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DOI : https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v2i3.405

The Role of Human Resource Management in Employee

Motivation and Performance-An Overview

Hassan Elsan Mansaray
Lecturer – Department of Business Administration and Entrepreneurship Development, Institute of Public

Administration and Management (IPAM) University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone

[email protected]

Abstract : This paper discusses the link between motivation and performance, and established

what makes motivation to have a central role in getting high performances from employees in

organizations. It was revealed from the review that there are several motivational theories used

by employers at different situations when they want their employees to highly perform. As

motivation is to influence employees to perform, hence; performance is the evaluation with

respect to acknowledged tasks, objectives, goal line and rational anticipations linked with a

role, occupation in an organization. This paper has looked at some of these theories that have

been proven and accepted by the general public. They comprise Maslow’s hierarchy of needs,

McGregor’s theories x and y, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory,

Herzberg’s two-factor theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory and different types of motivation,

such as intrinsic and extrinsic. It is evident from the literature reviewed that all theories were

established on some experimentations or observations, as a result they are just written ends

about a tested situation. Though circumstances can be comparable, they will perhaps by no

means be the same. Also, studies have showed that highly motivated employees that are

productive and innovative can lead the organization to success through the achievement of its

desired results.

Keywords : human resource managemen; motivation; performance; work/job performance;

performance management; performance appraisal; organization; reward; commitment

I. Introduction

In the commencement of 1960, John Kenneth Galbraith was demonstrating the

importance of human resources paralleled to the technical resources: “Should machines

represent the decisive aspect, the social arrangements that help us develop our infrastructure

and the equipment are those of prime importance. But if people are the ones that matter, our

first concern should be creating those arrangements that help conserve and develop personal

talents” (Ni!ă 2010 cited in Elena N. I n.d:1039). It is based on Galbraith phenomenon that

makes motivation to have a pivotal role in getting ‘high performances’ from employees in

organizations. However, in order to achieve ‘high performance’ in firms; managers should have

the capability to produce a helpful organizational environment that could enable employees to

work (Rusua and Avasilcaia 2014). As motivating people is about making them to change to

the course you want them to go so as to get result. Nevertheless, employees can only display

‘high performance’ if they are soundly inspired and eager to workout optional effort

(Armstrong 2009).

Moreover, study had shown that a business continuing achievement center on to a great

degree on taking exceptionally ‘motivated employees’ who are industrious and resourceful.

Therefore, it is essential to comprehend the connection ‘between motivation and performance’

and; establish whatever will motivate your employees. It is likewise important to know how

you manage ‘employees’ performance and how you reward them, ‘not just in terms of salary

but, for example, through recognition and other incentives’. Highly-motivated employees are

probably to go that further mile to satisfy you. On the other hand, affecting appropriate

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e-ISSN: 2615-3076(Online), p-ISSN: 2615-1715(Print)
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inducements isn’t quite adequate; the employer also have a duty to monitor the usefulness of

the enticements. (Better Workplaces n.d:67).

Thus, motivation is therefore, defined by various authors like McShane & Von Glinow

(2000:66) and Robins and Coulter (2012) as referring ‘to the powers/efforts inside a person

that moves his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior’. [In this case]

inspired employees are enthusiastic to apply a precise level of strength (intensity/ energy) for

a definite quantity of period (persistence), toward a specific goal (direction). In addition,

Bateman and Snell (2013) in the same way referred to motivation as forces that energize, direct,

and sustain a person’s effort. They said, all behaviors, expect voluntary reflexes like eye blinks

(which have little to do with management), and are motivated. They further stated that a highly

motivated person will work hard toward attaining performance goals. Through satisfactory skill

and understanding of the job, as well as the right to use the necessary resources, which will

make the person to be highly productive. They additionally pointed out that to be real

motivators, is obligatory to managers to know what behavior employees need to display to earn

motivation. Even though productive people seem to do apparently boundless number of things,

therefore, most of the important activities can be grouped into five general categories on how

Managers must motivate people. Such as to (1) join the organization, (2) remain in the

organization, and (3) come to work regularly. On these points, you should reject the common

recent notion that loyalty is dead and accept the challenge of creating an environment that will

attract and energize people so that they commit to (4) performance- that is, once employees are

at work, they should work hard to achieve high output and high quality. Lastly, managers want

employees to (5) exhibit good citizenship. Good citizens of the organization are committed,

satisfied employees who perform above doing extra things that can help the company.

As motivation is to influence employees to perform, hence; performance is the evaluation

with respect to acknowledged tasks, objectives, goal line and rational anticipations linked with

a role, occupation in an industry/organization. Any action or process that can be associated to

performing a task or function can be classified as performance. As a result, work performance is

just how fine an individual completes a job, role, task or responsibility. This includes concrete

things such as revenue targets and imperceptible things such as communication (Spacey J.

2017). Besides, Performance management can be defined as a practice by which organizations

established goals, regulate standards, ascribe and appraise work, and mete out rewards. In

consequence, it is used to develop organizational team and individual performance and

development, as well as events envisioned to guarantee that goals are unfailingly being met in

an operative and proficient manner, (McMahon G 2013).

