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Please see attached word document for instructions

** Only use word document attached to complete discussion **


· Read the 
Week 4 Lesson

· Read Section 
, Section 
, and Section 
 in the textbook.

· Review 

A Reference Guide to APA 7th Edition

 (Links to an external site.)

· Familiarize yourself with the 

Steps to Avoiding Plagiarism

 (Links to an external site.)

· Visit the Pew Research Center website and

· choose an issue from the 

Research Topics

 (Links to an external site.)
 page and select one article related to the issue that interests you.


· Review the 

Integrating Research

 (Links to an external site.)
 interactive that you completed in Week 2 Discussion 2: Reflective Thinking: Academic Integrity.


· Share what interested you about the article you selected.

· Describe why the ethical use of information is important.

· Describe two strategies you could apply to ensure the information from the article is used ethically if you were writing an assignment for class or using it in a presentation at work.

· Reflect on the value and ownership of the information in the article. In your reflection,

· Explain why this information may have been created and shared. What is the value?

· Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of using this single source to form an opinion or make a decision based on what you learned about the Pew Research Center.

· Provide evidence from the article to support your reflection using the ICE method from Section 5.3 of the textbook.

· Provide the APA Style-formatted reference for article you examined.

 Initial post is a minimum of 250 words

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1.4 What Is APA Style, and Why Is It Important to Researchers?

Your Road Map to Success: Section 1.4

Learning Outcome 1.4: Explain how and why researchers use APA Style.

Why is this important?

Understanding how to format your work using APA Style will allow you to develop evidence-based work
that is consistent with professional research. Following a standardized style for formatting your work results
in a presentation that is clear and easily verifiable as well as academically honest. When Darryl, a health care
administration student, first encountered APA Style, he felt frustrated and confused, in part because in high
school he had used MLA style. After mastering this learning outcome, he understood that all other research in
his field would be formatted using APA Style. Darryl is now in graduate school. He is glad he learned how to
use APA Style as a college freshman because he’s still using it today as he works on his master’s thesis.

How does this relate to your success in this course?

Mastering this learning outcome will help you present your research honestly and ethically. Using APA Style
to cite and reference your sources will help you avoid plagiarism and adhere to a formatting style consistent
with scholarly work.

Why Using a Style Guide Matters

A style guide is a set of rules for formatting written work and crediting sources that writers and editors of a given
field or profession follow. Using a style guide ensures that work shared within the field is presented in a uniform
way. Researchers can quickly glance at the author’s references to learn how to trace the evidence back to its source.
Looking back at the ACRL’s framework for information literacy, following a style guide supports both scholarship
as conversation and information has value. We can better focus on the substance of the conversation when technical
elements, such as how a table is formatted or how references are listed, are settled and agreed on. Moreover,
crediting our sources is not only an ethical obligation, it is an acknowledgment of those who worked hard to produce
the information.

Popular Style Guides

There are numerous style guides in use for different purposes. The Associated Press Stylebook (AP style) is the
standard for all journalists. The Modern Language Association’s MLA style is commonly used by scholars in the
humanities. Many publishers follow the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). Countless companies have their own
style guides for internal use, also known as house styles. For example, The New York Times maintains its own manual
of style for its writers and editors. The style covers everything from grammar and punctuation to formatting
references. Many writers outside of The New York Times refer to the style for editing guidance. There are also other
styles associated with specific fields, such as the American Medical Association style for medical research. The style
guide you need to use will depend on the purpose of and audience for your writing.

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APA Style refers to the set of rules and guidelines developed by the American Psychological Association (APA), one
of the largest scientific and professional associations in the United States, to ensure a professional and academic
standard of scholarly writing, formatting, and citing. It is commonly used not only in psychology but throughout the
social sciences and is the style you will learn to use in this text.

Table 1.4 compares the most commonly used styles, their associated fields of study, and some notable characteristics.
In addition to these four, remember that some organizations and institutions may follow a house style.

Keeping a copy of the latest style manual is a good idea, since it provides instruction in punctuation, word choice,
sentence structure, and formatting.

