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After reading the chapter 11 physical fitness. write at least a 250 word response to;

1.Why is calculating your maximum heart rate important?

2. What is your maximum heart rate?

3. Why is it important to calculate your target heart rate?

4. What is your target heart rate?

5. What is the difference of moderate and vigorous exercise?

6. What health benefits does a person receive from doing either moderate or vigorous exercise?

**Remember to receive full credit you must answer all the questions as well as the word count of the post.

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CHAPTER 11: Physical Fitness
Being physically active is one of the most important steps that Americans of all ages can
take to improve their health. The benefits of physical activity occur in generally healthy
people, in people at risk of developing chronic diseases, and in people with current chronic
conditions or disabilities. Studies have examined the role of physical activity in many
groups—men and women, children, teens, adults, older adults, people with disabilities, and
women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. These studies have focused on the
role that physical activity plays in many health outcomes, including:

• Premature (early) death;
• Diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, some cancers, type 2 diabetes,

osteoporosis, and depression;
• Risk factors for disease, such as high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol;
• Physical fitness, such as aerobic capacity, and muscle strength and endurance
• Functional capacity (the ability to engage in activities needed for daily living);
• Mental health, such as depression and cognitive function; and
• Injuries or sudden heart attacks.

There have also been additional studies by the Advisory Committee of the U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services. The Advisory Committee rated the evidence of health
benefits of physical activity as strong, moderate, or weak. To do so, the Committee
considered the type, number, and quality of studies available, as well as consistency of
findings across studies that addressed each outcome.
The Committee also considered evidence for causality and dose response in assigning the
strength-of-evidence rating.

Section 11.1 Health Benefits Associated With Regular Physical Activity

Children and Adolescents

Strong evidence
• Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
• Improved bone health
• Improved cardiovascular and metabolic health biomarkers
• Favorable body composition
Moderate evidence
• Reduced symptoms of depression

Adults and Older Adults

Strong evidence
• Lower risk of early death

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• Lower risk of coronary heart disease
• Lower risk of stroke
• Lower risk of high blood pressure
• Lower risk of adverse blood lipid profile
• Lower risk of type 2 diabetes
• Lower risk of metabolic syndrome
• Lower risk of colon cancer
• Lower risk of breast cancer
• Prevention of weight gain
• Weight loss, particularly when combined with reduced calorie intake
• Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
• Prevention of falls
• Reduced depression
• Better cognitive function (for older adults)
Moderate to strong evidence
• Better functional health (for older adults)
• Reduced abdominal obesity
Moderate evidence
• Lower risk of hip fracture
• Lower risk of lung cancer
• Lower risk of endometrial cancer
• Weight maintenance after weight loss
• Increased bone density
• Improved sleep quality

These studies have also prompted questions as to what type and how much physical
activity is needed for various health benefits. That led to the development of The Physical
Activity Guidelines for Americans, which gives guidance on the amount of physical activity
that will provide health benefits for all Americans. Although some health benefits seem to
begin with as little as 60 minutes (1 hour) a week, research shows that a total amount of
150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such
as brisk walking, consistently reduces the risk of many chronic diseases and other adverse
health outcomes. For more details on the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans please
see the table below:

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Although the Guidelines focus on the health benefits of physical activity, these benefits are
not the only reason why people are active. Physical activity gives people a chance to have
fun, be with friends and family, enjoy the outdoors, improve their personal appearance, and
improve their fitness so that they can participate in more intensive physical activity or
sporting events. Some people are active because they feel it gives them certain health
benefits (such as feeling more energetic) that aren’t yet conclusively proven for the general
population. The Guidelines encourage people to be physically active for any and all reasons
that are meaningful for them. Nothing in the Guidelines is intended to mean that health
benefits are the only reason to do physical activity.

