+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

See attached

Assignment

Module 5: Assignment 2 — Draft of Research Paper

The Assignment

For this assignment, you will draft a formal, academic essay in MLA format that details an argument about your selected topic. You will use the outline from the previous assignment as a guide, but you can make modifications to your thesis and argument as necessary.

Here are the basic requirements for your essay:

(1) Your essay must be 4-5 pages in MLA format with an additional Works Cited page.

(2) You must use at least 4 sources in this essay, two of which MUST be academic journal articles. The other two may be journal articles or other credible, academic sources.

(3) Your essay must be organized with a formal structure, developed with concrete evidence and analysis, documented in appropriate, ethical MLA style, and written with a formal, clear style.

Please use the following guidelines to help develop a successful essay:

(1) Your essay should begin with an introduction that introduces the topic and ends with a strong thesis. Your thesis should state your argument and its major reasons in a clear, concise manner. Think of it as a mini-map of your paper for a reader.

(2) Then, you should include a background paragraph that offers your reader more information about the topic and its current debate (or relevant history). Make sure your reader is clear about the exigence of the argument; in other words, why does this argument matter NOW?

(3) After, you should include three to four paragraphs that identify your three to four major reasons. Each paragraph should have a clear topic sentence that links back to the thesis, and you should support each body paragraph with sufficient, credible evidence and analysis.

(4) Before you conclude, please add a Refutation of Opposing Arguments, where you will present the opposing side or potential obstacles and offer a refutation in order to convince your reader and eliminate bias.

(5) Finally, compose a conclusion paragraph that ties all of your paper’s points together and argues an overall significance.

(6) Each body paragraph should include concrete evidence from research. You should integrate your research smoothly and ethically. Use identifying tags to introduce your sources and show your reader an outside idea. Always analyze the significance of the research before you move on to the next point! Example: In Jason Ree’s article, he notes that, “QUOTE” (32). This reveals that…

(7) Your tone and style needs to be academic and polished. This helps add credibility to your voice. Reading aloud will help the most with this! Avoid first and second person in this style of writing.

Academic Writing

In college coursework – our “academic community”, much of the formal writing you will do should follow expectations for “academic” writing. There are certain characteristics that are common to academic writing that you need to know, practice, and increasingly become fluent in your writing.

Some Characteristics of Academic Writing

1. Formal Style and Tone – Your approach to your topic should always be professional. While you want your writing to be engaging and interesting, you want to avoid a conversational style.

2. Third Person Perspective. Keeping your writing in “3rd person” means avoiding personal pronouns like “I”, “we”, or “you”. You are not writing a personal narrative or talking directly to your readers. Using phrases like “the reader will understand…” and making sure there is a real noun where you would place a pronoun can help.

Third person pronouns include “he, she, it, and they”. Checking to make sure you do not have those first person (I/we/us) and second person (you) pronouns can help you make sure you’re not putting your personal opinion in your writing.

The only time you want to include the 1st and 2nd person pronouns is when they are part of a direct quotation you are using from a source.

3. Whole Words – No Contractions – Using contractions is a feature of more conversational, informal writing. Make sure you spell out both words instead. Rather than “can’t”, use “cannot”, etc.

4. Be Specific – In good quality writing, it is always important to use specific nouns and vivid verbs. The more specific you can make your vocabulary, the more effective your ideas will be for engaging your reader. The words “thing” and “stuff” have no power – What is a thing? In addition, verbs should really show specific action. Especially in writing like we are doing that discusses sources, you want verbs that are powerful. Instead of “the author SAYS…”, you might opt for “the author ARGUES” or “the author EXPLAINS”…those verbs show more clearly what is happening in the example you are writing about.

5. Vocabulary – While a lot of academic formal writing uses “higher level words”, you want your writing to be authentic. Avoid using a thesaurus to use overly complex words. All words have certain connotations, or implied meanings. Sometimes replacing a regular word with a synonym changes the meaning and makes writing awkward. Don’t use bland words, but make sure you are using words that have an appropriate connotation, contain some “juice”, but are not too lofty or over the top.

Instead of using the word “very” a lot, you should opt for a stronger word that says the same thing, just more powerfully. Rather than “very often” you could use the word “frequently”.

6. Stay Objective & Balanced – As a writer, you want a balanced approach, even if you are arguing in support of one perspective. You want to recognize opposing viewpoints and avoid subjective ideas. One way is to make sure you use clear support from your sources as evidence of your ideas.

7. Avoid Generalizations – While most people don’t like rainy days, it is inaccurate to say “everyone hates rainy days.” You want to be careful to qualify ideas appropriately and not assume “everyone” or “nobody” holds the same idea. Again, hopefully you see where being as specific as possible is always preferred over being too broad and general.

8. Analysis – One important feature of academic writing is analysis — a very clear and supported explanation of your points. Your goal as a writer is to “prove” your ideas. Examples from your sources are good, but they don’t do much until you explain how they work to back up your point.

