I will provide the do’s and donts that you can choose from in an attached file below
1.Each student will provide a brief cultural write-up relating to his/her representative country (chosen for Making Acquaintances: Dos and Donts): (20 points)
- Historical background
- Communication styles (language, both verbal and non-verbal)
- Beliefs (religion, family, nature, etc.)
- Society structure (gender equality, role of children, family, ethnic groups, leaders, government, political ideologies, hierarchies)
VERY IMPORTANT your final score will greatly depend on this.
In the next sections, associations SHOULD be made with the value orientations addressed in the Values portion of this course:
- Human Nature (Universalism-Particularism, Good/Evil, High-Context/Low-Context, Uncertainty Avoidance)
- Relation to Nature (Subjugation, Harmony, Mastery, Inner-/Outer-Directed)
- Activity Orientation (Achievement/Ascription, Doing-Being-Being-Becoming)
- Human Relationships (Affectivity/Affective Neutrality, Instrumental/Expressive, Self (Individualistic)/Collective (Collateral)/Linear, Egalitarian/Hierarchical, Power Distance)
- Relation to Time (Past-Present-Future, Monochronic/Polychronic, Low-Context/High-Context
2. Each student will provide a list of Reasons for Codes of Cultural Behavior for tourists visiting his/her representative country. This list will explain to tourists why it is important that they follow each of the Dos and Donts (that you listed in your Making Acquaintances: Dos and Donts assignment), from the hosts cultural (values of the culture) perspective, and should include the following: (40 points)
- Five major Dos for tourists
- At least one appropriate value orientation of the culture for each Do (20 points) (Describe in detail one distinct value orientation for each Do. Do not repeat value orientations for the items on the list of Dos.)
- Five major Donts for tourists
- At least one appropriate value orientation of the culture for each Dont (20 points) (Describe in detail one distinct value orientation for each Dont. Do not repeat value orientations for the items on the list of Donts.)
3. Each student will provide APA-style citations within the text whenever applicable and compile a list of APA-style references (reference page) for all resources used in his/her write-up (5 points).
4. On the Making Acquaintances Part 2 discussion forum, each student will post his/her findings about the representative country in a thread by the due date.
- Historical background
Modern Turkey was founded from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal, a national hero. Mustafa Kemal was then honored with a profound title of Ataturk known as the Father of the Turks. Under the authoritarian leadership of Mustafa Kemal, Turkey began to develop and further embrace its wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. Following the one-party rule time period, an experiment involving multi-party politics took place. This eventually led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Moreover, Turkeys democracy has been shattered by the several years of instability and intermittent military coups throughout the 1960s, 1971s, and 1980s. This later resulted in a return of political power to all civilians. Later on in 1974, Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in order to hinder a Greek takeover of their islands. Since then, it has acted as a patron state to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus recognized by only Turkey.
- Communication styles
Turkish people have different communication styles that differ them from other nations. Verbally, they use indirect communication meaning their style of communication at first time meetings is oftentimes indirect and warm. The turkish people are very cautious in their conversation as they fear to offend anyone involved in a conversation. Thus, they talk in roundabout ways to prevent such actions. Many disagreements are used with terms of vocal hesitation such as maybe, sort of, probably, perhaps, etc. This is because this specific form of communication is much less assertive and reduces the forces of any negative comments. In other times, they avoid all disagreements and may be unwilling to discuss sensitive subjects. However, they do become more direct as the relationships evolve over time. For males and females, it is different. Turkish women tend to speak in softer tones whereas men tend to speak loudly with force. In regards to humor, they do have a very relaxed sense of humor in which they utilize a playful teasing. However, non-verbally, the turksih people are known to be tactile people. During greetings, it is common for friends of the same gender to kiss on the cheek. However, between unrelated family members, physical contact of the opposite gender is sometimes inappropriate. Many of the turkish people are uncomfortable with it. At first, a handshake is allowed between a man and a woman. However, they are not likely to touch each other unless they are giving physical assistance. Moreover, direct eye contact is expected at all times throughout the conversation. This is because direct eye contact illustrates attentiveness and sincerity. However, devout Muslims of Turkey tend to gaze away when speaking to one of an opposite gender out of modesty. In regards to saying no, turkish people raise their eyebrows, make a tsk or a tutting sound. To them, it is not considered rude or an expression of annoyance. Moreover, turkish people tend to avoid standing with their hands on their lips or in their pockets as it shows disrespect when talking to someone of higher status or simply someone older than them.