II. Literature Review

2.1 Motivational Theories

Several diverse theories have existed that attempted and supported to explain the concept

of motivation. More so, researchers have been learning the theme of motivation for many years

and have made marvelous advancement for expounding motivation that can be construed in the

workplace. This paper is going to look at some of these theories that have been proven and

accepted by the general public. They comprise Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McGregor’s

theories x and y, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s

two-factor theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory and different types of motivation, such as

intrinsic and extrinsic. More so, many scientific researchers have learned that motivational

Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal)
Volume 2, No 3, August 2019, Page: 183-194

e-ISSN: 2615-3076(Online), p-ISSN: 2615-1715(Print)
www.bircu-journal.com/index.php/birci

emails: [email protected]
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theories vary amongst themselves according to how they describe behavior over motivation

content or through strong-minded psychological processes. Most of these theories can be

separated into three basic types: content/needs theories, process/cognitive theories and

strengthening/reinforcement theories. Even though additional legal clarifications have been

advanced, these initial theories are essential as they embody the basis from which current

motivation theories were established and since several practicing managers still use these

theories (Burton K, 2012, Robins & Coulter 2012, Armstrong, 2009, Luthans & Doh, 2009 and

Elena, n.d).

2.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

One of the first and best-known content theories to describe why people have dissimilar

needs at diverse times is Abraham Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory discovered in the late 1943

and formulated in 1954. He revealed five basic classes of human needs and positioned them in

a hierarchy (Burtin K, 2012, Robins & Coulter 2012, Armstrong 2009, Luthans & Doh 2009

and McShane 2000). Maslow hypothesized that everybody has five basic needs that create a

need hierarchy. In ascending order, starting with the simplest needs such as:

Physiological needs – like water, food, sex, clothing, and shelter. Maslow opposed that

an individual’s determination to fulfill these biological needs is bigger than the ambition to

satisfy any other type of need. In the context of work motivation, these physiological needs

often are satisfied through the wages and salaries paid by the organization.

Safety needs – are wishes for security (i.e. protection from physical and emotional harm), as

well as assurance that physical needs will be met (stability), and absence of pain. Organizations

usually support personnel to satisfy these needs through safety programs and equipment and

by providing security through medical insurance, unemployment and retirement plans, and

related benefits.

Social needs – a person’s need for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.

This want for “belongingness” frequently is contented on the job over social collaboration

within work groups in which people give and receive friendship. Social needs can be satisfied

not only in officially dispensed work groups but also informal groups

Esteem needs – are desires for power and status. Individual need to feel vital and get

recognition from others. More importantly, receives promotions, awards, and feedback from

the boss that will lead to self-confidence, prestige, and self-important; and

Self-actualization needs – which represents the need for self-fulfillment – a sense that the

person’s potential has been achieved. In an organization, an individual may attain self-

actualization not over promotion but in its place by mastering his or her environment and

setting and achieving goals (Robins & Coulter 2012, Luthans & Doh 2009 and McShane 2000).

However, Maslow’s 1954 model does not take account of “money”, which suggest that he does

not consider the need for money is essential. In practice all the same, ‘money plays a part at

every level of the model, which helps us recognize how monetary reward functions as a means

to an end, rather than an end in itself’ (Mead & Andrews 2009).

2.2 Mcgregor’s Theories X and Y

Douglas McGregor (1960) shaped his study in diverse interpretations about people and

in what way they should be motivated. He improved two opposite models of managerial

method identified as Theory X and Theory Y. McGregor found out two stunningly dissimilar

sets of expectations thought by managers about their employees. Which Stráníková (2008)

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described as ‘two possible views on human beings’. Theory X is the old-fashioned view of

managers who only focused on the individual work and are ‘job centred’. They presumed that

the ordinary human being or workers have minute determination, distastes work and desires to

circumvent responsibility and therefore cannot be trusted. And they need to be closely

controlled, coerced, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to work effectively.

Theory X was criticized for the reason that it denies employees of the chances to placate what

Maslow recognized as higher-level social needs of self-esteem and self-actualisation.

In contrast, theory Y stresses that people will exercise self-direction in the service of the

objectives that they are committed to. Theory Y perceives employees in more satisfactory light.

The theory ‘is more employee-centred style of management capable of fully exploiting the

creative and productive potential of employees’. Theory Y was made on the supposition that

‘mental and physical efforts in work’ is as usual as ‘play and rest’; that an ordinary person does

not disinclined work but would see it as a basis of ‘reward or punishment’ that is contingent

upon well-regulated situations. Therefore, commitment to objectives should be linked to the

rewards associated with their achievement. Thus, Robins and Coulter (2012) and Stráníková

(2008) pointed out that ‘theory Y is a positive view that assumes employees enjoy work, seek

out and accept responsibility, and exercise self-direction. McGregor believed that Theory Y

assumptions should guide management practice and proposed that participation in decision

making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations would maximize employee

motivation.