9. Organization Matters – Making sure you have a flow or structure to your writing is important. It helps your reader navigate from point to point and establish your logical progression of ideas.

10. Format – The “look” of your writing needs to follow the prescribed format based on the academic discipline or course you are in. For English, we use MLA style. That means documents are double-spaced, in 12 pt. font, have 1″ margins. You want to avoid different fonts, colors, sizes, and other attributes that are not “standard”. We discuss MLA format more specifically in another module.

Echoles 1

Name: Antwan Echoles

Course: Writing and Inquiry (ENG-111-2905)

Title: Assignment 2 – Research Log

Date: October 27, 2021

Works Cited

ALI, NI, et al. “Cybercrime an emerging challenge for internet users: An overview.” Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series) 50.3D (2018): 55-58. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333132250_Cybercrime_an_emerging_challenge_for_internet_users_An_overview

Choi, Kyung-shick, and Claire Seungeun Lee. “The present and future of cybercrime, cyberterrorism, and cybersecurity.” International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime 1.1 (2018): 1-4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328433593_The_Present_and_Future_of_Cybercrime_Cyberterrorism_and_Cybersecurity

Malby, Steven, et al. “Comprehensive study on cybercrime.” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Tech. Rep (2013). https://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/UNODC_CCPCJ_EG.4_2013/CYBERCRIME_STUDY_210213.pdf

Nurse, Jason RC. “Cybercrime and you: How criminals attack and the human factors that they seek to exploit.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1811.06624 (2018). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328762019_Cybercrime_and_You_How_Criminals_Attack_and_the_Human_Factors_That_They_Seek_to_Exploit

The Research Process

I examined the sources and authors’ credentials and affiliations, and the sources cited by the authors. I reviewed the source’s relevance and applicability and analyzed the reputation of the publisher of the source. The main obstacle was the many deceiving sources with the correct information but not credible. The characteristic that made me choose the sources were; they were up to date; their pages and links were current and working. The authors’ names and credentials were listed, and there was a link between the author and the biographical information. Additionally, the information the sources are relaying is correct and presented with less prejudice and bias to the authors’ opinion and of the opposing view.

Cybercrimes are advancing as technology advances; cybercriminals are looking for new ways to victimize people and organizations. Cybercriminals are inventing new ways to attack their victims, a reason why organizations are still attacked despite taking all the necessary requirements to prevent cyber-attacks. I have found out that money is not the only aim of cybercrimes; cybercrime is also used as a tool to achieve a political goal, and for competition purposes, mostly between rival companies.

I will use this research to identify the best policies and practices to prevent cybercrimes. I will also use this research to reduce the reoccurrence of cybercrimes through interventions and awareness and reduce victimization among people using computers and other technologies. This information will support my claim that people need regular awareness of cybercrime techniques and strategies to lessen the attacks. This will help individuals know that cybercriminals are enhancing their strategies as technology grows, but security measures on cybercrimes are not growing at the same rate. It will also disprove that most people who are victims of cybercrimes do not take the defense of cybercrimes.

TO: Mr. Welch

FROM: Antwan Echoles

DATE: October 28, 2021

RE: Cybercrimes

Cybercrimes are criminal activities carried out using computers or the internet and
are committed by cyber criminals aiming to make money (Jahankhani, Al-Nemrat &
Hosseinian-Far, 2014). Cybercrimes have made people lose money, intellectual property,
and reputation. Cybercrimes are relevant in today’s culture because technology is
advancing by the day, yet security measures to protect the technology are not growing at
the same rate leading to high numbers of cybercrimes.

As an internet user, cybercrimes affect me directly. I was once a victim of phishing,
a cybercrime where attackers send malicious emails to users and access their computers. I
never realized I was dealing with criminals until I could no longer log into my computer
because the criminals were in control of it and had to pay money to get my credentials
back. Cybercrime is a significant problem today that is advancing and disrupting people
and daily organizational operations.

Information on how cyber criminals attack people and organizations despite using
strong passwords, updating their software’s and keeping up with significant security
breaches needs to be addressed. Information on the rapid increase of cybercrimes and why
it takes long for actions to be taken on cyber criminals need to be addressed. Cyber
criminals are ahead of most people using the internet; despite most of them taking the
necessary caution to prevent cybercrimes, they still look for new ways to hit their targets.

The opposition to the argument is that most people who are victims of cyber
criminals do not take the defense of cybercrimes. Cyber criminals are advancing on the
ways to target their victims; they are looking for new strategies day by day (Jahankhani,
Al-Nemrat, & Hosseinian-Far, 2014). Most organizations have been victims of cybercrimes
despite monitoring computer equipment and systems, encrypting important information,
securing their devices and network, and backing up their data because the criminals look
for new strategies which people are not prepared for.

Echoles 1

Student: Antwan Echoles

Professor: Mr. Welch

Course: ENG-111

Date: November 11, 2021

Cybercrimes and Its Implications

I. Introduction

A. Cybercrimes are malicious activities like illegal interference of data and system interceptions that impact networks and copyright violations.