Section 11.2 Health Related Components of Physical Fitness

In many studies related to physical fitness and health, researchers have focused on
exercise, as well as on the more broadly defined concept of physical activity. Physical
activity is defined by the World Health Organization as any bodily movement produced by
skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure, while exercise is a form of physical
activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and performed with the goal of improving
health or fitness. So, although all exercise is physical activity, not all physical activity is
exercise. Although physical activity and exercise are defined concepts, the ultimate focus of
the health related components of physical fitness is to provide a framework for
components that are necessary for good health. They are cardiorespiratory (CR) endurance
(also called aerobic endurance), flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and
body composition.

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Cardiorespiratory endurance

(aerobic endurance) The ability of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to work together to
accomplish three goals: 1) deliver oxygen to body tissues; 2) deliver nutrients; 3) remove
waste products. CR endurance exercises involve large muscle groups in prolonged,
dynamic movement (ex. running, swimming, etc)

Examples of Different Aerobic Physical Activities and Intensities
Moderate Intensity

• Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking)
• Water aerobics
• Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour
• Tennis (doubles)
• Ballroom dancing
• General gardening

Vigorous Intensity
• Racewalking, jogging, or running
• Swimming laps
• Tennis (singles)
• Aerobic dancing
• Bicycling 10 miles per hour or faster
• Jumping rope
• Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing, with heart rate increases)
• Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack

Frequency and Duration

Aerobic physical activity should preferably be spread throughout the week. Research
studies consistently show that activity performed on at least 3 days a week produces health
benefits. Spreading physical activity across at least 3 days a week may help to reduce the
risk of injury and avoid excessive fatigue.
Both moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of
at least 10 minutes. Episodes of this duration are known to improve cardiovascular fitness
and some risk factors for heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Intensity

The Guidelines for adults focus on two levels of intensity: moderate-intensity activity and
vigorous–intensity activity. To meet the Guidelines, adults can do either moderate-intensity
or vigorous-intensity aerobic activities, or a combination of both. It takes less time to get
the same benefit from vigorous-intensity activities as from moderate-intensity activities. A
general rule of thumb is that 2 minutes of moderate-intensity activity counts the same as 1

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minute of vigorous-intensity activity. For example, 30 minutes of moderate-intensity
activity a week is roughly the same as 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity. A person
doing moderate-intensity aerobic activity can talk, but not sing, during the activity. A
person doing vigorous intensity activity cannot say more than a few words without pausing
for a breath.

Muscular Strength and Endurance

Muscular strength: The ability of muscles to exert maximal effort.
Muscular endurance: The ability of muscles to exert submaximal effort repetitively
(contract over and over again or hold a contraction for a long time).

Activities for Muscular Strength and Endurance

These kind of activities, which includes resistance training and lifting weights, causes the
body’s muscles to work or hold against an applied force or weight. These activities often
involve relatively heavy objects, such as weights, which are lifted multiple times to train
various muscle groups. Muscle-strengthening activity can also be done by using elastic
bands or body weight for resistance (climbing a tree or doing push-ups, for example).
Activities for Muscular Strength and Endurance also has three components:

• Intensity, or how much weight or force is used relative to how much a person is
able to lift;

• Frequency, or how often a person does muscle strengthening activity; and
• Repetitions, or how many times a person lifts a weight (analogous to duration for

aerobic activity). Repetitions play a key role in determining if an activity is
improving muscular strength or endurance. Low repetitions with more weight will
focus more on muscular strength, while high repetitions with less weight will focus
more on muscular endurance. The effects of muscle-strengthening activity are
limited to the muscles doing the work. It’s important to work all the major muscle
groups of the body: the legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms.