2.3 Alderfer’s Erg Theory

ERG was established by Clayton Alderfer to overawe the difficulties with Maslow needs

hierarchy. ‘ERG theory groups human needs into three broad categories: existence, relatedness,

and growth. However, the theory’s name is created on the first letter of each need: E =

existence, R = relatedness, and G = growth.

Existence needs take account of a person’s psychological and physically related safety

needs, such as the need for food, shelter, and safe working conditions.

Relatedness needs consist of a person’s need to interact with other people, get public

recognition, and feel safe and sound around people (i.e., interpersonal safety).

Growth needs include a person’s self-esteem through personal achievement as well as the

concept of self-actualization (Bateman & Snell 2013, Robins & Coulter, 2012 and McShane

&Von Glinow 2000).

Unlike Maslow’s model, nonetheless, ERG theory consist of ‘a frustration regression

process’ whereby those who are not capable to satisfy a higher need turn out to be frustrated

and retrogress to the next lower need level. For example, if existence and relatedness needs

have been contented but growth need achievement has been blocked, the individual will

become discouraged and relatedness needs will again emerge as the central source of

motivation (McShane &Von Glinow 2000).

2.4 McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs

McClelland D. (1973) dedicated his vocation ‘to studying three secondary needs that he

considered particularly important sources of motivation:

Need for achievement – People with a high need for achievement (nAch) want to achieve

rational thought-provoking goals over their own hard work. Hence, they have a preference of

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Volume 2, No 3, August 2019, Page: 183-194

e-ISSN: 2615-3076(Online), p-ISSN: 2615-1715(Print)
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‘working alone rather than in teams because of their strong need to assume personal

responsibility for tasks’. High nAch people are as a result best at ease ‘when their jobs offer

challenge, feedback, and recognition’.

Need for affiliation – need for affiliation (nAff) talks about the desire to search for

authorization from others, ‘conform to their desires and hopes, and ‘avoid conflict and

confrontation’ with them. Those people with a sturdy nAff ‘want to form positive relationships

with others’. They try to plan a promising appearance of themselves and take other steps to be

liked by others. Moreover, ‘high nAff employees actively support others and try to smooth out

conflicts that occur in meetings and other social settings’.

And; the Need for power – need for power (nPow) denotes the desire to regulate ‘one’s

environment, including people and material resources’. People with high nPow always ‘want

to exercise control over others and are worried about upholding their leadership position. They

often depend on convincing communication, necessitate ‘more suggestions in meetings, and

tend to publicly evaluate situations more frequently’.

On the other hand, McClelland (1973) developed an alternative approach in ‘classifying

needs’ based largely on observing managers. In his observation, ‘he identified three needs as

being most important:

 The need for achievement, defined as the need for competitive success measured against
a personal standard of excellence.

 The need for affiliation, defined as the need for warm, friendly, compassionate
relationships with others.

 The need for power, defined as the need to control or influence others’.
He observed that diverse persons have dissimilar stages of these needs. A number of them

‘have a greater need for achievement, others a stronger need for affiliation, and still others a

stronger need for power. Whereas one need may be central, though, this does not mean that the

others are nonexistent’. According to McClelland, these three needs might be given ‘different

priorities at different levels of management’. Moreover, Achievement needs are mainly vital

for achievement ‘in many junior and middle management jobs where it is possible to feel

directly responsibility for task accomplishment’. However ‘in senior management positions a

concern for institutionalized as opposed to personal power becomes more important’.

Therefore, a strong need for attachment is not so important at any level.

2.5 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Or Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Herzberg et al. (1957) and Herzberg (1968) distinguished two types of motivational

factors, “hygiene” factors and motivators. Which are also term as the two-factor model of

satisfiers and dissatisfiers as well as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Any activities that are

embark on for the direct satisfaction of one’s needs are measured to be ‘intrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation cause happy feelings or a good attitude within the worker and are task

related. e. g. recognition of task completed’. The hygiene factors consist of wages, good

working conditions, good company policy and administration, good relationships with

supervisors and peers, and job security. The existence of these issues does not guarantee

satisfaction and productivity. However if they are lacking, the employee will be disgruntled

and discouraged. ‘Satisfaction and productivity are only possible when the employee is

positively motivated. Frederick Hertzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory varies from Maslow’s

and Alderfer’s needs hierarchy models as it does not propose that people change their needs

Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal)
Volume 2, No 3, August 2019, Page: 183-194

e-ISSN: 2615-3076(Online), p-ISSN: 2615-1715(Print)
www.bircu-journal.com/index.php/birci

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over time. As an alternative Hertzberg put forward that employees are mostly motivated by

growth and esteem needs, such as recognition, responsibility, advancement, achievement and

personal growth (Rusua & Avasilcaia 2014, Robins & Coulter, 2012, Armstrong 2009, Mead

& Andrews 2009 McShane 2000 and Egbu n.d). In addition, Mead & Andrews (2009) further

stated that Herzberg applied his motivator-hygiene theory in the following techniques:

Job rotation – This involves planning the employee’s time so that he performs a variety of

tasks. For instance, he spends a period of time working in Process A, then moves to Process B,

then moves to Process C. Job rotation introduces variety to the employee’s routine, and helps

develop a multi-skilled workforce. Employees may also be rotated to perform the same task in

different settings. Japanese primary school teachers can expect to be rotated between schools

every three years until, in their fifties, they are sent to the district office.