Turkey is known for its deep Islamic history. The country, for many years, has been governed as a Sunni Islamic State under the Ottoman Empire. Not all Muslims in Turkey strictly practice their religion, but the country of Turkey is known for its strong level of religious beliefs. For example, between families, it is very common in the streets of Turkey to hear someone say Mashallah which translates to what God has willed or Alhamdulillah which translates to raise be to God. Both are used to express appreciation, joy, praise, and thankfulness for a certain thing. Naturally, everyday the call to prayer is heard echoing from mosques across cities five times a day. This is because Mulsims have five prayers in a day which takes place at dawn, afternoon, in the mid-afternoon, at sunset, and at night, respectively. These prayers are used as a primary purpose to communicate and become closer to Allah.
- Society structure
In Tukey, gender inequality exists. This is shown in education, career, laws, and the overall lifestyle. For example, more male students than female students are enrolled in universities in Turkey which has led women to participate in the labor force less than men. This is due to the gender socialization that children have been exposed to at such an early age. Moreover, gender inequality is also seen in school settings. For example, course books of each class level highlight the roles of women in traditional occupations. Many books emphasize that mothers and grandmothers should only be pictured as teachers or tailors. On the other hand, men are more likely represented with better occupations and a larger variety of careers. Moreover, young girls are forced to marry at a young age preventing them from completing their education and receiving their degrees.
- Reasons for Codes of Cultural Behavior
- There are differences in mannerisms between the Western world and the United States. In the Western world, yes is signified by a downward head nod. A no is signified by an upward head nod along with a tongue click.
- Reason: This is because a no is considered a rude statement and turkish people are known for their polite manners so they raise their eyebrows and make a tsk or a tutting sound.
- In Muslim countries, it is expected that women show very minimal skin. With that being said, when traveling to Turkey, women should cover their knees and shoulders. It is important that women are dressed appropriately, especially in religious temples such as a mosque. Additionally, it is required to remove your shoes when entering the mosque.
- Reason: According to the tukish people, it is disrespectful to visit a country and not obey to the standard of their living. Thus, to respect their religious rules, one must dress appropriately in religious temples.
- Unlike the United States, bargaining is actually seen as a polite gesture, to an extent. When shopping throughout the country, there might be extreme price fluctuations in tourist areas. Thus, bargaining is encouraged but be careful with how you do so.
- Reason: In many shopping areas, the prices are extreme. Thus, to meet at a normal price range, the customer and the owner must meet in the middle. Therefore, bargaining is acceptable
- It is important to learn polite phrases such as lütfen and tesekkür ederim as they mean please and thank you
- Reason: Turkish people are very cautious in their conversation as they fear to offend anyone involved in a conversation. Thus, they always use polite phrases to show respect and appreciation.
- A mosque is a holy place of God. It is where people pray and listen to many sermons. Thus, it shows a great amount of respect when talking quietly at all times inside the mosque
- Reason: According to Muslims, mosques are the holy place of God. Thus, to respect their religious beliefs, one must talk quietly at all times in their religious temples.
- For all Muslims, Friday is a day of worship. The most important prayer of the week is held on friday and it is called jumah. Jumah prayer is also known as the day of congregation and a day of gathering. This is where muslims gather together and listen to a sermon. Thus, non-muslims should not visit the mosque on the day of worship.
- A mosque is a holy place of God. It is where people pray and listen to many sermons. Thus, it is very rude and impolite to talk or laugh loudly in a mosque.
- Reason: According to Muslims, mosques are the holy place of God. Thus, to respect their religious beliefs, one must not talk or laugh loudly in their religious temples.
- Because Turkey is a conservative country, it is very important to not make a display of public affection. Holding hands should be fine, but any sort of kissing in public is not okay.
- Reason: During greetings, it is common for friends of the same gender to kiss on the cheek. However, between opposite genders, physical contact is very inappropriate and forbidden. However, a handshake at first is allowed between a man and a woman. However, they are not likely to touch each other unless they are giving physical assistance.
- It is also very known in Islam that it is disrespectful for a person to walk infront of someone who is praying. It is highly recommended for the person to either wait until the person is done praying or simply just walk behind them.
- Reason: Walking in front of someone who is praying is considered a huge disrespect to the person praying as well as the prayer. Thus, it is important to maintain the religious practices in the mosques as it is the holy place of God.
- Refusing gifts or offerings is considered rude. After eating at a restaurant, they usually provide a black tea on the house with some type of dessert. Rejecting these offerings is viewed as impolite, so even if you do not want it, it is encouraged to accept and take a bite or a sip.
- Reason: Turkish people are known for their very nice gestures. Thus, to reject such nice gestures is considered as if the person is not respecting them. Thus, a tourist should always be happy with all offered gestures.
- Alcohol consumption is very limited in many Muslim countries such as Turkey. Although light alcohol consumption is okay, abstinence is strongly encouraged. When eating at local restaurants, ensure you do not drink too much to the point you are unable to control your words and actions.
- Reason: As a part of the religious practcies and beliefs of Islam, alcohol is completely forbidden. Thus, a tourist must show respect and obey the rules of the country they are visiting.
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