Table 1.4: Four popular style guides

Style and website
Common fields of
study Key features

APA Style

Business, criminal
justice, economics,
psychology, and

In-text citations emphasize author last name and publication
year: (Smith, 2020).

References also pair author with publication year and
typically only the first initial of the author’s first name:

Smith, A. (2020). Book title. Publisher.

AP style

and journalism

This style focuses on questions of grammar and mechanics,
such as concision, abbreviations, and capitalization.


Art history, English,
and history

Citations can include numbered notations with
corresponding footnotes that list the reference at the bottom
of the page. For example: According to Smith, “a quotation
will be followed by a number in superscript.”1

Alexander Smith, “Title of Article,” Journal Title, no. 1
(2020): 123–24.

MLA style

Foreign language
studies, literature,
and theater

In-text citations emphasize author and page number: (Smith

References are listed on a “Works Cited” page that also
emphasizes author’s full name:

Smith, Anne. Book title. Publisher, Year.

Benefits of Understanding and Using APA Style

Once you have a strong grasp of APA Style’s defining features, you can feel confident in developing research-based
assignments. You will know, for example, how to indicate that the information you are sharing came from a journal
article, documentary film, or webpage. You will also understand how to incorporate a quotation, statistics, or images
that support your argument without worrying about plagiarism. As a result, the work you develop will appear
professional and be clear to your readers.

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Learning to use APA Style will benefit you enormously in your academic career and your profession. Some of the
benefits include the following.

You will more quickly recognize the information you need when you are looking at a paper formatted in
APA. This will increase your effectiveness as a researcher.
Carefully adhering to APA Style will help you practice the habits of research, which involve the ability to
read and create references and to locate pertinent information.
Facility with APA Style will help you as you pursue graduate study. Even if your degree program requires
that you use a different style, learning one style will enable you to adapt quickly to a new one.
Even if graduate study is not on the horizon for you, your understanding of APA Style will help you in your
career, because companies generally require their employees to adhere to a particular style guide for all
writing done on the job. Again, even if your employer requires that you use a different style, mastering APA
Style now will give you the skills to adapt to any and all style guides in the future.

In-Text Citations in APA Style

Citing in APA Style is twofold: It includes in-text citations and a corresponding reference list. Let’s begin by
discussing in-text citations.

As you’re writing your paper, you’ll frequently include material that originated from others. Perhaps you’ll
summarize a medical study or directly quote from a memoir. You might also rephrase key ideas in your own words,
also known as paraphrasing. In all such cases, you are required to include a notation identifying the source of the
material at the point you use it in your text. These notations are called in-text citations. In APA Style, in-text
citations include at least two components: the author’s last name and the publication year. When directly quoting,
you need a third component: the page or paragraph number where the quotation is found. As opposed to some other
style guides, APA requires the year of publication when citing a source, emphasizing rapidly changing and evolving
fields of study. This is how a basic in-text citation for a quoted passage looks: (Author’s last name, Year, p. #). Notice
that each element inside the in-text citation is separated by a comma. The in-text citation immediately follows the
borrowed material.

Let’s look at a few examples of in-text citations in APA Style. Notice that you should allow the period to follow the
citation so that the citation remains inside of the sentence.

“Good writing is often about letting go of affectation and fear. Affectation itself, beginning with the need
to define some sorts of writing as ‘good’ and others as ‘bad,’ is fearful behavior” (King, 2000, p. 128).

If the citation does not list a publication year, the letters “n.d.” (for “no date”) are used.

“The writer’s job is to find the argument, the approach, the angle, the wording that will take the reader with
him” (Roberts, n.d., p. 2).

If the author’s name is introduced in the sentence, using a so-called signal phrase, the year of publication belongs
alongside the name, and page numbers go at the end of the passage.

As E. B. White (1976) once reflected, “all writing is both a masking and an unveiling, and the question of
honesty is uppermost, particularly in the case of the essayist” (p. 516).

Reference List in APA Style

The second component of citing in APA Style is the complete list
of the sources you cited in your paper. This is your reference list.