Muscle-strengthening activities provide additional benefits not found with aerobic activity.
The benefits of muscle-strengthening activity include increased bone strength and
muscular fitness. Muscle-strengthening activities can also help maintain muscle mass
during a program of weight loss.
Muscle-strengthening activities make muscles do more work than they are accustomed to
doing. That is, they overload the muscles. Resistance training, including weight training, is a
familiar example of muscle-strengthening activity. Other examples include working with
resistance bands, doing calisthenics that use body weight for resistance (such as push-ups,
pull-ups, and sit-ups), carrying heavy loads, and heavy gardening (such as digging or
hoeing).
Muscle-strengthening activities count if they involve a moderate to high level of intensity or
effort and work the major muscle groups of the body: the legs, hips, back, chest, abdomen,
shoulders, and arms. Muscle strengthening activities for all the major muscle groups should

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be done at least 2 days a week.
No specific amount of time is recommended for muscle strengthening, but muscle-
strengthening exercises should be performed to the point at which it would be difficult to
do another repetition without help. When resistance training is used to enhance muscle
strength, one set of 8 to 12 repetitions of each exercise is effective, although two or three
sets may be more effective. Development of muscle strength and endurance is progressive
over time. Increases in the amount of weight or the days a week of exercising will result in
stronger muscles.

Flexibility

Flexibility is the ability of moving a joint through the range of motion. Flexibility is an
important part of physical fitness. Some types of physical activity, such as dancing, require
more flexibility than others. Stretching exercises are effective in increasing flexibility, and
thereby can allow people to more easily do activities that require greater flexibility. For
this reason, flexibility activities are an appropriate part of a physical activity program, even
though they have no known health benefits and it is unclear whether they reduce risk of
injury. Time spent doing flexibility activities by themselves does not count toward meeting
the aerobic or muscle-strengthening Guidelines. Although there are not specific national
guidelines for flexibility, adults should do flexibility exercises at least two or three days
each week to improve range of motion. This can be done by holding a stretch for 10-30
seconds to the point of tightness or slight discomfort. Repeat each stretch two to four
times, accumulating 60 seconds per stretch.

Body composition

The percentage of the body composed of lean tissue (muscle, bone, fluids, etc.) and fat
tissue. Changes in body composition usually occur as a result of improvements in the other
components of health related physical fitness, as well as changes in eating habits. This is
discussed in more detail in the Weight Management and Healthy Eating Chapter.

There are also other components of fitness related to sports performance rather than just
health. They are called skill-related components of fitness or motor fitness and include
power, speed, agility, balance, and coordination. For the purpose of this class we will focus
mainly on the health-related components of fitness.

Section 11.3 Adding Physical Activity to Your Life

Overcoming Barrier to Being Physical Active

Given the health benefits of regular physical activity, we might have to ask why two out of
three (60%) Americans are not active at recommended levels.

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Many technological advances and conveniences that have made our lives easier and less
active, as well as many personal variables, including physiological, behavioral, and
psychological factors, may affect our plans to become more physically active. In fact, the 10
most common reasons adults cite for not adopting more physically active lifestyles are
(Sallis and Hovell, 1990; Sallis et al., 1992):

• Do not have enough time to exercise
• Find it inconvenient to exercise
• Lack self-motivation
• Do not find exercise enjoyable
• Find exercise boring
• Lack confidence in their ability to be physically active (low self-efficacy)
• Fear being injured or have been injured recently
• Lack self-management skills, such as the ability to set personal goals, monitor

progress, or reward progress toward such goals
• Lack encouragement, support, or companionship from family and friends, and
• Do not have parks, sidewalks, bicycle trails, or safe and pleasant walking paths

convenient to their homes or offices.
Understanding common barriers to physical activity and creating strategies to overcome
them may help you make physical activity part of your daily life. Please visit the link below
to see a full table of SUGGESTIONS FOR OVERCOMING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BARRIERS:
https://courses.candelalearning.com/fitness1xmaster/chapter/adding-physical-
activity-to-your-life/

Creating your own Fitness Program

The first step to implementing a fitness program is to identify your goals. As discussed in
earlier chapters, goals should be specific, measurable, action-oriented, realistic and time-
bound (SMART). Progress can be difficult to track if goals are vague and open-ended, such
as “I will exercise more.” Here is an example of a SMART goal for fitness:

• Specific: “I will walk for 30 minutes a day 3-5 days per week”
• Measurable: “I will improve my resting heart rate over the next month”
• Action-Oriented: “I will research walking routes around my home and campus”
• Realistic: “I will increase my walking to 45 minutes per day in one month”
• Time Bound: “I will try this walking program for one month and then reassess my

goals”
You can also make a SMART Goal in one statement, such as “I will walk for 30 minutes 3-5
days per week for the next month in order to improve my resting heart rate.”

