+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Read what I attached 

Communication: Making Connections

Eleventh Edition

Chapter 12

Informative and Persuasive Speaking

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

12.1 Explain the distinctions between informative and persuasive speeches.

12.2 Identify the goals of persuasion.

12.3 Choose appropriate topics for your informative and persuasive speeches.

12.4 Prepare and develop an informative speech to meet your professor’s specific criteria.

12.5 Evaluate and assess your own informative speeches prior to classroom presentation and apply evaluation criteria to the speeches of others.

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

12.6 Construct and support a persuasive claim.

12.7 Explain how Aristotle’s modes of presentation—ethos, logos, and pathos—increase your credibility.

12.8 Develop your persuasive speech by carefully researching your topic; organizing the content; providing appropriate supporting materials; and making strong, logical arguments.

12.9 Recognize errors in your own thinking so you can correct them and present logical claims and evidence.

12.10 Evaluate and assess your own persuasive speeches and those of others.

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Distinctions between Informative and Persuasive Speaking

Learning Objective 12.1 Explain the distinctions between informative and

Persuasive speeches.

Informing versus Persuading

Informing: seeks to increase listeners’ knowledge

Persuading: seeks to alter attitudes and behavior

Distinction is slight; depends on goal of speaker

Information can be presented without persuading

All persuasion must provide information

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Information in Communication

We send and receive vast amounts of information every day, in every kind of situation. It’s no wonder, then, that informative speech is often one of the first assigned in communication classes such as this one. Source: Stockfour/Shutterstock

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Goals of Persuasive Speaking (1 of 2)

Learning Objective 12.2 Identify the goals of persuasion.

Persuasion

Using verbal and nonverbal messages to reinforce or change attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior

Ultimate goal is action or change

Reinforce existing beliefs

Change existing beliefs

Lead to a new belief

Occurs over time

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Persuasion is Challenging

Speakers whose topic is the environment face some stiff competition from listeners who believe the environment is a nonissue.

Source: Junfu Han/Kalamazoo Gazette-MLive Media Group/AP Images

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Goals of Persuasive Speaking (2 of 2)

Persuasion continued

Adoption

Discontinuance

Deterrence

Continuance

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Topics for Informative and Persuasive Speeches (1 of 3)

Learning Objective 12.3 Choose appropriate topics for your informative and persuasive speeches.

The Informative Speech

Objects

Processes

Events

Concepts

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Dalai Lama

The Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people, a world religious figure, and a possible topic for your informative speech. He says he’s guided by three major commitments: the promotion of basic human values in the interest of human happiness; the fostering of inter-religious harmony; and the welfare of the Tibetan people, focusing on the survival of their identity, culture, and religion. Source: Paul Doyle/Lebrecht Music & Arts/Alamy Stock Photo

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Topics for Informative and Persuasive Speeches (2 of 3)

The Persuasive Speech

Suggestions for selecting a topic

Select a topic you are interested in or familiar with

Select a worthwhile subject of concern to your audience

Select a topic with a goal for influence or action

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Topics for Informative and Persuasive Speeches (3 of 3)

The Persuasive Speech continued

Questions of fact

Questions of value

Questions of policy

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing an Informative Speech (1 of 4)

Learning Objective 12.4 Prepare and develop an informative speech to meet your professor’s specific criteria.

Gain and Maintain Audience Attention

Generate a need for the information

Create information relevance

Provide a fresh perspective

Focus on the unusual

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Gates Foundation

Melinda and Bill Gates, and Bill Gates Sr., oversee the Gates Foundation, a philanthropy benefitting scores of institutions and individuals around the world. Melinda Gates is also in demand as a speaker because of her unique global perspective. Source: Jean-Christophe Bott/Epa/Shutterstock

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing an Informative Speech (2 of 4)

Increase Understanding of the Topic

Organize your presentation

Plan for repetition

Use advance organizers

Choose language carefully

Use concrete words

Use description

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing an Informative Speech (3 of 4)

Increase Understanding of the Topic continued

Use definitions

Contrast definition

Synonyms

Antonyms

Etymology

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing an Informative Speech (4 of 4)

Hints for Effective Informative Speaking

Avoid assumptions

One mistaken assumption could undercut your work

Personalize information

It holds audience’s attention and interest

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Demonstration Speech

Teaching others the fine art of surfboarding requires an understanding of the listeners, careful organization, and planning. When the instructor shares personal stories, the listeners are likely to remember more. Source: Eye35/Alamy Stock Photo

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Evaluating the Informative Speech (1 of 7)

Learning Objective 12.5 Evaluate and assess your own informative speeches prior to classroom presentation and apply evaluation criteria to the speeches of others.