Job enlargement – involves reorganizing the job specification so that the employee now

performs all the tasks required to complete the process. Rather than have Tasks C, D, E

performed by employees P, Q, R, respectively, all three tasks are allotted to each of P, Q, R. In

theory, the individual derives greater satisfaction from completing all tasks contributing to

production and seeing the completed unit than from specializing in a single task.

Job enrichment- means making a job more interesting and more challenging, which in practice

usually means more complex. First, responsibilities are pulled down from above, and the

employee is trained to take new responsibilities for aspects of the task that previously were

performed by a supervisor. Second, earlier work stages are pushed forward into the job. Third,

later work stages are pulled back so that the employee is made responsible for up-stream and

down-stream activities that were previously handled by other persons. Fourth, parts of the task

are pushed down to a lower job level and are performed by lower grades (whose jobs are thus

enriched by these responsibilities being pulled down). Fifth, parts of the job are rearranged and

reordered.

2.6 Intrinsic And Extrinsic Needs

Many scholars have asserted that an individual is motivated to do what they do by both

extrinsic and intrinsic factors. This explains that ‘an individual can be motivated or driven by

forces within an individual or forces outside an individual’. Motivation can be produced from

inside the individual. This can be identified as intrinsic motivation (Gerson 2006). For instance,

if a person has a sturdy aspiration to reach some goals or do something in order to achieve such

aspiration or goals, therefore the individual has to act in a precise manner that will help him/her

‘reach such desired goals’. Thus, ‘intrinsic motivation is a form of self – actualisation in which

a person needs to accomplish something worthwhile. In other words, it is self – generated or

self- motivated and is free from financial rewards’ (du Plessis et al 2016)

Motivation can also develop from outside the person and affects his/her behaviour and

engagements which is well-known as extrinsic motivation. When mentioning the idea of

extrinsic motivators to a work setting, it is undoubtedly understood that this kind of issue can

influence most employees that come to work, as their work is consider as their main source of

income (Neely, 2007, du Plessis et al 2016). The organization ought to attempt to make a link

between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. This is because if the employee are not provided

with rewards and standard employment benefit packages they cannot be motivated and as a

result will not devote their best effort that might produce good performance in the long run.

Needs are regularly defined in terms of a hierarchy. The most powerful hierarchy created

is still the one that was designed by Maslow in 1954. It continues to impact ‘theories of

Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal)
Volume 2, No 3, August 2019, Page: 183-194

e-ISSN: 2615-3076(Online), p-ISSN: 2615-1715(Print)
www.bircu-journal.com/index.php/birci

emails: [email protected]
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DOI : https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v2i3.405

motivation and the design of incentive systems’. It displays how behavior is motivated at

certain points by chances to satisfy intrinsic needs and at other points by another chances to

satisfy extrinsic needs (Mead & Andrews 2009).

2.7 Expectancy Theory

Vroom V.H (1964, Stráníková 2008, William 2010 and Egbu n.d) formulated the

Expectancy theory. The theory endeavor to study the process of motivation. In order to progress

with the study, Vroom uses three variables: “Valence” “expectancy” and “instrumentality”.

Valence is the measure of an individual’s desire for certain results and stands for value. It may

be positive (desired outcome) or negative (unattractive outcome). Expectancy is the belief that

the output will lead towards expected performance. Instrumentality is the credence that after

meeting the anticipated performance, the desired reward will be received. According to

Vroom’s formula, if one of these three variables is zero, motivation is absent: Motivation = f

(Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality).
As valency stands for value, instrumentality the belief that one action will lead to another,

and expectancy is the likelihood that action or effort will lead to an outcome. As a result, the

‘strength of expectations’ may perhaps base on ‘past experiences (reinforcement), but

individuals are frequently presented with new situations – a change in job, payment system, or

working conditions imposed by management. In these circumstances, motivation may be

reduced. Motivation is only likely when a clearly perceived and usable relationship exists

between performance and outcome, and the outcome is seen as a means of satisfying needs’.