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Fizkes/iStock/Getty Images Plus

Following APA Style can be crucial to the
success of your research paper. As you
write your academic paper, format your
references based on the most recent
publication manual’s guidelines.

APA Style requires that any writing assignment involving outside
research include a reference list. Moreover, any source cited in your
work must include a corresponding reference. This is essential not
only for acknowledging the work of others but also for providing
readers the information they need to locate that work. According to
the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (APA, 2020), each entry in your
reference list must identify general publication information,
including but not limited to the author’s name, title, publication or
publisher, and year of publication. Because so many sources appear
online and do not have publication dates or even authors, additional
information may be required, including retrieval data and corporate
author information.

Different types of sources have unique formatting rules that govern
their citation. Here are key rules for compiling your reference page.

Center the word “References” at the top of a new page
following the conclusion of your paper. No boldface, no
italic, no quotation marks. Just this word: References.
Double space every line. No additional spacing is
Alphabetize entries by authors’ last names. This
includes corporate authors, such as the U.S. Department of
Education. In that situation, you would alphabetize the
entry under the letter “U.”
Create a hanging indent for every line after the first in
your citation. This means the first line of each reference is
aligned with the left margin, and subsequent lines from the
same reference are indented a half inch.
Follow APA rules for punctuation, italics, and
capitalization. For instance, APA Style has very specific
capitalization rules for titles, and whereas printed source
citations end in a period, online source citations that
include web addresses do not.

Here are a few examples.

A reference for an article from an academic journal will include the title of the article, name of the journal, and
volume number.

Patwa, N., Seetharaman, A., Arora, A., Agrawal, R., & Mandalia, H. (2021). Circular economy: Bridging the gap in
sustainable manufacturing. Journal of Developing Areas, 55(1), 151–166.

References for sources with a corporate or organizational author will list the organization first. Also note that this
reference is an online source and includes a URL.

McGraw Center for Teaching and Learning. (2014). Oral presentations. Princeton University.

The reference for a printed book will identify the publisher.

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King, S. (2000). On writing: A memoir of the craft. Scribner.

As you create your reference list, you can use citation generators, software programs that create a citation in your
chosen style when you enter certain publication information. For example, you may consult RefWorks, a citation
generator associated with many academic libraries, here: https://www.refworks.com/refworks2/
(https://www.refworks.com/refworks2/) . Sometimes, too, the library you are using to search will provide you with APA
citations of the sources you research. However, we advise that you consider these generators and provided entries
only as a starting point for citation creation. They are often outdated, incorrect, or not properly formatted, so it’s
important to double-check their accuracy. But if you start with these entries, you can easily edit them to the proper
APA format discussed here.

Annotated Bibliography in APA Style

In some of your college courses, you may be asked to develop an annotated bibliography as you begin researching a
topic. Like a reference list, an annotated bibliography is a list of the sources you used in researching your project.
But for each citation, you include notes in which you comment on or summarize the main points of each source and
relate them to your research question. This is the annotation (to “annotate” something means to “take notes”).
Therefore, an annotated bibliography has two elements, the citations and annotations, whereas a reference list has
only one, the citations.

Benefits of the Annotated Bibliography
One benefit of compiling an annotated bibliography is that doing so helps you begin formulating and refining your
ideas for your paper. Through researching, analyzing, and summarizing sources, you develop a sense of the academic
conversation that exists around your topic. You begin to understand the overall direction of arguments or hypotheses
and the development of concepts or theories, as well as which details and findings are relevant to your work.

Additionally, as you create your annotated bibliography, you develop your critical reading skills by evaluating the
quality of the source data, argument, or study design. This evaluation in turn might lead you to explore new studies,
reconsider the scope of your research, or define your research question more precisely. As you can see, an annotated
bibliography is not only a good practice for academic integrity but also a practical tool that positions you on solid
ground to begin your paper.

Content of the Annotations
You may begin your annotated bibliography as soon as you begin research. Each time you find a source, you’ll create
an APA Style reference citation as explained earlier and then write your annotation below the reference entry in
paragraph form.