Topic

Merit audience’s attention

Take into account audience’s knowledge

Connection between topic and speaker and topic and audience

Narrow enough to cover in allotted time

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 12.1 Speaker’s Self-Evaluation Form

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

20

Evaluating the Informative Speech (2 of 7)

General Requirements

Purpose should be clearly

Meet time requirements

Cite sources of information

Purpose should be relevant to assignment and relate to the audience

Show evidence of careful preparation

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 12.2 Listener’s
Evaluation Form

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

22

Evaluating the Informative Speech (3 of 7)

Audience Analysis

Shape speech to reflect audience analysis

Show listeners why topic is important to them

Connect with listeners at several points of speech

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Evaluating the Informative Speech (4 of 7)

Supporting Materials

Well documented

Sources should be cited completely/accurately

Research should be up to date

Adequate and sufficient clarifying materials

Visual aids should be appropriate, add to audience’s understanding, and follow assignment guidelines

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Evaluating the Informative Speech (5 of 7)

Organization

Introduction should be properly developed

Body should be clear and easy to follow

Conclusion should be properly developed

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Evaluating the Informative Speech (6 of 7)

Delivery

Stance and posture should be suitable

Eye contact with audience should be appropriate

Method of delivery should follow assignment

Facial expressions should convey/clarify thoughts

Body movement should be appropriate and effective

Vocal delivery should enhance the speech

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Evaluating the Informative Speech (7 of 7)

Language Choice

Appropriate to assignment and audience

Word choice appropriate for college-level students

Grammar should show college-level competence

Correct word pronunciations

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Persuasive Claims (1 of 2)

Learning Objective 12.6 Construct and support a persuasive claim.

Three Modes of Persuasion

Ethos

Logos

Pathos

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Persuasive Claims (2 of 2)

Toulmin’s Model

Accept claim at face value

Reject claim outright at face value

Accept or reject according to evaluation of data and warrant

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Establishing Credibility (Ethos) (1 of 3)

Learning Objective 12.7 Explain how Aristotle’s modes of presentation—ethos, logos,

and pathos—increase your credibility.

Competence

Demonstrate involvement

Relate experience

Cite research

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Personal Experience Adds to Credibility

Actor Michael J. Fox has been public with his struggles with Parkinson’s disease and shared personal experiences, which make him a credible and persuasive advocate for research to find a cure.

Source: Rick Mackler/ZUMA Press, Inc./Alamy Stock Photo

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Establishing Credibility (Ethos) (2 of 3)

Character

Trustworthiness

Ethics

Cite sources that are not your own; use oral footnotes

Do not falsify/distort information to make your point

Show respect for your audience

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Establishing Credibility (Ethos) (3 of 3)

Charisma

Appeal or attractiveness audience perceives

Contributes to the speaker’s credibility

Sincere interest

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech (1 of 6)

Learning Objective 12.8 Develop your persuasive speech by carefully researching your topic; organizing the content; providing appropriate supporting materials; and making strong, logical arguments.

Researching the Topic

Research must be especially thorough

Research should support/clarify views

Make note of research that contradicts views

Find information to refute opposing views

Anticipate possible objections to your claims

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech (2 of 6)

Organizing the Speech

Should you present one or both sides of issue?

When should you present strongest arguments?

What is the best way to organize the speech?

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech (3 of 6)

Organizing the Speech continued

Problem-solution pattern

Cause-effect pattern

Monroe’s motivated sequence pattern

Attention

Need

Satisfaction

Visualization

Action

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech (4 of 6)

Supporting Materials

Appeals to needs

Physical needs

Safety needs

Social needs

Self-esteem needs

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech (5 of 6)

Supporting Materials continued

Logical appeals (logos)

Deductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning

Causal reasoning

Reasoning by analogy

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech (6 of 6)

Supporting Materials continued

Emotional appeals

Playing on people’s feelings

Can be powerful

Ethical speaker uses emotional appeals carefully

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fallacies in Argument Development (1 of 3)

Learning Objective 12.9 Recognize errors in your own thinking so you can correct them and present logical claims and evidence.

Fallacy

Flawed argument that does not follow rules of logic

Can lead to flawed reasoning

Critical thinkers know how to recognize fallacies

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fallacies in Argument Development (2 of 3)

Fallacies of Reason

Questionable cause

Ad hominem

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fallacies in Argument Development (3 of 3)

Fallacies of Evidence

Fact versus opinion

Red herring

Hasty generalization

Post hoc fallacy

Either-or reasoning

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Logic in the Courtroom

To persuade the jury, an attorney in a courtroom must use facts and evidence, not opinions, and must avoid logical fallacies.

Source: Sirtravelalot/Shutterstock

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Evaluating the Persuasive Speech

Learning Objective 12.10 Evaluate and assess your own persuasive speeches and those of others.