The key support of this theory is that it takes a complete view of the motivational process and

point out that individuals will only act when they have a realistic expectancy that their

behaviour will lead to the desired outcome. (Armstrong 2009, Egbu n.d)

Bose (2004) elaborated on Vroom’s theory which, clarifies the relationship between

employee and organizational goals and; at the same time recognizes the differences between

work and motivation. Besides, this theory is consistent with the awareness that a manager’s job

is …

http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjss.v15i1.5

GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 15, 2016: 47-54
COPYRIGHT© BACHUDO SCIENCE CO. LTD PRINTED IN NIGERIA. ISSN 1596-6216

www.globaljournalseries.com; [email protected]

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TOOL OF MOTIVATION
ANDEMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION IN AN
ORGANIZATION
EGBE OJONG TANDU, ABEKI SUNNY OKORO, SUNDAY OFFUM OGON AND
PETER TAWOR ETTA

(Received 23 September 2016; Revision Accepted 12 October 2016)

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study is to ascertain how human resources management tool of motivation can
bring about employees job satisfaction in an organization with particular focus on Cross River University
of Technology (CRUTECH), Calabar. The study was inform by the fact that as a scholar with interest in
HRM, it has become worrisome as regards the increasing reoccurrence of the problem of poor job
satisfaction in organizations. The sample consisted of 202 employees of the university selected from a
population of 802 through simple random sampling technique. The instrument used for collecting data
for the study was a 20-item questionnaire. Chi-square and correlation-co-efficient statistical methods
were used to test the hypotheses. The following were the findings of the study: 1. There is significant
relationship of employees motivation on their job satisfaction (2) There is a cordial relationship between
management employees relationship and employees job satisfaction. On the bases of these findings, it
was concluded that motivation as a tool of Human Resource Management should be taken seriously in
order to achieve employees job satisfaction in organizations.

KEYWORDS: Human Resources Management, Motivation, Employees, Job Satisfaction, Tool.

INTRODUCTION

Human Resources Management (HRM)
is both a field of study and a practice. It focuses
on the whole process of planning, finding,
building, coordinating, utilizing work force and
handling the formal system for the management
of people within the organizations until and after
retirement. Peretomode (2001) consider Human
Resources Management as a process of bringing
people and organization together so that the
goals of each of them are met.

The successful management of human
resources is one of the keys to the effective
operation of an organization. Managers in both
private and public sectors must all tap the talent
of their human resources if they are to be
successful. If organizations are to accomplish

their objective,(Mathis and Jackson, 1982).
An organization therefore must seek to

get competent people into it fold. Consequently,
the human resources most be well motivated and
properly managed to create job satisfaction if the
organization is to achieve its goals. This implies
that an organization has to plan for its current
and future human resources needs.

Motivation is used to describe the
complex forces, drives tension states, or other
mechanisms that initiate and maintain voluntary
activity directed towards the achievement of
goals, (Hoyand Miskel, 1987). It is an inner state
that actuates or moves. As Mathins and Jackson
(1982) put it, “it is an emotion or desire, operative
on a person’s will and causing that person to act.
Motivation”, they added, “is concerned with
human behaviour”. It attempt to account for the

47

Egbe OjongTandu, Department of Political Science, College of Education, Akamkpa, Cross River State.
Abeki Sunny Okoro, Deputy Rector, International Institute of Tourism and Hospitality, Yenagoa, Bayelsa

State.
Sunday Offum Ogon, Department of Political Science, College of Education, Akamkpa, Cross River State.
Peter Tawor Etta, Department of Political Science, College of Education, Akamkpa, Cross River State.

“drive” or ‘wants’ inside an individual rather than
describing the individual’s action or behaviour.

The term ‘job satisfaction’ has been
defined in several ways. We define it as the
feelings (Good or bad) that one has about the
work and the environment that causes a person
to say “I am satisfied with my job” (Middlemist
and Hitt, 1981; Hopock, 1985). It is thus “The
pleasurable or the appraisal of one’s job or job
experience” (Locke, 1976); an appraisal that
must have taken into consideration the work
content and context-a combination of
psychological, physiological and environmental
circumstances. Cross River University of
Technology (CRUTECH), which is the focus of
this study was established in 2002 as a merger of
former polytechnic Calabar, College of
Agriculture Obubra and newly established Ogoja
Campusesas respectively.

Statement of the problem
The Cross River University of

Technology (CRUTECH) as the organization
under study embraces the classical theory of
management as its management strategy Henry
F. and Mayo E, (Cole, 1990). The management
strategy emphasis is more on the structure and
activities of the university and less emphasis on
motivating the employees for maximum
achievement for which it was set up. As a scholar
of Human Resources Management, “the
increasing reoccurrence of the problem of poor
job satisfaction of employees in organization is
disturbing. This study therefore, seeks to
ascertain how Human Resources Management
(HRM) tool of motivation as a determinant of job
satisfaction can bring about job satisfaction
among employees of CRUTECH.

Literature Review/Theoretical Framework
Human Resources Management

represents the discovering of personnel
management over the last decade. Human
Resources Management (HRM) has taken on an
increasing theoretical significance as it has
become part of the wider socio-logical debate
concerned with new management paradigms.
The point to note here is that, Human Resources
Management (HRM) is an approach to
management of the employment relationship with
distinctive set of human resources policies and
practices designed to produce specific outcomes
to secure the greater commitment of employees
and improve organizational performance. The
present study falls in line here, as it looks at the

extent to which motivation as a tool of Human
Resources Management (HRM) can bring about
job satisfaction of workers in an organization. The
literature reviewed (Henry F. and Mayo E.) also
presented the hard version and soft version of
Human Resources Management (HRM). The
hard version sees people as any other economic
factor as a cost that must be controlled, through
coercion and sanctions. Management and
workers here see themselves as antagonist,
suspecting each other’s move. On the other
hand, the soft version sees people as ‘human’
and thus advocate investment in training and
development and the adoption of commitment
strategies to ensure that highly skilled and loyal
workers give the organization a competitive
advantage. Management and workers see
themselves as partners that must work together
to achieve organizational goals and workers
interest.