Although there is no APA rule governing the content of annotations, they are always written in complete sentences
and generally are only one or two paragraphs long (approximately 150–200 words). The content will often be
specified by your instructor and may vary from one course to the next. However, each annotation typically includes
three elements: a brief summary of the source, its thesis (that is, its position or main claim), and its relevance to your
own assignment. You may also include any additional critical analysis that will support your project, such as your
analysis of how well the source’s thesis is supported by evidence or whether it makes an important contribution to
the existing academic conversation. Avoid quoting directly from the source in the annotation. Although mentioning
key terms and concepts that you may want to discuss in your own work is a good idea, you should summarize the
annotation in your own words.

Each annotation will include a paragraph or more; however, instead of using traditional paragraph indentations,
indent the entire paragraph a half inch.

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The following is an example of an annotated bibliography entry.

Donaldson, J. F., Graham, S. W., Martindill, W., & Bradley, S. (2000). Adult undergraduate students: How do they
define their experiences and their success? Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 48(2), 2–11.

This small study confirms current thinking that adults return to school for primarily external reasons; e.g., a major
life event or career advancement. One key finding reveals that adult students define success in learning and success
in college differently. The research further illustrates that actual success in learning comes from an internal locus of
control that includes life experience, maturity, motivation, and self-monitoring. Adult student success can be a result
of better time management and well-developed learning strategies connecting to life experiences.

The article is well supported by evidence from the study, involving interviews with 13 students over age 27, as well
as a brief literature review. Although the study is more than 20 years old, the results will be compared to other, more
current sources. This study will also help answer my research question on whether adults are more likely to return to
school for self-fulfillment or for career advancement.

More details on how to format your annotated bibliography can be found in Appendix A.

Section 1.4 Knowledge Check Quiz

1. Which of the following style guides is used by all journalists?
A. AP style
B. APA Style
C. MLA style

2. According to APA Style, an in-text citation always __________.
A. identifies the page and paragraph number from which the information was drawn
B. Identifies the year in which the source was published
C. appears in a footnote at the bottom of the page on which the information appears

3. According to APA Style, each entry of an annotated bibliography typically includes __________.
A. a brief summary of the source and relevant quotations to cite in your assignment
B. a brief summary of the source, its thesis, and its relevance to your own assignment
C. only the source’s author, title, publisher, issue and/or year, and relevant pages

1 (A), 2 (B), 3 (B)

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Giftlegacy/iStock/Getty Images Plus

Historical facts, such as amendments to the
Constitution, are an example of common
knowledge. These types of information most
often do not need to be cited.

2.3 What Is Academic Integrity?

Your Road Map to Success: Section 2.3

Learning Outcome 2.3: Identify the key issues of academic integrity and the role they play in the scholarly

Why is this important?

Maintaining your academic integrity will result in work that respects the contributions of others while
demonstrating your own knowledge and contributions in a way that is both ethical and legal. Consider Tyler,
for example. Teaching his sons to be men of integrity is important to Tyler. He used what he learned about
academic honesty not only to make sure he maintains his own academic integrity as he works toward his
college degree but also to provide an example of the importance of hard work and honesty for his sons.

How does this relate to your success in this course?

Mastering this learning outcome will help you maintain your integrity and reputation and will protect you
from legal action and other negative consequences both within and outside of school.

The academic community believes that one of the goals of an institution of higher learning is to strengthen academic
integrity and responsibility among its members. To this end, universities emphasize the importance of sound
judgment and a personal sense of ethical responsibility. All members of the academic community—students and
faculty—are expected to abide by the highest standards of academic integrity. These standards are discussed here.

Academic Honesty and Common Knowledge

Academic honesty means that if you are writing the words of
someone else, or if you are explaining in your own words a unique
idea you learned from research, you must cite your source. Your
writing should leave “citational footprints” so that your readers can
track where your work derives from the work of others. They can
then locate your sources if they want to better understand the
information or use it for their own research.

