are tightly joined

• Because family is the central social unit of
Puerto Rican culture, there is great concern for
familial continuity.
• Children are valued
• Having children is not delayed.

• Gender differences are embedded within the
• Machismo – manliness; lead of the

• Marianismo – derives from the devotion

accorded in Latin American Catholicism to
the figure of the Virgin Mary.

• Traditional Puerto Rican women have few
relationships outside of extended family

• Lives center on the home and raising

Family Relationships

• Family functions as a cooperative social unit, with in
the roles assigned to men and women

• Traditional role awards the male higher status more
freedom of action.
• Male – involves responsibilities to the family

and venturing out of the household to provide;
also expected to participate in household
duties to an extent

• Female – role is changing; more role models in
mainstream culture; expected to contribute

• Cohabitation increasing among all Hispanic groups but
generally more practiced and accepted among Puerto

• Single parent households increasing among all
Hispanic groups
• Higher among Puerto Ricans (high non marital

birth & divorce rates)
• Lower divorce rates than other racial ethnic groups

• This can be misleading because separation figures
are not included.

• Puerto Ricans have he highest rate among the

• Mexicans have the lowest rate.
• Religion is cultural explanation.

Life Cycle

• Increasing instability in poor Puerto Rican
American families

• Dramatic rise in the number of female-
headed households has placed strain on a
culture grounded patriarchy and strong
family orientation

• Nearly 50% of Puerto Rican families were
headed by women
• Less access to resources traditionally

provided by the extended family
• Loss of support has led to destructive

behaviors in children

• Social conditions
• Some women find traditional gender

roles constraining
• Desire greater authority in making

household decisions

Family Strengths & Challenges

• Reliance on extended family for

emotional and practical support
• Majority of adults visit their

parents weekly

• Shift from extended family to

nuclear family
• Poverty

Misconceptions and Stereotypes

• Subject to many stereotypes that
misrepresent them
• Perceived as lazy
• Unwilling to work
• Rely on Government assistance
• Antisocial behavior
• Unstructured households
• Multigenerational support

viewed as a weakness
• Low income

Asian Indian
Chapter 9


• The name Asian Indian refers to people who are originally from the
subcontinent of India.
• Subgroup of larger Asian American group
• Asian/Pacific Islander (Asian American) established by the U.S. Immigration

and Naturalization Service, includes all South Asians and Southeast Asians
• Overlooks ethnic and cultural variations that exist within and among the different

nations of Asia.

• Among many Asian populations in the U.S., Asian Indians are one of
the fastest growing groups.
• Fourth largest subgroup after Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino Americans.

• India is a land of religious diversity.
• 83% Hindus
• 11% Muslims
• 3% Christians
• 2% Sikhs

• Hinduism, a 2500-year-old religion, forms
the basis of Asian Indian psychology and

• In addition, Indian society I divided into
many castes, tribes, languages, and
subcultures, resulting in a variety of
traditional practices.


• Ideally, Hindus forfeit their desire for life and seek salvation (Nirvana)
from the cycle of reincarnation in order to become one with Brahman
• Hindus believe that the individual’s destiny, or karma, is the result of

present actions, and they adhere to codes of conduct appropriate for
different stages of human life.
• Four concepts underlie this attitude toward life and daily conduct

• Dharma – actions characterized by considerations of righteousness and duty
• Artha – activities whose object is material gain
• Kama – those whose end is love or pleasure
• Moksha – devotions to spiritual pursuits in order to liberate the self from worldly life