Evidence from the literature (Henry F.
and Mayo E.) and findings from the studies
reviewed indicate that, management of
organizations tend to lay more emphasis on the
structures and activities of the organizations
using the classical management theory which
sees management in terms of planning,
organizing, commanding, coordinating and
controlling. Less attention was paid on the people
and their needs as the decisive factor in
achieving organizational effectiveness. This study
therefore seeks the extent to which motivation as
a tool of human resources management can
bring about job satisfaction in an organization
with emphasis among CRUCTECH employees
(junior employees).

The use of relevant theoretical
framework is an indispensable requirement in
any meaningful research work, because such a
framework prevents aimless
meandering.Herzberg’s Dual factor theory is
adopted for this study.

Herzberg’s Dual factor theory has
important application in Human Resources
Management (HRM) and job satisfaction. It was
introduced by Fredrick Herzberg in the late 1950s
(Cole, 1990). His argument is based on this
empirical work, that there are two separate
categories or factors in the work place, those that
are related to job satisfaction and those that are
related to job dissatisfaction. Those factors that
contribute to job satisfaction result to the job
content and are called motivators or satisfiers or
intrinsic factors.

48 EGBE OJONG TANDU, ABEKI SUNNY OKORO, SUNDAY OFFUM OGON AND PETER TAWOR ETTA

Herzberg (1996) pointed out that when
motivators are present in the work situation, they
lead to strong motivation, satisfaction and job
performance, but do not cause dissatisfaction
when they are absent. At worst, the absence of
motivators can only resent in no satisfaction. The
motivational factors are: Achievement,
Recognition, Advancement Promotion, the work
itself, possibility of professional growth and
Responsibility.

The other category or factors is referred
to as hygiene, dissatisfier, maintenance, or
extrinsic factors. These factors are related to the
work context. He maintained that if these factors
(extrinsic) were present in the work situation, the
employees would not necessarily be either
motivated or satisfied. When these factors
(extrinsic) are not forth coming, dissatisfaction
occurs and the opposite of satisfaction is no-
satisfaction. Herzberg identified ten hygiene
factors: company policy and administration,
technical supervision, interpersonal relations with
supervisors, interpersonal relatives with peers,
interpersonal relations with subordinates, salary,
job security, personal life, working conditions,
and status.

Herzberg’s two factors theory has
application in motivation and job satisfaction. It
suggest that to motivate employees, managers
should focus on the motivators while at the same
time try to maintain hygiene factors at an
appropriate level so as to prevent dissatisfaction.
Also, the message in the theory is simple, direct
and persuasive and has inspired many mangers
to redesigned their jobs in order to facilitate
increased motivation.

METHODOLOGY
Null hypotheses

Based on the literature and theoretical
framework reviewed, the following hypotheses
were formulated to guide this study.

Null hypothesis one
There is no significant relationship of

employees motivation on their job satisfaction.

Null Hypothesis two
There is no significant relationship of

between management/employees relationship
and employees job satisfaction.

Source of data collection
The questionnaire was used to collect

data. The information gathered from literature
reviewed informed the development of the
questionnaire. In order to test and ascertain the
validity and reliability of the research instrument,
pre-test was first carried out on some of the
employees of CRUTECH under study. The test
came in a tentative questionnaire form aimed at
determining the appropriate questions that would
elicit the desired answers to the research
questionnaire. Based on the reactions of the
respondents, certain modifications were made to
the research instrument.

Methods of data analysis
Data collected were analyzed using chi-

square and correlation coefficient statistical
methods. The samples were randomly selected
from the population of the study.

Data presentation, Analysis and Discussion
of Findings

The researchers used four campuses to
collect the data. That is; Calabar, Obubra, Ogoja
I, and Ogoja II. Two hundred junior employees
were sampled randomly using 200 questionnaire.
Based on the strength of the campuses,
Calabargot 80, Obubra 25, Ogoja I 60 and Ogoja
II 35. Out of the 200 questionnaire distributed to
the respondents only 180 representing 90% were
duly completed and returned. The distribution is
seen as presented in table 1 below.

Table 1:Distribution of respondents who completed and returned their questionnaire according to
campuses

Campuses Calabar Obubra Ogoja I Ogoja II Total
Junior
employees

78 13 60 29 180

Source: Fieldwork, 2016.

Data analysis
Hypothesis-by-hypothesis data analysis

of results are presented here.

