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Recommendations and Implications: Based on your interpretations, connect practice (marketing) to your research. What marketing decisions do we need to rethink or do differently? (2-3 pages)

Please read the article attached first.

Attached is the group document so far as well. 


Metaphors in Understanding Consumer Experience and Value

Yousef Atieh (300060540)

Hassan Issa (300000763)

Mohsen Issa (300060288)

Ahmad Mazloum (300083013)

Ramtin Zeinali (STUDENT NUMBER)

Telfer School of Management

ADM 3321 B

Michael S. Mulvey

November 11, 2021



Research Purpose

Research Synthesis

· Metaphors contribute to thinking and knowing (Ahmad)

Throughout the article, Gerald Zaltman mentions the impact metaphors tend to have when individuals express their thoughts. Similarly, they shape the way humans interact as it is well known as the basis of thinking and knowing (Zaltman, 1996, p. 14). Continuing on this thought, Zaltman had paved the way for future research to be in place as his analysis is prone to have gaps. As expanded further by Johnson & Lakoff (2008) “The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.” In other words, most human interactions come across as metaphorically structured. For example, we can use the term “If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out.” (Johnson & Lakoff, 2008) In this case, we are comparing two different terms

· Implication of metaphors in bodily experience (Ahmad)

· How ZMET is used to analyze an individual’s deep metaphors. (Mohsen)

According to the article, a ZMET analysis can help marketers in their qualitative research to dive deeply into a consumer’s relevant hidden thoughts to fully understand the consumer’s desires and needs (G. Zaltman, 1996). To fully understand how ZMET can access these deep metaphors and thoughts, one must know the true definition of a deep metaphor and the various kinds of metaphors an individual possesses. By definition, “Deep metaphors are basic frames or orientations we have toward the world around us. They are “deep” because they are largely unconscious and universal. They are “metaphors” because they recast everything we think about, hear, say, and do. Because deep metaphors shape the way we engage the world, an understanding of them is necessary to explain why we think and act as we do” (G. Zaltman and L. Zaltman, 2008). The seven deep metaphors listed by Gerald Zaltman are balance, transformation, journey, container, connection, resource, and control (Walter, 2012). The comprehension of the meanings of all the deep thoughts will aid the researchers in their research and help them better understand consumer behavior. According to Zaltman and Zaltman (2008), “balance” covers the ideas of “adjustment”, “harmony”, and “maintenance and offsetting of forces”. Secondly, “transformation” covers the adjustment or change in state or status and can be either positive or negative. Next, we have “journey” and as stated by the authors in “Marketing Metaphoria” (2008), “journey” can mean “evolution”, “progress”, and “maturation”. The authors additionally state that to get a better understanding of an individual and for a “smoother” interaction, one must know the other individual’s background story, or in other words, to know one’s “journey.” “Container,” the fourth deep metaphor, is all about keeping things in or out or forming some sort of protection or trap whether they be for people, things you value, or normal tangible or intangible objects. The next metaphor, being “connection,” talks about how the feeling of affiliation is needed amongst us humans. G. Zaltman and L. Zaltman further inform the readers that the need of feeling connected with oneself, or others can often be the main factor that drives us to commit certain behaviors. Additionally, in the marketing world, this means that certain products or services have the power to make certain individuals feel engaged or disengaged with the product or service. The sixth metaphor, “resource,” may sometimes be tangible or intangible and is often used to achieve the feeling of satisfaction or survival. Other than the basic needs like food and water, a friend or a family member can also be identified as a “resource.” Finally, “control” might imply power and authority but that is simply not the case. As Zaltman and Zaltman (2008) explain, “control” stems from the motivation of us humans always wanting to be in control of ourselves, in a situation, or in control of other individuals (Covington, 2012). A ZMET analysis is very crucial to understanding the consumers deeper metaphors and thoughts and can help the qualitative research in bringing forth valuable insights into how these deeper metaphors can shape a consumer’s behaviour and decision making.

· Importance of sensory images in a ZMET interview (Mohsen)

To be finished tn.

· How ZMET improved qualitative research. (Hassan)

The key to knowing how ZMET improved qualitative research lies in knowing the main benefits of implementing the ZMET technique. Since qualitative research collects and utilizes non numerical data, using the ZMET technique would undoubtedly improve it as it combines knowledge from numerous fields such as humanities, biological sciences, and other sub fields (G. Zaltman, 1996).

Utilizing the ZMET technique would therefore expand upon their qualitative research, allowing the said user to find different unconventional solutions for your research. ZMET would implement the use of surveys or even research to identify the target of your research’s needs and wants. Moreover, using interviews/surveys, it would undoubtedly be able to identify those needs as throughout the interview process, every consumer chooses at the very least 12 images which represent their thoughts and thinking process. These images are usually what kicks off the process, as they help the interviewer understand their thoughts and feelings by strategically tailoring the questions regarding the images. The process would then go on to an interview, making use of both the Kelly repertory grid and laddering approaches to further understand the thought process and needs which therefore would be implemented in qualitative research. These steps help ensure that the research collected directly correlates with the needs and wants of your research, as it makes sure that you can ask any clarifying questions and find the answers that you need. After identifying those needs, it would then proceed to exercising metaphors, images, and even models to drive the thinking and behaviour of your target audience (G. Zaltman and L. Zaltman, 2008). Using metaphors, it helps you influence your consumers consciousness and behaviors for your benefit, something that is of the utmost importance in qualitative research.

Moreover, ZMET technique can reveal the hidden desires of their targeted audience which allows the user to cater those specific needs that the targeted consumer did not know about. This also allows the user to further connect with their consumers, as it creates a sense of connection between yourself and the consumer. Not only that, but in most cases, consumers themselves do not know what they want, and as referred to in the article, a ZMET interview allows them to safely discover what it is that subconsciously shapes their needs and wants. ZMET is also very adaptable as it can be done from the comfort of your own home or online, which caters to many individuals as it is very convenient for them.

Recommendations and Implications

Based on your interpretations, connect practice (marketing) to your research. What marketing decisions do we need to rethink or do differently? (2-3 pages)

Reference List (APA)


Task List

Signature Page


By signing this Statement, I am attesting to the fact that I have reviewed not only my own work, but the work of my colleagues, in its entirety.

I attest to the fact that my own work in this project meets all of the rules of quotation and referencing in use at the Telfer School of Management at the University of Ottawa, as well as adheres to the fraud policies as outlined in the Academic Regulations in the University’s Undergraduate Studies Calendar. Academic Fraud Webpage

To the best of my knowledge, I also believe that each of my group colleagues has also met the rules of quotation and referencing aforementioned in this Statement.

I understand that if my group assignment is submitted without a signed copy of this Personal Ethics Statement from each group member, it will be interpreted by the Telfer School that the missing student(s) signature is confirmation of non-participation of the aforementioned student(s) in the required work.

_____Mazloum,Ahmad________________        _11/3/2021__________________ 

Signature                           Date 

Ahmad Mazloum_____________________        _300083013__________________ 

Last Name (print), First Name (print)                                    Student Number

____Issa, Hassan_____________________        _11/3/2021__________________ 

Signature                           Date 

____Hassan Issa_________________                  _300000763__________________ 

___Issa__________________________        _11/3/2021__________________ 

Signature                           Date 

___Issa, Mohsen__________________               300060288____________ 

Last Name (print), First Name (print)                                    Student Number