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Report

Once you have completed your research, you will need to prepare an investigation report

that consists of three sections. Each section should provide an answer for the following

questions:

1. What question were you trying to answer and why?

2. What did you do to answer your question and why?

3. What is your argument?

Your report should answer these questions in two pages or less. You should write your

report using a word processing application (such as Word, Pages, or Google Docs), if possible, to make it easier for you to edit and revise it later. You should embed any diagrams,

figures, or tables into the document. Be sure to write in a persuasive style; you are trying

to convince others that your claim is acceptable or valid.

SCIENCE ADI-6 LAB REPORT Title- Plate interaction Name-

Introduction

Method

Argument-

,

157Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

Plate Interactions How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

Lab Handout

Lab 6. Plate Interactions: How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary? Introduction The interior structure of the Earth is composed of several layers (see Figure L6.1). At the center of the Earth is the inner core. The inner core is a solid sphere and consists of mostly iron. It has a radius of about 1,120 km. The next layer is the outer core. The outer core is liquid and extends beyond the inner core another 2,270 km. The next, and thickest, layer is the mantle. The mantle is often divided into three sublayers: the lower mesosphere, the upper mesosphere, and the asthenosphere. The outermost layer of the Earth is the lithosphere. The lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle.

The theory of plate tectonics states that the lithosphere is broken into several plates that move over time (see Figure L6.2). The plates move in different directions and at different speeds in relationship to each other. Plate boundaries are found where one plate interacts with another plate. These boundaries are classified into three different categories: (a) conver- gent boundaries result when two plates collide with each other, (b) divergent boundaries result when two plates move away from each other, and (c) transform boundaries form when two

FIGURE L6.1 Earth’s layers

FIGURE L6.2 The major tectonic plates

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London Parker
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London Parker
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London Parker
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158 National Science Teachers Association

LAB 6

plates slide past each other. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes often occur along or near plate boundaries.

In this investigation, you will explore where volcanic eruptions and earthquakes tend to happen. You goal is to determine if volcanic eruptions and earthquakes happen more often near a specific type of plate boundary. This type of investigation is important because natural processes, such as the gradual movement of tectonic plates over time, can result in natural hazards. Although it is impossible to prevent volcanic eruptions and earthquakes from happening, we can take steps to reduce their impacts. It is therefore useful for us to understand where these types of hazards are likely to occur because we can prepare for them and respond quickly when they happen. We can, for example, build better buildings, develop warning systems, and increase the response capabilities of cities to help reduce the loss of life and economic costs when we know where volcanic eruptions and earthquake tend to happen.

Your Task Use an online interactive map to collect data about how often volcanic eruptions and earthquakes happen near the three different types of plate boundaries. Your goal is to use what you know about plate tectonics, patterns, and the use of different scales, proportional relationships, and quantities during an investigation to determine if the way plates interact with each other at a specific location is related to the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes at that location.

The guiding question of this investigation is, How is the nature of the geologic activity that is observed near a plate boundary related to the type of plate interaction that occurs at that boundary?

Materials You will use an online interactive map called Natural Hazards Viewer to conduct your inves- tigation; the interactive map can be accessed at http://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hazards.

Safety Precautions Be sure to follow all normal lab safety rules.

Investigation Proposal Required? o Yes o No

Getting Started Given the nature of this investigation, you must determine what type of data you need to collect, how you will collect the data, and how will you analyze the data to answer the research question. To determine what type of data you need to collect, think about the following questions:

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London Parker
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London Parker
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London Parker
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159Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

Plate Interactions How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

• How will you identify the location of different types of plate boundary?

• How can you describe an earthquake and a volcanic eruption quantitatively?

• What are the limitations of the available data set?

To determine how you will collect the data, think about the following questions:

• What parts of the world will you need to include in your study?

• What scale or scales should you use to quantify the size of an earthquake or a volcanic eruption?

• Will you need to limit the number of samples you include? If so, how will decide what to include?

• What concessions will you need to make to collect the data you need?

• How will you keep track of the data you collect and how will you organize it?

To determine how you will analyze the data, think about the following questions:

• What types of comparisons will you need to make?

• What types of patterns might you look for as you analyze the data?

• What potential proportional relationships can you find in the data?

• How could you use mathematics to determine if there are differences between the groups?

• What type of diagram could you create to help make sense of your data?

Connections to the Nature of Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry As you work through your investigation, be sure to think about

• the difference between observations and inferences in science, and

• how the culture of science, societal needs, and current events influence the work of scientists.

Initial Argument Once your group has finished collecting and analyzing your data, your group will need to develop an initial argument. Your initial argument needs to include a claim, evidence to support your claim, and a justification of the evidence. The claim is your group’s answer to the guiding question. The evidence is an analysis and interpretation of your data. Finally, the justification of the evidence is why your group thinks the evidence matters. The justifi- cation of the evidence is important because scientists can use different kinds of evidence to support their claims. Your group will create your initial argument on a whiteboard. Your whiteboard should include all the information shown in Figure L6.3 (p. 160).

