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Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, read Chapter 5 of Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communication

One of the most frustrating challenges and barriers to effective interpersonal communication at work is communication apprehension. However, there are ways to overcome this challenge. In this discussion forum, you will be required to record a 2.5- to 3-minute video using the Canvas video tool or upload an .mp4 file using an external tool. Please do not insert a link to your video. In the video you will explain communication apprehension and then one apprehension you have experienced in the past at work. If you have limited, or no, work experience, consider discussing communication apprehension you have experienced in your personal life. You will then discuss some strategies from Bevan (2020) and Abrahams (2018) that you can use to overcome your fear(s).

Before completing your video presentation, you will create an outline of what you will say in the video. The outline will be a bullet-pointed overview, not a narrative. The video will be the narrative and include deeper explanations. You will copy and paste your outline in the discussion forum, along with the video.

· Please make the outline and I will make the video presentation off that.

In your video and outline, you must

1. Explain communication apprehension, using and citing your textbook.

2. Describe a time you experienced a specific type of communication apprehension identified in your textbook (dyadic, group or meeting, or public speaking) in the workplace.

3. Explain two specific strategies you can use to overcome your communication apprehension based on advice from Chapter 5 and the Speaking Up Without Freaking Out | Matt Abrahams | TEDxPaloAlto (Links to an external site.)

4. Explain what you will gain from making these improvements.

Remember, you will be required to mention your textbook and the Speaking Up Without Freaking Out | Matt Abrahams | TEDxPaloAlto (Links to an external site.) video in your presentation. Be sure to use their names in your presentation.

Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

ሁ Define the concept of communication apprehension and identify the various types of communication
apprehension.

ሁ Explain how communication apprehension is related to a number of personality factors and inter-
personal consequences.

ሁ Describe both broad and specific interpersonal effects of communication apprehension.
ሁ Use strategies to reduce communication apprehension in interpersonal interactions.

5Developing Confidence: Coping with Insecurities about
Interpersonal Communication

Sigrid Olsson/The Image Bank/Getty Images

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Introduction

Introduction
Michael, a 25-year-old man, has a great deal of trouble communicating in certain face-to-
face situations. When he is talking with his friends, his family members, and his girlfriend
Dominique, he is perfectly comfortable: He seeks out interactions with those he is close to
and fully engages in and participates in conversations with them. But he quickly becomes
overwhelmed when he is in situations where he is meeting new people or participating in
a group situation with those he does not know very well, which happens frequently for him
at school and at his job as a marketing assistant. He gets nervous; he starts to sweat, and
his hands become clammy, which makes him even more uncomfortable with introductory
handshakes; he avoids talking unless he absolutely has to; and he stumbles over his words
and sounds unsure and tentative when he does have to speak. Overall, he is just not himself
in such situations—because of this, Michael is not able to enact his self-image as he would
like when communicating with others. As a result, he routinely avoids certain communication
situations because he does not want to experience this discomfort and give such a negative
(and inaccurate) impression of himself to others.

Michael’s trouble communicating in these new interactions has been detrimental to him: He
has had job interviews where he did not get hired because of his difficulty communicating
confidently, he has not impressed his classmates or coworkers because he shuts down in
group situations, and he is too afraid to ask his boss for a raise or to speak with his professor
about a grade that he thinks is incorrect. Michael doesn’t think that he is shy, because once
he gets to know people, he is very eager to interact with them and does so competently. In
fact, what Michael has is communication apprehension, and as we will see in this chapter,
this is a common communication barrier that can make you a less confident or competent
communicator.

Like Michael, you likely experience some insecurity in at least one aspect of your commu-
nication with others. Maybe you get nervous when speaking with someone who has a great
deal of power and influence, experience apprehension when talking with your romantic
partner about a difficult issue, or get jitters while speaking in public or performing on stage.
A major goal of this text is to help you understand and improve your interpersonal commu-
nication. Identifying specific communication challenges and insecurities, and then address-
ing these issues, is the main hurdle in this process. Throughout the book, we have discussed
communication competence as an important and easy-to-implement strategy for improving
communication. Chapter 5 thus examines a number of barriers that can arise in interper-
sonal communication situations, introduces and describes the concept of communication
apprehension, and examines how communication apprehension is related to a number of
personality factors and interpersonal consequences. We also discuss several strategies for
reducing communication apprehension in interpersonal interactions.

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Section 5.1Communication Apprehension

5.1 Communication Apprehension
Communication apprehension is one of the
most frequently researched concepts in the
communication discipline and, on a more
specific level, is commonly studied in rela-
tion to interpersonal communication (Daly,
2011; Levine & McCroskey, 1990). Commu-
nication scholar James McCroskey first iden-
tified communication apprehension in 1968
when he proposed it as a broad concept that
encompasses the fear and stress associated
with any form of communication, including
stage fright and reticence. Communication
apprehension (CA) specifically occurs
when an individual experiences “fear or anx-
iety associated with either real or antici-
pated communication with another person
or persons” (McCroskey, 1977, p. 78). In
other words, CA can occur during an interaction or when you expect to take part in an interac-
tion in the near future. In fact, CA can compel you to avoid certain interactions altogether.