Hypothesis one
There is no significant relationship

between employees motivation and their job

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TOOL OF MOTIVATION AND EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION 49

satisfaction. This hypothesis is to test the
employees motivation level and its relationship
with their job satisfaction. The indices used in
measuring motivation are promotion, recognition,
in-service training and incentives. The responses
are presented in items 1-12 of the research
instrument which was used to analyzed the
hypothesis. See appendix A for details.

The chi-square formula was used to test
this hypothesis at (5%) 0.05 level of significance.
The general chi-square formula for calculation is:
X2 = ∑(0-e)2

e

Where x2 = the chi-square
∑ = the summation sign

O = the observedfrequencies
E = the expected frequencies

The degree of freedom:
(df) (c-1)(R-1)

Where df = the numbers of degrees
of freedom

C = the number of colums
R = the number of rows

Calculation: See Appendix B

Decision Rule:
If the x2 calculated is greater than x2

tabulated depending on the degree(s) of freedom
and the level of significance the null hypothesis
will be rejected.

Decision on Null hypothesis one
Following the decision rule as stated

above, since the x2 calculated of 46.96 is greater
than the x2tabulated of 12.59 with six degree of
freedom (df) and at 0.05 level of significance. It
therefore means that we reject the null
hypothesis. Thus, it can be said that, employees
motivation has significant relationship on their job
satisfaction.

Null hypothesis two
There is no cordial relationship between

Management/Employees relationship and
employees job satisfaction. This hypothesis is to
test the relationship between
Management/Employees and its relationship on
employeesjob satisfaction. Items number 13-20
of the research instrument were used to analyzed
the hypothesis. See appendix A for details.

The pearson product moment correlation
coefficient statistical method was used to test this
hypothesis. This is presented below.

n∑xy-∑x∑y

r =
        
 




2222

2(
yynxxn

yrxyn
xn

Where r= Pearson product
corelation coefficent

n = the number of pairs of
scores

∑xy = htes sum of the product
of each pairs of scores

∑x = the sum of x
∑y = the sum of y
x2 = the standard deviation of

x distribtuion
y2 = the standand deviation

of y distribution

The formula has a range of values from –
1, 0, 1. The value of -1 clearly indicates a
negative relationship among the vaiabels while 0
shows no relationshp and 1 shows perfect
relationshipbetween variables x and y
respectively. The decision of the test is taken at
5% (0.05) level of signficance.

Calculation: See Appendix C:

Decision Rule
If the t calculated is greater than the t

tabulated depending on the degree(s) of freedom
(df) and the level of significance we reject the null
hypothesis.

Decision on Null hypothesis two
Based on the decision rule since the t

calculated of 13.34 is greater than the t tabulated
of 1.96 at 178 degrees of freedom and at 0.05
level of significant, we therefore reject the null
hypothesis. Thus, it can be said that, there is
cordial relationship between
management/employees relationship and
employees job satisfaction.

Discussion of Findings
The overall objective of this study is to as

certain how human resources management tool
of motivation as a determinant of job satisfaction
can bring about job satisfaction among junior
employees in Cross River University of

50 EGBE OJONG TANDU, ABEKI SUNNY OKORO, SUNDAY OFFUM OGON AND PETER TAWOR ETTA

Technology (CRUTECH). To achieve the above
objective, two hypothesis were postulated and
tested for statistical significance on the basis of
the sampled data. The findings are an expression
of the application of the literature review and
theoretical framework discussed in this study.

Null hypothesis One:
There is no significant relationship of

employees motivation on their job satisfaction.
The chi-square x2 calculated of 46.96 is greater
than the x2 tabulated of 12.59 with six degrees of
freedom (df) and at 0.05 level of significance, it
therefore means that the null hypothesis was
rejected. Thus, it can be said that, employees
motivation has significant relationship on their job
satisfaction.

Null hypothesis two:
There is no cordial relationship between

management/employees relationship and
employees job satisfaction.

The correlation coefficient was used for
the second hypothesis. Since the t-calculated of
13.34 is greater than the t-tabulated of 1.96 at
178 degrees of freedom and at .05 significant
level, we therefore reject the null hypothesis.
Thus, it can be said that, there is cordial
relationship between management/employees
relationship and employee job satisfaction.

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings of the study, it is
clear that, the two null hypotheses were rejected.
Therefore, the Cross River University of
Technology (CRUTECH) which is under study
must reappraise her management of human
resources strategy in order to effectively motivate
employees to prevent the increasing
reoccurrence of the problem of poor job
satisfaction of staff in the university
(organization). This definitely will go a long way
to achieving the vision of the university which is
to establish a centre of excellence with adequate
qualified and motivated employees engaged in
high quality teaching and research for the
production of graduates that can compete with
their peers anywhere in the world.

RECOMMENDATIONS
On the basis of the findings therefore, the

following recommendations are inevitable:
Motivation of employees is very important in
humanresources management. Performance

appraisal is needed to provide employees with
information as a means of motivating them.
Management should take a systematic training
(in-service) and development programme to build
the skills of current employees and help them
grow to their fall potential in the university.