B. The prerequisite of internet integration has led to the increased volume and pace of cybercrime activities; criminals don’t need to be present when committing a crime (Malby et al.).

C. Thesis statement: Cybercrimes are on the rise because people have connected their entire lives to the internet; cyber-criminals are highly intelligent and have an alien-like knowledge that helps them commit crimes and stay undetectable.

11. Background Information

A. Cyber-criminals use various attack aspects to conduct cybercrimes which constantly seek new systems and techniques to execute their tasks.

1. Internet speed, anonymity, and convenience make computer-based variations like phishing and ransom ware, easy to carry out (Ali et al.).

B. Cybercriminal activities may be conducted by groups or individuals with little expertise or by highly organized groups with information technology operators, system developers and computer technologists. To avoid being detected, the criminals operate in countries with frail or no cybercrime rules.

III

A. Cybercrimes are carried out to generate profit, and their primary effect is financial. They include many profit-driven criminal activities like ransom ware attacks, internet, identity fraud, and theft of credit cards, monetary accounts, and other forms of payment information (Kyung-shick and Lee).

B. However, some cybercriminals target computers and contaminate them with computer viruses, and are extended to other networks or target individuals’ private information for theft ad resale.

IV

A. Cybercriminals often use malware; social engineering is a crucial component for executing most types of cybercrimes.

B. Phishing emails are also essential components of various cybercrimes, specifically for targeted attacks like email compromises; attackers attempt to impersonate through email to convince people to pay out fake invoices (Nurse).

C. Cybercriminals target anyone from internet users who are victims of cyber bullying to nation-sponsored individuals with organized intelligence services.

1. The crimes do not occur in void; they are distributed in nature, and some cybercriminals depend on other people to complete their crimes.

V

A. Cybercrimes over the internet have grown substantively due to advancements in technology in today’s world (Ali et al.).

B. Most societal issues like entertainment and government operations are operated over the internet and are the most targeted by cyber-criminals.

1. Most businesses and activities have been disrupted by cybercrimes, whereas others have been closed.

C. Companies have gone into long-term debts due to ransom wares and online identity thefts. Others have had their files corrupted files, and individuals, have lost their reputation because their personal information has been revealed.

VI. Counterarguments

A. Counterargument: The counterargument is that most people who are victims of cyber criminals do not take the defense of cybercrimes.

B. Refutation: I refute the claims because cyber-criminals are enhancing the strategies that they are using to attack by day.

1. Most people have taken enough defenses to protect themselves from the attacks, but they have been victims.

2. People and organizations are taking the defense of cybercrimes, but cyber-criminals are ahead of them.

VII. Conclusion

A. Although not all people are victims of cybercrimes, they are still at risk.

1. With the technology increasing, criminals are not robbing banks to commit crimes; they have everything they need.

B. They use the internet to get money, breach national security secrets, cause electrical blackouts and failure of military equipment.

2. Protection from cybercrimes should be collective; governments, agencies, bureaus, organizations, and people should take the necessary steps to curb cybercrimes and attacks.

Works Cited

ALI, NI, et al. “Cybercrime an emerging challenge for internet users: An overview.” Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series) 50.3D. 2018: 55-58. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333132250_Cybercrime_an_emerging_challenge_for_internet_users_An_overview

Choi, Kyung-shick, and Claire Seungeun Lee. “The present and future of cybercrime, cyberterrorism, and cybersecurity.” International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime 1.1. 2018: 1-4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328433593_The_Present_and_Future_of_Cybercrime_Cyberterrorism_and_Cybersecurity

Malby, Steven, et al. “Comprehensive study on cybercrime.” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Tech. Rep. 2013. https://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/UNODC_CCPCJ_EG.4_2013/CYBERCRIME_STUDY_210213.pdf

Nurse, Jason RC. “Cybercrime and you: How criminals attack and the human factors that they seek to exploit.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1811.06624. 2018. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328762019_Cybercrime_and_You_How_Criminals_Attack_and_the_Human_Factors_That_They_Seek_to_Exploit

Instructor Comments:

Your outline is strong, except your thesis statement and your topic sentences are not related to each other. The good news is this is fixable. 

Your thesis statement is your weak-point. It’s impossible (for one thing) to prove that cybercriminals have an alien-like intelligence.

So, I recommend you rewrite your thesis statement. First, you need a claim such as whether cybercrimes are good or bad for our society. Obviously, they’re bad, so let’s stick to that point. Then, you need to preview the points in your topic sentences: Cybercrimes have a negative impact on our technological infrastructure because they prey on users for financial gain, they utilize malware, and (reason 3). What is a third way in which cybercrimes are harmful? Think of one, or find it in your research, and develop the paragraph about that topic (discussing the growth of cybercrimes doesn’t necessarily indicate why they are destructive).