Some students believe they must give credit to a source only when
they quote from it directly. This isn’t the case. Changing a few
words in a passage or even putting an idea entirely into your own
words, as with a paraphrase or summary, does not relieve you of
the responsibility to credit your source. If an idea is not your own,
you must cite the source in the text of your paper and include a
complete reference at the end of the paper.

The only exception to this citation rule is for facts or concepts that
are considered common knowledge. This is information that is widely known, does not stem from one person’s or
organization’s original study or theory, and can easily be found or referenced. Some examples are

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historical facts and current events, such as that New York was one of the 13 original colonies of the United
States or that George Floyd died after a police officer kneeled on his neck in May 2020;
scientific facts, such as that sleep is regulated by the brain or that carbon is an element with the atomic
number 6; and
knowledge shared within the culture, such as that Spanish is commonly spoken as a first language in the
United States.

These types of facts do not need to be documented. In contrast, you must reference unique interpretations of
common knowledge. For example, a detailed look at the historical and cultural forces that contributed to George
Floyd’s murder would require a citation.

What is considered common knowledge can vary according to your field of study and intended audience. For
instance, details on the law of diminishing returns might be common knowledge to students in a graduate-level
economics course for which you are writing a paper but not in an introductory sociology course.

Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism

Academic dishonesty is defined as “cheating on a test or examination; claiming the work of another as one’s own;
plagiarizing any paper, research project, or assignment; or falsely submitting material to fulfill course requirements”
(The University of Arizona Global Campus, 2021, p. 33). Let’s define some key terms in academic dishonesty more

Cheating: Intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids in any
academic exercise (e.g., test, essay, etc.).

Fabrication: Intentional and unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic

Facilitating academic dishonesty: Intentionally or knowingly helping or attempting to help another student
commit a breach of academic integrity.

Plagiarism: Representing the words or ideas of another as one’s own in any academic exercise.

Students often misunderstand plagiarism, so it’s worth expanding on this definition. Plagiarism occurs when a
student deliberately uses another writer’s original ideas or concepts (not common knowledge) without
acknowledging the source. Acts of plagiarism include, but are not limited to, the following.

copying text from printed materials, which include books, magazines, encyclopedias, newspapers, and so on
modifying text with the intent of changing phrases, changing words, or inserting the student’s work into the
plagiarized work
copying and pasting materials from Internet sources and presenting them as the student’s original work
using another student’s work, even if the student has the permission of the other student; the use of another’s
work is an act of collusion
using materials purchased from the Internet or elsewhere
recycling previous work (that is, old papers) for a current course without instructor permission
paraphrasing or summarizing another’s work without giving appropriate credit

Keep in mind that unintended or accidental plagiarism is still plagiarism. This means that even though you intended
to go back and cite outside research properly, forgot to cite it, or did not know you had to cite it, you are still
responsible. Intention cannot be proved or disproved; your instructor and your university will not be able to
determine whether or not it was your intention to plagiarize.

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When you plagiarize, you are essentially trying to represent someone else’s ideas or words as your own. As stated in
the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association:

Writers who plagiarize disrespect the efforts of original authors by failing to acknowledge their
contributions, stifle further research by preventing readers from tracing ideas back to their original sources,
and unfairly disregard those who exerted the effort to complete their own work. (APA, 2020, p. 254)

Additionally, when students plagiarize, they diminish the learning experience as well as their own education. By
plagiarizing, students lose the opportunity to act ethically and think independently and critically. This is one reason
that colleges and universities take plagiarism so seriously.

Consider how the students in the following activity struggle with academic dishonesty and help them maintain
academic integrity.

Consequences of Academic Dishonesty

Academic dishonesty undermines the bonds of trust and personal responsibility between and among students and
faculty, weakens the credibility of the academic enterprise, and defrauds those who believe in the value and integrity
of an academic degree. All universities and colleges therefore have policies identifying the consequences for



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academic dishonesty. Depending on the institution and the severity of the case, these policies can range from
receiving a failing grade on the assignment to dismissal from the school. In some extreme cases, a degree may be
retracted after the student has already graduated.