An individual who experiences CA might avoid or reduce her participation in communication
situations in an attempt to prevent feeling upset and experiencing anxiety. In this way, some-
one with high CA views communication as a punishment that should be avoided, whereas
people with low CA will seek opportunities to engage in the same interaction and find it to be
enjoyable (Daly, 2011). We will use the words high, moderate, and low to describe CA levels
throughout this chapter because these designations reflect the categorizations that research-
ers often use for their study participants in order to make statistical comparisons among the
three groups. Keep in mind that CA is a continuum that ranges from low to high levels, and
that there is also a continuum for each of the different types and forms of CA that we discuss
below. Everyone’s CA levels differ according to the specific type or form of CA that is relevant,
and everyone experiences some type of CA at different points. For example, an individual may
feel very comfortable talking with others at a party but become nervous in formal meeting
situations, particularly when the meeting is a job interview.

McCroskey (1977) describes three propositions regarding individuals with high communica-
tion apprehension:

1. Those with high levels of CA avoid and withdraw from communication whenever
they can.

2. Avoidance and withdrawal leads others to view the high CA individual less positively
than those with low to no CA.

3. The combination of communication avoidance and less positive perceptions by oth-
ers causes the high CA individual to experience greater difficulty in social, academic,
financial, and professional situations.

Individuals can experience communication apprehension as either a more enduring person-
ality trait or in response to a particular state or situation. We discuss these two concepts and
the different forms of CA next.

Michael Blann/Iconica/Getty Images
ሁ For an individual with communication

apprehension, communication situations cause
feelings of fear or anxiety.

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Section 5.1Communication Apprehension

Two Types of Communication Apprehension
It is not unusual for people to experience apprehension in specific communication scenar-
ios. Indeed, McCroskey (2009) notes that 70% of Americans experience CA in anticipation
of giving a speech. This type of CA is known as state communication apprehension, or an
apprehensive reaction to a specific communication context or situation. If you have high state
CA, you fear or feel anxious in one communication context but do not feel that way in oth-
ers (McCroskey, 2009). The stage fright that singers and actors describe experiencing is an
example of state CA because they only feel that fear and anxiety in performance situations.
State CA thus occurs less often and only when in the midst of the single communication envi-
ronment, and it is typically experienced at only mild or moderate levels. McCroskey (1977)
stresses that experiencing state CA from time to time is normal for most people, and it is a
logical response to an interaction that could be perceived as crucially important or intimidat-
ing or intense, such as giving a speech to hundreds of people or going into an important job
interview.

On the other hand, communication apprehension can also be something that is a character-
istic of an individual that extends across a variety of communication situations, and it can
affect one’s life and relationships. This trait communication apprehension is experienced
as a broad, consistent personal attribute that can have multiple implications and occurs more
frequently than state CA. It is viewed as a general pattern along a continuum such that one
can have low, moderate, or high fear or anxiety orientation across communication contexts
(McCroskey, 2009). For example, someone with high trait CA may be less assertive, free, and
clear when communicating and may also feel less powerful, confident, and brave during inter-
actions (Hopf & Colby, 1992; Jung, 2013). In contrast, low trait CA people will communicate
in a more assertive, clear, and free manner and feel confident and in control when interacting
with others. Low CA individuals also tend to experience higher self-esteem (Krishnan & Atkin,
2014). Consistent effects of high CA can prevent you from achieving certain personal goals,
particularly ones that involve interacting with others. In addition, the higher one’s trait CA,
the more he or she experiences a personal identity gap, which is the difference between one’s
present self-concept and his or her perception of how others view the self (Jung, 2013). As
we know from Chapter 2, our perception of how others view us has a significant impact on
how we view ourselves. So, if our trait CA is consistently high, we run the risk of experiencing
large personal identity gaps, which could distort our self-concepts and self-images over time.

An estimated 15% to 20% of college and public school students, adults, and senior citizens
have high trait CA (McCroskey, 2009; McCroskey & Richmond, 1982). Trait CA is also common
among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or
traumatic brain injury (TBI; see the Everyday Communication Challenges feature for more on
this topic). Trait CA is experienced in a variety of communication situations, from interper-
sonal to organizational to public speaking, and such interactions can be either real or imag-
ined threats. As a result, the vast majority of CA research has focused on trait CA. For the
remainder of this chapter, when we refer to CA, we are describing trait CA, unless otherwise
noted.

It is important to note that the word “trait” makes it sound as if someone with trait CA is des-
tined to be “burdened” with this issue for the rest of their lives. But, as we know from earlier
chapters in this text, knowledge, skill, and motivation can assist us in being more competent
communicators. Those same ideas can be applied to identifying and adjusting trait CA levels
that are higher than what you want them to be.

Ever yday Communic at ion Challenges: C A and It s
Relat ionship to A SD, P TSD, and TBI
The term communication apprehension may conjure mental images of someone getting the
jitters when talking in front of an unfamiliar audience. But CA is more than that (Spain,
Sinc, Lindera, McMahond, & Happéa, 2018). CA is a lack of willingness to communicate—a
predisposition to avoid initiating or participating in conversations (Perrault, 2017).