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London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
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160 National Science Teachers Association

LAB 6

Argumentation Session The argumentation session allows all of the groups to share their arguments. One or two members of each group will stay at the lab station to share that group’s argument, while the other members of the group go to the other lab stations to listen to and critique the other arguments. This is similar to what scientists do when they propose, support, evaluate, and refine new ideas during a poster session at a conference. If you are pre- senting your group’s argument, your goal is to share your ideas and answer questions. You should also keep a record of the critiques and suggestions made by your classmates so you can use this feedback to make

your initial argument stronger. You can keep track of specific critiques and suggestions for improvement that your classmates mention in the space below.

Critiques of our initial argument and suggestions for improvement:

If you are critiquing your classmates’ arguments, your goal is to look for mistakes in their arguments and offer suggestions for improvement so these mistakes can be fixed. You should look for ways to make your initial argument stronger by looking for things that the other groups did well. You can keep track of interesting ideas that you see and hear during the argumentation in the space below. You can also use this space to keep track of any questions that you will need to discuss with your team.

FIGURE L6.3 Argument presentation on a whiteboard

The Guiding Question:

Our Claim:

Our Evidence: Our Justification of the Evidence:

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London Parker
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London Parker
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London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

161Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

Plate Interactions How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

Interesting ideas from other groups or questions to take back to my group:

Once the argumentation session is complete, you will have a chance to meet with your group and revise your initial argument. Your group might need to gather more data or design a way to test one or more alternative claims as part of this process. Remember, your goal at this stage of the investigation is to develop the best argument possible.

Report Once you have completed your research, you will need to prepare an investigation report that consists of three sections. Each section should provide an answer for the following questions:

1. What question were you trying to answer and why?

2. What did you do to answer your question and why?

3. What is your argument?

Your report should answer these questions in two pages or less. You should write your report using a word processing application (such as Word, Pages, or Google Docs), if pos- sible, to make it easier for you to edit and revise it later. You should embed any diagrams, figures, or tables into the document. Be sure to write in a persuasive style; you are trying to convince others that your claim is acceptable or valid.

Copyright © 2018 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions. TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781681403731

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

London Parker
165840000000009385

162 National Science Teachers Association

LAB 6

Checkout Questions

Lab 6. Plate Interactions: How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary? Use the map below to answer questions 1 and 2.

1. On the map above, circle one convergent boundary, one divergent boundary, and one transform boundary. Be sure to label each one. How do you know which boundary is which?

2. Earthquakes occur much more frequently in California than they do in Florida or New York. Using what you learned from your investigation and the map above, why is this the case?

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London Parker
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163Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

Plate Interactions How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

3. The map below shows the location of a volcanic arc in Central America. Each triangle represents the location of a different volcano.

a. What type of boundary is responsible for this volcanic arc and where is it most likely located?

b. How do you know?

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164 National Science Teachers Association

LAB 6

4. Scientists share a set of values, norms, and commitments that shape what counts as knowing, how to represent or communicate information, and how to interact with other scientists.

a. I agree with this statement. b. I disagree with this statement.

Explain your answer, using an example from your investigation about plate tectonics.

5. The statement “There were 31 earthquakes at the convergent boundary” is an example of an inference.

a. I agree with this statement. b. I disagree with this statement.

Explain your answer, using an example from your investigation about plate tectonics.

Copyright © 2018 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions. TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781681403731

London Parker
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London Parker
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165Argument-Driven Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6–10

Plate Interactions How Is the Nature of the Geologic Activity That Is Observed Near a Plate Boundary Related to

the Type of Plate Interaction That Occurs at That Boundary?

6. Scientists often need to look for patterns that occur in the data they collect and analyze. Explain why identifying patterns is important for scientists, using an example from your investigation about plate tectonics.

7. Natural phenomena occur at varying scales. Explain why scientists need to consider using different measurement or time scales when deciding how to collect and analyze data, using an example from your investigation about plate tectonics.

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,

1

4

Earth Science

Student's Name:

Institution:

Instructor's Name:

Course Title:

Due Date

Earth Science

Data to be collected

I will gather information about earthquakes and volcanoes. These will help me better understand the activities in spreading ridges and convergence zones; this information will be helpful. These boundaries also assist us in identifying other kinds of plate boundaries.

Ways of data collection

I'll gather information by looking at the most prevalent sorts of earthquakes and volcanoes, as well as the types of boundaries that cause them to occur. The data will then be analyzed to discover if transform, convergent, and divergent borders are responsible for the most prevalent earthquakes and volcanoes.