FITT Principle

Using the FITT principle is one way remember the guidelines for physical activity and
create a prescription for improvement in your health-related physical fitness.

• Frequency: how often a person performs a health-related physical activity.
• Intensity: how hard a person exercises during a physical activity period. Intensity

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can be measured in different ways, depending on the related health-related
component.

• Time: also known as duration. Refers to the amount of time or repetitions when
performing a physical activity.

• Type: the kind of exercise or physical activity a person is performing.
Adapted from:
http://www.ode.state.or.us/teachlearn/subjects/pe/curriculum/fittprinciple.pdf)

Measuring Intensity

TARGET HEART RATE AND ESTIMATED MAXIMUM HEART RATE
Exercise intensity can be measured using either heart rate or the rating of perceived
exertion (RPE) method. We will look at each of these methods in turn. There are two
methods of using heart rate to measure exercise intensity: the percentage of maximal heart
rate method and the heart rate reserve (HRR), or karvonen method.
As its name suggests, the percentage of maximal heart rate method involves prescribing
exercise at a certain percentage of maximum heart rate. To find out a person’s true
maximum heart rate we need to measure it in a laboratory. However, for most people this
is impractical; therefore we can estimate maximum heart rate using the formula ‘220 – age’
(see Box 1).

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Box 1: Percentage heart rate method Case study: ‘Mariella’, age 30
Step 1 – Calculate maximum heart rate (HRmax)
Estimated HRmax = 220 – age
= 220 – 30
= 190 bpm (beats per minute)
Step 2 – Calculate exercise intensity
ACSM guidelines = 55–90% of HRmax
Lower target (55%) = 190 × 55%
= 190 × 0.55
= 104.5 bpm (we would round this up to 105 bpm)
Upper target (90%) = 190 × 90%
= 190 × 0.90
= 171 bpm

This formula gives us an idea of maximum heart rate, but we must remember that it is just
an estimate and not completely accurate. Therefore using this method, according to ACSM
guidelines, Mariella should exercise at a heart rate somewhere between 105 and 171 bpm.
This is quite a wide range so, depending on her fitness levels, you would need to decide
whether to prescribe Mariella exercise to the upper or lower end of this scale.
Please note that there are online calculators available to calculate all of this information for
you. Once such calculator can be found at:
http://www.sparkpeople.com/resource/calculator_target.asp

The HRR method is thought to be more accurate than the percentage of maximal heart rate
method because it takes the individual’s resting heart rate into account. The formula for
calculating HRR can be seen in Box 2. The ACSM recommends that to improve aerobic
fitness, exercise intensity should be set at either 40–85 per cent of (HRR) or 55–90 per cent
of maximum heart rate (HRmax) (Pollock et al., 1998). These ranges are deliberately broad
to reflect different levels of fitness; that is, someone with relatively low levels of fitness
who has just started an exercise programme may need to work on the lower end of the
scale, whereas someone who has a higher level of fitness, perhaps who has been exercising
for a while, may need to work at an intensity towards the upper end of the scale. This
demonstrates the importance of progression in an exercise programme.

