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Abstract 4


Positive Transfer of Decision-Making Skills Occurs Between Sports with Similar Elements


Introduction: Previous studies have explored the extent to which perceptual-cognitive skills,

such pattern recognition skills and pattern recall skills, and anticipation transfer between both

similar and dissimilar sports. Although some studies have found some aspects of transfer occur

between similar sports, there was no conclusive or specific evidence regarding transfer of

decision-making skills across similar and dissimilar sports. Therefore, the purpose of this study

was to analyze skilled male soccer players’ movement decisions to determine if decision-making

skills are sport-specific or transfer occurs between similar and dissimilar sports. Methods:

Twenty male soccer players that have played in the BUCS league and currently participate in

semi-professional clubs in England were recruited. All participants were asked to complete a

soccer, basketball, and tennis video-based temporal occlusion decision-making test. The test

composed of 6-12 seconds of intermediate difficulty open-play attacking situation with the video

blacked out before the final action was performed. Participants were then given 4 seconds to

make a response for the given video segment and were scored from 0-2 based on accuracy. A

one-way repeated-measures ANOVA was run to compare accuracy scores with sport task,

α=0.05. Results: There was a significant effect of sport task on decision-making accuracy of

soccer players, p<0.001. Participants were significantly more accurate in the soccer decision-

making test compared to basketball and tennis but were significantly more accurate in the

basketball portion compared to the tennis portion (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings suggest

that positive transfer occurred between soccer and basketball, two similar sports, possibly due to

generic perceptual-cognitive skills. Since participants were significantly more accurate during

the soccer portion, it is reasonable to conclude that practice time is vital for athletes to reach an

elite level. Overall, when teaching a learner a new sport, it is important to make sure they have

adequate practice time to gain expertise in the new sport. However, it is also important to

consider previous involvement in sports with shared elements that may affect the learning of the

new sport.

Word Count: 329

KNS 307: Abstract Grading Rubric

You will be provided with a scientific article related to a topic in Kinesiology. The article will be

provided with no title or abstract. Your task is to create a title and write an abstract for the paper.

The abstract should contain the following headings: Introduction; Methods; Results;

Conclusion. It should be between 200 and 400 words (not including title). State the word


The abstract will be graded according to the rubric below.


Score Category and Points











Title Not provided

Title is
incomplete, not
coherent, or not

related to the

Title is missing

contains errors, or
is not written in a

scientific tone

Title is complete
and informative,
and written in a
scientific tone

Title is complete,
concise and

informative, and is
written in a scientific


Introduction Not provided

The background
and purpose are

not complete,
one or both are


The background
and purpose are

stated, but are not

complete, or do
not portray the

importance of the

The background is
provided and leads

directly to the
purpose statement

The subject is
concisely described in
a larger topical context

and leads to the
purpose statement,

which is clearly stated
and indicates why the

study is important

Methods Not provided

One or more
components are



Components are
covered, but not in

adequate detail

The participants,
procedures, and

statistical analyses
are stated

The participants,
procedures, and

statistical analyses are
stated concisely and

supported with
relevant information

from the study

Results Not provided

Results are not

clearly, or are


Results are
stated, but not
supported with


Most results are
stated and

supported with data

All results are stated
concisely and

appropriately with data

Conclusion Not provided
The conclusion
is incomplete or

The conclusion is
provided, but is

unclear or overly

The conclusion is
clear, adequately
summarizes the

findings and
provides take-home
information about

the study

The conclusion
summarizes the

findings, provides a
clear take-home

message, is written
concisely, and ties

back into the purpose

Clarity and

No abstract

The abstract is
over or under

the word limit, is
nonspecific, and
not written in a
scientific tone

The abstract is
specific, but is

over or under the
word limit, or is
difficult to follow

The abstract is
specific, within the

word limit, and
easy to follow

The abstract is
exceptionally clear,

concise, and specific,
and written in a
scientific tone

TOTAL SCORE FROM RUBRIC: ____ / 60 = ____ % OVERALL GRADE: ____ / 100

KNS 307: Abstract Grading Rubric

Example formatting with information about components:

The title can be written in sentence case, and should include some information about the

study, such that someone reading will know what to expect.

If You Prefer, You Could Also Write the Title in Title Case

Introduction: In a couple of sentences, provide a succinct background of the study. This should

deliver enough information to briefly describe what is already known. It should portray why this

study is important and what it contributes to the existing body of knowledge. This section should

be concise and include only the most relevant information. It should lead directly to the purpose

statement, which should be very clearly stated. Methods: Using the information from the study,

you should be able to provide information about the participants who were recruited for the

study. Include sample size and any relevant demographics or inclusion criteria. Briefly describe

the overall methods – this does not have to be procedural, but should give the reader an idea of

what was done for the study. There should also be a sentence describing the statistical test(s)

run (i.e. ANOVA, t-test, correlation), including alpha level. Results: The main findings should be

provided. This should include the major findings that are directly related to the purpose

statement. Means, standard deviations, and p-values should be included. The results section is

very straightforward, and should just provide the results – don’t include any discussion about

what the results mean! Conclusions: This is where you will briefly describe what the results

mean, and put them into a larger context. Include any major conclusions drawn by the authors

and describe how this work will contribute to the field. If there are clinical implications, include

them here. This section should provide information that directly relates to the information

provided in the introduction, and should provide closure on what was stated in the introduction

and purpose statement.

Word Count: 270