Finally, management of the university
should provide a high quality of work life such as:
Workers should be paid equitable wages and
recognition for their contributions. Supervision
should be minimal and should be available when
needed. Workers should be involved in decisions
that affect them and their job. Job security should
be provided and friendly relationship with co-
workers should be developed. Facilities should
be provided for personal welfare and medical
attention.

REFERENCES

Cole, G. A., 1990. Management: Theory and
Practice. London: The Guensey Press
Limited.

Herzberg, F., 1966. Work and nature of man.
London: Macmillan publishing company.

Hoy, S. E and Miskel, A. M., 2005. Effects of
changes in job satisfaction levels on
employees turnover. New York: John
Wiley and Son.

Hopock, S. E., 2006. From personnel
Management to Human Resources
Management. Oxford: Blackwell.

Locke, E. A., 2001. The nature and causes of job
satisfaction in Dunnette, M. D. (ed).
Handbook of industrial and
organizational psychology. (20-25).
Chicago: Rand Nenatly.

Mathis, A. D and Jackson, J. H., 2002. Personnel
contemporary perspectives and
applications (3rd edition), St. Paul: West
Publishing Company.

Middlemist, D. R andHitt, M. A., 2001.
Organizational behaviour: Applied
Concepts. Chicago: SRA Press.

Perotomode, V. E and Perotomode, O., 2001.
Human Resources Management, Lagos:
Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publishing Company.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TOOL OF MOTIVATION AND EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION 51

APPENDIX A
RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

Please, kindly tick (√) your position on the scale as the statement impresses you.

Key
AS – Strongly Agree
A – Agree
D – Disagree
SD – Strongly Disagree

S/N STATEMENT SA A D SD
Promotions are made as at when due
I enjoy promotion and pay increase which I deserve
Staff are always promoted when they get additional qualification.
I have won some awards for my performance
Management shows appreciation for my efforts.
Staff are hardly rewarded for their contributions to the organization.
There are ample chances for various in-service training with pay for staff.
I enjoy in-service training provided for us by our organization.
As a staff, 1 have opportunities to enhance myself through in -service training
Allowances paid are commensurate to the job
Staff conditions of service are quite good.
My present monetary benefits has enhanced my job satisfaction.
Staff are provided with necessary facilities to work
Management pay attention rarely to staff problems
The relationship between the junior staff and their superior is hardly
cordial.
Junior staff are provided with opportunities to use their own ideas and
judgment on their job.
Junior staff are provided with good work conditions by management.
Junior staff are not given the opportunities to participate in decision –
making that affect them.
Management shows sympathy on junior staff personal problems seldomly
Management provides stimulating and challenging jobs to junior staff.

52 EGBE OJONG TANDU, ABEKI SUNNY OKORO, SUNDAY OFFUM OGON AND PETER TAWOR ETTA

APPENDIX B

Motivation Job satisfaction Total
Promotion Recognition In-service Incentives

High 20(12.78) 6(2.22) 15(11.11) 9)13.39) 50

Moderate 2(18.14) 2(17.36) 11(15.78) 30(19.72) 71

Low 24(15.08)46 10(14.42) 14(13.11) 11(16.39) 59

Total 44 40 50 180

X2 = ∑(0-e)2
e

0 E OE (0-E)2 (0-E)2
e

20 12.78 7.22 52.13 4.08
6 2.22 -6.22 38.69 3.17
15 11.11 3.89 15.13 1.36
9 13.89 -4.89 23.91 1.72
2 18.14 -16.14 260.50 14.39
28 17.36 10.64 113.21 6.52
11 15.78 -4.78 22.85 1.45
30 19.72 10.28 105.68 5.36
24 15.08 8.92 75.47 5.76
10 14.42 4.42 19.54 1.35
14 13.11 0.89 0.79 0.06
11 16.39 -5.39 29.05 1.77

X2 = 46.96
df = (c-1)(r-1)

(4-1)(3-1)
X2cal = 46.96
X2 tab = 12.59
Df = 6

Level of significance = 0.5

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TOOL OF MOTIVATION AND EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION 53

APPENDIX C

n∑xy-∑x∑y

r =
        
  




2222

2(
yynxxn

yrxyn
xn

n = 180
∑x = 725
∑y = 715
∑xy = 64787
∑x2 = 65713
∑xy2 = 63913

180 x 64787 – 725 x 715

r = 22 )715()63913180)()725(65713180(  xx

1161660 – 518375

r = 2)715()11504340(52562511828340( 

11143285

r = 1242520414

r = 11143285

17.1246840

r = 0.999
= 1.00

Converting the above r = 1.00 to t-test, we have

t = r
21

2

r

n

Where r = correlation coefficient
n = number of variables
2 = is a constant
df = n – 2

r = 1.00
2)00.1(1

2180

r = 1.00
11

1782

r =
0

178

r = 1.00 x 13.34
t = cal = 13.34
t = tab = 1.96
df = N – 2 = 180 -2 = 178

54 EGBE OJONG TANDU, ABEKI SUNNY OKORO, SUNDAY OFFUM OGON AND PETER TAWOR ETTA