Box 2: Heart rate reserve method
Case study: ‘Mariella’, age 30
Step 1 – Calculate maximum heart rate (HRmax)
Estimated HRmax = 220 – age
= 220 – 30
= 190 bpm (beats per minute)

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Step 2 – Measure resting heart rate (HRrest)
You would measure this either using a heart rate monitor or manually, using your fingers.
Ideally it should be measured first thing in the morning. Let’s imagine that Mariella’s HRrest
has been measured at 70 bpm.
Step 3 – Calculate heart rate reserve (HRR)
HRR = HRmax – HRrest
= 190 – 70
= 120 bpm
Step 4 – Calculate exercise intensity
ACSM guidelines = 40–85% HRR
Lower target (40%) = (HHR × 40%) + HRrest
= (120 × 0.40) + 70
= 48 + 70
= 118 bpm
Upper target (85%) = (HHR × 85%) + HRrest
= (120 × 0.85) + 70
= 102 + 70
= 172 bpm
Using this method, according to ACSM guidelines, Mariella should exercise somewhere
between 118 and 172 bpm.

Borg Scale

An alternative to using heart rate methods is the RPE method of measuring exercise
intensity. However, you should note that it is difficult to give a general recommendation for
RPE, as it is by its very nature open to personal interpretation; that is, what I consider to be
a 12 may be different to what you consider to be a 12. RPE can be a useful way of
measuring exercise intensity when heart rate monitoring is difficult or inappropriate. For
example, some types of medication (e.g. beta blockers) given to people with hypertension
lower the heart rate, and therefore heart rate measurement is not appropriate for people
on this type of medication. The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale is one
way to measure perceived exertion. In medicine, this is used to document the patient’s
exertion during a test, and sports coaches use the scale to assess the intensity of training
and competition. The original scale introduced by Gunnar Borg rated exertion on a scale of
6-20. The seemingly odd range of 6-20 is to follow the general heart rate of a healthy adult
by multiplying by 10. For instance, a perceived exertion of 12 would be expected to
coincide with a heart rate of roughly 120 beats per minute.

SET POINTS ON SCALE
It ranges from 6 to 20, where 6 means “no exertion at all” and 20 means “maximal
exertion.” Choose the number from below that best describes your level of exertion. This

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will give you a good idea of the intensity level of your activity, and you can use this
information to speed up or slow down your movements to reach your desired range.
Try to appraise your feeling of exertion as honestly as possible, without thinking about
what the actual physical load is. Your own feeling of effort and exertion is important, not
how it compares to other people’s. Look at the scales and the expressions and then give a
number.

6 No exertion at all
7 Extremely light (7.5)
8
9 Very light
10
11 Light
12
13 Somewhat hard
14
15 Hard
16
17 Very hard
18
19 Extremely hard
20 Maximal exertion

9 corresponds to “very light” exercise. For a healthy person, it is like walking slowly at his
or her own pace for some minutes.

13 On the scale is “somewhat hard” exercise, but it still feels OK to continue.

17, Or “very hard,” is very strenuous. A healthy person can still go on, but he or she really
has to push him- or herself. It feels very heavy, and the person is very tired.

19 on the scale is an extremely strenuous exercise level. For most people this is the most
strenuous exercise they have ever experienced.

TAKING YOUR HEART RATE
Generally, to determine whether you are exercising within the heart rate target zone, you
must stop exercising briefly to take your pulse. You can take the pulse at the neck, the
wrist, or the chest. We recommend the wrist. You can feel the radial pulse on the artery of
the wrist in line with the thumb. Place the tips of the index and middle fingers over the
artery and press lightly. Do not use the thumb. Take a full 60-second count of the
heartbeats, or take for 30 seconds and multiply by 2. Start the count on a beat, which is

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counted as “zero.” If this number falls between 85 and 119 bpm in the case of the 50-year-
old person, he or she is active within the target range for moderate-intensity activity.