General Requirements

Purpose should be clearly to persuade

Speech should include goal

Supporting materials should appeal to audience

Use a variety of supporting materials

Appropriate organizational pattern

Speaker should convey a positive attitude

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 12.3 Speaker’s
Self-Reflection
Evaluation Form (1 of 2)

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

.

45

Figure 12.3 Speaker’s
Self-Reflection
Evaluation Form (2 of 2)

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

46

Figure 12.4 Sample Listener
Evaluation Form for Persuasive Speeches

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

47

Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Appendix A

Long description for Figure 12.1

The figure presents the following text with blank lines next to each of the items to fill in.

After you have completed an informative speech, take a few moments to think about your preparation and presentation. Complete the phrases on this form by stating what you would do similarly or differently, and why, if you were to give this same speech again.

Title of Speech:

Date and place given:

My topic was:

I liked the topic because:

My research could be improved by:

The organizational pattern I chose was:

The introduction was:

The body of the speech needed:

My conclusion seemed to be:

My explanation of ideas should:

The support I provided for my ideas:

My use of language might:

My visual delivery was:

My vocal delivery needed:

The ways I adapted my topic, ideas, and language to this audience were:

Things I would change are:

Because:

Things I would retain are:

Because:

If I were to grade myself, the grade would be:

Because:

Return to presentation

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Appendix B

Long description for Figure 12.2

The figure shows the following data and blank lines next to each of the items to fill in.

This form can be used to evaluate speeches given by your classmates. Follow your instructor’s directions for providing such feedback

Speaker

Topic

Date

Listener

The speaker considered this topic for this class, assignment, and context by

A new or different perspective I gained was

The organization of the speech was

The reasons for my comments on organization are

Four things the speaker did to keep me listening were

The speaker’s purpose was

The types of supporting materials used included

Presentational aids, if used, enhanced/did not enhance the speech because

The speaker’s language helped/hindered me in following ways:

The speaker could improve the physical aspects of delivery by

The one comment I wish to make abut vocal delivery is

The speaker needed to explain

One aspect I especially liked was

One area that needs improvement in the future is

Return to presentation

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Appendix C

Long description for Figure 12.3 part 1

The form has the following text, with blank lines next to each item.

On completing your persuasive speech, take a few moments to reflect on what you presented. This form can help you organize your thinking about the speech. Put yourself in the place of your listeners and be specific in your comments on each aspect of the speech. Whenever there’s a choice, circle the appropriate response and provide explanations. Always provide an explanation.

Name

Title of Speech

Topic: I would stay with this topic because

OR, I would change the perspective I present because

Research: How would you change the way you researched your speech?

Appropriateness: In what ways was this speech appropriate to you, the classroom, the situation, the audience, the time limits?

Organization: My organization could be improved by

The introduction: What would you change and/or retain from the introduction you used?

The body of the speech needed [blank] to make it complete.

The conclusion was effective/ineffective in the following ways:

I would change the conclusion as follows:

Explanation and clarity of ideas was effective/ineffective because

The claims or arguments presented worked well/need change

Analyze each of the following and provide a complete response (at least one full sentence):

Support for ideas (valid, worthwhile, ethical, sufficient number, clear?)

Use of language

Visual delivery (movement, gestures, eye contact, posture)

Return to presentation

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Appendix D

Long description for Figure 12.3 part 2

The form has the following text, with blank lines next to each item.

Vocal delivery (conversationality, sincerity, variety, ease of listening)

The ways I adapted this speech to this audience:

If I were to give this speech again, I would change the following:

I would change those things because:

What would you retain? Why?

What have you learned from this presentation?

Return to presentation

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Appendix E

Long description for Figure 12.4

The figure shows the following data, with blank lines next to each question.

Listeners are often called on to evaluate speakers. Some instructors have listeners complete an evaluation similar to this one. It provides the speaker with invaluable information. It is also a good critical thinking exercise for the listener.

Speaker

Topic

Date

1. How well did this speech meet the criteria for a persuasive speech?

2. What was the speaker’s specific purpose?

3. What was the speaker’s thesis?

4. Which arguments did you believe?

5. Which arguments did you have difficulty believing?

6. Were you convinced about the claim or argument the speaker presented? Why or why not?

7. What would it take to make you change your beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors about this topic?

8. How did this speaker and the stand taken in this speech influence you?

9. Did you hear any faulty reasoning in this speech? What kind? How could the reasoning be improved?

10. What types of evidence and support were provided for arguments, statements, and claims?

11. Was the speaker believable? Why or why not? What could the speaker do to be more believable?

12. Was the speaker ethical? Fair? Accurate?

13. What kinds of appeals were used?

14. Was the speaker easy to follow? Was the organization clear?

Return to presentation

Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

.MsftOfcThm_Text1_Fill {
fill:#000000;
}
.MsftOfcThm_MainDark1_Stroke {
stroke:#000000;
}