Therefore, knowing where these hazards occur is vital to plan for them and respond when they occur. Knowing where volcanic activity and earthquakes are likely to occur can help us build better buildings, develop warning systems, and improve the reaction capabilities of cities.

My Real Data

Site

Yearly earthquakes

Boundary plate

San Andres fault

10,000

Transform

Fault near Japan

1,500

Convergent

Site

Yearly volcanoes

Boundary plate

Ring of Fire

450

Mainly convergent

The World at large

150

Transform/Divergent

How to Analyze Data

The boundaries of the main tectonic plates can be deduced from maps based on the distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes around the planet. Shallow earthquakes and also some volcanism are common along divergent plate borders. Due to subduction, many convergent borders include volcanoes ranging from shallow to profound. This is because the oceanic plate subducts into the mantle below the overriding plate when two plates meet at a convergent boundary. Convergent boundaries can also form linear and curvy mountain belts. There are usually no volcanoes or earthquakes at transform borders. (Moss $ Cervato 2016).

My Claim

I claim that the nature of the geological activity within a plate border is linked to the plate conversations at the boundary. The graphs on the bottom show a distinct difference in the likelihood of earthquakes and volcanoes at each location.

Reference

Moss, E., & Cervato, C. (2016). Quantifying the level of inquiry in a reformed introductory geology lab course. Journal of Geoscience Education64(2), 125-137.

,

Science London Parker Kendrick Middle School Daisy Vaddi December 15, 2021

Guiding Question

How is the nature of the geologic activity that is observed near a plate boundary related to the type of plate Interaction that occurs at that boundary?

The Earth's outer surface is made up of around 20 tectonic plates, which are massive sections of the Earth's crust that fit together roughly and meet plate boundaries (Coltice et al.,2019). Plate boundaries are important because earthquakes and volcanoes are commonly associated with them. Massive amounts of energy can be released as earthquakes when the Earth's tectonic plates collide. Volcanoes are typically found along plate boundaries because molten rock from deep beneath the Earth, known as magma, may rise upward at these plate crossings.

2

Claim

The Earth's outer surface has around 20 tectonic plates

Massive energy released when the Earth's tectonic plates grind against one another

Volcanoes are frequently found at plate borders

The Earth's outer surface is made up of around 20 tectonic plates, which are massive sections of the Earth's crust that fit together roughly and meet plate boundaries (Coltice et al.,2019). Plate boundaries are important because earthquakes and volcanoes are commonly associated with them. Massive amounts of energy can be released as earthquakes when the Earth's tectonic plates collide. Volcanoes are typically found along plate boundaries because molten rock from deep beneath the Earth, known as magma, may rise upward at these plate crossings.

3

Evidence

Map of Earth's tectonic plates

(Coltice et al.,2019).

Ages of the seamounts and volcanoes in the Hawaii-Emperor chain, suggesting that the Pacific plate changed its direction of motion about 42 million years ago (Kusky, Windley and Polat, 2018).

The Earth's outer surface is made up of around 20 tectonic plates, which are massive sections of the Earth's crust that fit together roughly and meet plate boundaries (Coltice et al.,2019). Plate boundaries are important because earthquakes and volcanoes are commonly associated with them. Massive amounts of energy can be released as earthquakes when the Earth's tectonic plates collide. Volcanoes are typically found along plate boundaries because molten rock from deep beneath the Earth, known as magma, may rise upward at these plate crossings.

4

WESANGZ254 (W) –

Jurisdiction

Different geological features are linked with each of these types of plate borders

As Earth's crust is crushed and forced upward, convergent plate boundaries, like the one between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate

a convergent plate boundary can sometimes result in one tectonic plate sinking beneath another (Kusky, Windley and Polat, 2018).

Plate borders come in a different shapes and sizes. Plate boundaries, for instance, can meet and collide a "convergent", split apart a "divergent", or gliding past each other a "transform" plate border). Different geological features are linked with each of these types of plate borders. As Earth's crust is crushed and forced upward, convergent plate boundaries, like the one between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate, generate towering mountain ranges like the Himalayas. On the other hand, a convergent plate boundary can sometimes result in one tectonic plate sinking beneath another (Kusky, Windley and Polat, 2018). An older, thicker tectonic plate is driven deep into the globe beneath a younger, less thick tectonic plate in a process known as "subduction." A trench">ocean trench can emerge when this process occurs in the ocean. These trenches are among the deepest in the water, and they are frequently the epicenter of powerful earthquakes..

5

Work cited

Coltice, N., Husson, L., Faccenna, C., & Arnould, M. (2019). What drives tectonic plates?. Science advances, 5(10), eaax4295.

Kusky, T. M., Windley, B. F., & Polat, A. (2018). Geological evidence for the operation of plate tectonics throughout the Archean: Records from Archean paleo-plate boundaries. Journal of Earth Science, 29(6), 1291-1303.