Section 11.4 Implementing Your Fitness Plan

The Beneficial Effects of Increasing Physical Activity: It’s About Overload,
Progression, and Specificity

Creating a safe and effective fitness program involves knowing certain basic principles of
physical fitness: overload, progression, and specificity. Overload is the physical stress
placed on the body when physical activity is greater in amount or intensity than usual. The
body’s structures and functions respond and adapt to these stresses. For example, aerobic
physical activity places a stress on the cardiorespiratory system and muscles, requiring the
lungs to move more air and the heart to pump more blood and deliver it to the working
muscles. This increase in demand increases the efficiency and capacity of the lungs, heart,
circulatory system, and exercising muscles. In the same way, muscle–strengthening and
bone-strengthening activities overload muscles and bones, making them stronger.
Progression is closely tied to overload. Once a person reaches a certain fitness level, he or
she progresses to higher levels of physical activity by continued overload and adaptation.
Small, progressive changes in overload help the body adapt to the additional stresses while
minimizing the risk of injury. Specificity means that the benefits of physical activity are
specific to the body systems that are doing the work. For example, aerobic physical activity
largely benefits the body’s cardiovascular system. These principles should be taken into
consideration during any exercise program if you expect to meet your goals.

Designing a program

Warm-up and Cool down Activities
Warm-up and cool-down activities are an important part of a person’s physical activity

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plan. Commonly, the warm-up and cool-down involve doing an activity at a slower speed or
lower intensity. A warm-up before moderate-or vigorous-intensity aerobic activity allows a
gradual increase in heart rate and breathing at the start of the episode of activity. A cool-
down after activity allows a gradual decrease at the end of the episode. Time spent doing
warm-up and cool-down may count toward meeting the aerobic activity Guidelines if the
activity is at least moderate intensity (for example, walking briskly as a warm-up before
jogging). A warm-up for muscle-strengthening activity commonly involves doing exercises
with lighter weight.

Physical Activity in a Weight Control Plan

The health benefits of physical activity are generally independent of body weight. The good
news for people needing to lose weight is that regular physical activity provides major
health benefits, no matter how their weight changes over time.
Along with appropriate dietary intake, physical activity is an important part of maintaining
healthy weight, losing weight, and keeping extra weight off once it has been lost. Physical
activity also helps reduce abdominal fat and preserve muscle during weight loss. Adults
should aim for a healthy, stable body weight. The amount of physical activity necessary to
achieve this weight varies greatly from person to person.

The first step in achieving or maintaining a healthy weight is to meet the minimum level of
physical activity in the Guidelines. For some people, this will result in a stable and healthy
body weight, but for many it may not. People who are at a healthy body weight but slowly
gaining weight can either gradually increase the level of physical activity (toward the
equivalent of 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity), or reduce caloric
intake, or both, until their weight is stable. By regularly checking body weight, people can
find the amount of physical activity that works for them.

Many adults will need to do more than the 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity
aerobic physical activity as part of a program to lose weight or keep it off. These adults
should do more physical activity and/or further reduce their caloric intake. Some people
will need to do the equivalent of 300 or more minutes of moderate-intensity physical
activity a week to meet their weight-control goals. Combined with restricting caloric intake,
these adults should gradually increase minutes or the intensity of aerobic physical activity
per week, to the point at which the physical activity is effective in achieving a healthy
weight.

Adults should strongly consider walking as one good way to get aerobic physical activity.
Many studies show that walking has health benefits and a low risk of injury. It can be done
year-round and in many settings. It is important to remember that all activities—both
baseline and physical activity—“count” for energy balance. Active choices, such as taking
the stairs rather than the elevator or adding short episodes of walking to the day, are

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examples of activities that can be helpful in weight control. For weight control, vigorous-
intensity activity is far more time-efficient than moderate-intensity activity. For example,
an adult who weighs 165 pounds (75 kg) will burn 560 calories from 150 minutes of brisk
walking at 4 miles an hour (these calories are in addition to the calories normally burned
by a body at rest). That person can burn the same number of additional calories in 50
minutes by running 5 miles at a 10 minutes-per-mile pace.

Achieving Your Physical Activities: The Possibilities are endless