When a student is suspected of any type of academic dishonesty, usually the faculty, dean, and other members of a
university’s administration are notified. If the student feels that this accusation is unjust, they are usually given a
chance to refute the charges and prove that the work is original. Students who have maintained practices of academic
integrity, such as keeping detailed notes of research and citations throughout the writing process, are more likely to
be able to defend themselves successfully. If a charge of academic dishonesty cannot be refuted, it may seriously
tarnish the student’s record and may even follow the student throughout his or her scholastic or professional career.

Highlight: Plagiarism in the Popular Media

If you’re like most people, the requirement to write won’t end when you complete your degree. You will
continue to write for the rest of your life for a variety of reasons and purposes: to fulfill job requirements,
appeal grievances, explain your position, or even just express yourself. This process is almost never easy, and
plenty of people—sometimes even established authors—succumb to the temptation to get a little …

A Reference Guide to APA 7th Edition

Adapted from the UAGC Writing Center APA 7th Ed. References Guide


*When citing between two or 20 authors, list last name followed by a comma and initials for each one, and precede the

final author’s name with an ampersand (&). When citing 21 authors or more, list the first 19, then precede the name of

the final author with an ellipses (…).

Online journal article with DOI


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Publication Title, volume number(issue), pp–pp. https://doi.org/…


Beattie, B. R., & LaFrance, J. T. (2006). The law of demand versus diminishing marginal utility. Review of Agricultural

Economics, 28(2), 263–271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2006.00286.x

Online journal article without DOI, found in UAGC Library database


Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Publication Title, volume number(issue), pp–pp.


Collins, M. E., Garlington, S., & Cooney, K. (2015). Relieving human suffering: Compassion in social policy. Journal of

Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 95–120.

Magazine article retrieved online


Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Publication Title, volume(issue), pp–pp. URL


Clay, R. A. (2014, December). Taking action against Ebola. Monitor on Psychology, 45(11), 14.


Newspaper article retrieved online


Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper Title. URL


McAllister, J. (2017, July 5). Beaver Stadium prepares for inaugural concert. Centre Daily Times.


Blog post


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Name. URL


Hardy, M. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally). Freakonomics. http://freakonomics.com/2010/10/29/e-


Webpages and Websites

*A webpage will never be the home page of the URL. It is part of a greater whole that is the website. When author and

site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element. Provide the most specific date possible. Include a

retrieval date only when the content is designed to change over time and the page is not archived.

Webpage with an author


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Site Name. URL


Lad, K. (2016, August 28). An overview of the colorful traditional Mexican clothing. Buzzle.


Webpage with no individual author


Organization Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Site Name (if different than organization). URL


National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.


Webpage with no author or organization


Title of webpage. (Year, Month Day). URL


Freud’s structural theory: The id, the ego, and the superego. (n.d.). www.vakkur.com/psy/freud.html

Report: Corporate/government, group author, retrieved online

*If a report, series, or issue number is given, provide this in parentheses after the title. Describe less common forms of

reports in square brackets after the title like the example below. If the report number is available, and the report needs a

special description, place the parentheses before the brackets in the reference entry.


Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of report (Report number, if available) [Description, if needed].

Publisher Name (omit if the same name as group author). DOI or URL


U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2019, July). The DHS strategic plan: Fiscal years 2020–2024 [Agency strategy

publication]. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/19_0702_plcy_dhs-strategic-plan-fy20-


Article on a news website


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Site Name. URL


Dunn, J. (2020, January 6). Recycling collectors bothered by messy bins. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/article/recycling-


  • Online journal article with DOI
  • Online journal article without DOI, found in UAGC Library database
  • Magazine article retrieved online
  • Newspaper article retrieved online
  • A Reference Guide to APA 7th Edition
    • Articles
  • Blog post
  • Webpage with an author
  • Webpage with no individual author
  • Webpage with no author or organization
  • Webpages and Websites
  • Report: Corporate/government, group author, retrieved online
  • Article on a news website