Recall that CA is divided into two general categories: state CA and trait CA. When we talk
about CA in the context of ASD, PTSD, and TBI, we are talking about trait CA (Perrault,
2017).

Trait alludes to a quality of someone’s personality. It’s not encoded in one’s genes (like one’s
eye color), nor is it a situational response. It is a generalized response to all verbal forms of
communication (McCroskey, 1984).

People with trait CA are unsettled even in small-group situations and experience more
tension than normal in these circumstances. According to McCroskey, the pioneer of CA
research, “Communication apprehension is indeed a handicap that harms some people in
our society” (McCroskey, 1976, p. 41).

At least 20% of the U.S. population has some level of communication apprehension.
Although it may not incapacitate people, it can keep them from wanting to engage in com-
munication (McCroskey, 1976). That is particularly true when someone has ASD, PTSD, or
TBI. At least 50% of all people on the autism spectrum have CA (Spain et al., 2018). (The
prevalence of CA has not yet been studied formally in PTSD and TBI populations.)

Recall from our discussion of nonverbal communication in Chapter 4 that the nerves in the
brain are akin to complex wiring that constantly sorts, routes, relays, and processes infor-
mation. Visualized that way, when those with ASD, PTSD, or TBI process what they see or
hear, their brains can cause communications to go awry:

ASD = differently-wired connections (rerouted or crossed wires)

PTSD = traumatized connections (frayed or short-circuited wires)

TBI = disrupted/damaged connections (missing or cut wires)

So how does communication apprehension affect people with ASD, PTSD, or TBI?
Sometimes it affects them differently. For example, a person with autism will take what
he or she hears very literally, even if it’s not meant that way. A person who has sustained a
TBI may not understand what’s being said, even if it is meant to be taken literally. A person
with PTSD may not be affected at all, the conversation may disinterest him, or he may per-
ceive something threatening in it that triggers an inappropriate response.

But ASD, PTSD, and TBI share many commonalities regarding communication apprehen-
sion. According to several sources (Bejerot, Eriksson, & Mörtberg, 2014; Carrington et
al., 2014; Denworth, 2018; Craig Hospital, 2008; Bivona et al., 2019; Greenberg, 2018;
Charuvastra & Cloitre, 2008), in general, all three groups

• are not motivated to engage socially, which decreases their communications overall;

• are socially awkward (albeit sometimes for different reasons);

(continued on next page)

© 2020 Zovio Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

Section 5.1Communication Apprehension

Two Types of Communication Apprehension
It is not unusual for people to experience apprehension in specific communication scenar-
ios. Indeed, McCroskey (2009) notes that 70% of Americans experience CA in anticipation
of giving a speech. This type of CA is known as state communication apprehension, or an
apprehensive reaction to a specific communication context or situation. If you have high state
CA, you fear or feel anxious in one communication context but do not feel that way in oth-
ers (McCroskey, 2009). The stage fright that singers and actors describe experiencing is an
example of state CA because they only feel that fear and anxiety in performance situations.
State CA thus occurs less often and only when in the midst of the single communication envi-
ronment, and it is typically experienced at only mild or moderate levels. McCroskey (1977)
stresses that experiencing state CA from time to time is normal for most people, and it is a
logical response to an interaction that could be perceived as crucially important or intimidat-
ing or intense, such as giving a speech to hundreds of people or going into an important job
interview.

On the other hand, communication apprehension can also be something that is a character-
istic of an individual that extends across a variety of communication situations, and it can
affect one’s life and relationships. This trait communication apprehension is experienced
as a broad, consistent personal attribute that can have multiple implications and occurs more
frequently than state CA. It is viewed as a general pattern along a continuum such that one
can have low, moderate, or high fear or anxiety orientation across communication contexts
(McCroskey, 2009). For example, someone with high trait CA may be less assertive, free, and
clear when communicating and may also feel less powerful, confident, and brave during inter-
actions (Hopf & Colby, 1992; Jung, 2013). In contrast, low trait CA people will communicate
in a more assertive, clear, and free manner and feel confident and in control when interacting
with others. Low CA individuals also tend to experience higher self-esteem (Krishnan & Atkin,
2014). Consistent effects of high CA can prevent you from achieving certain personal goals,
particularly ones that involve interacting with others. In addition, the higher one’s trait CA,
the more he or she experiences a personal identity gap, which is the difference between one’s
present self-concept and his or her perception of how others view the self (Jung, 2013). As
we know from Chapter 2, our perception of how others view us has a significant impact on
how we view ourselves. So, if our trait CA is consistently high, we run the risk of experiencing
large personal identity gaps, which could distort our self-concepts and self-images over time.

An estimated 15% to 20% of college and public school students, adults, and senior citizens
have high trait CA (McCroskey, 2009; McCroskey & Richmond, 1982). Trait CA is also common
among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or
traumatic brain injury (TBI; see the Everyday Communication Challenges feature for more on
this topic). Trait CA is experienced in a variety of communication situations, from interper-
sonal to organizational to public speaking, and such interactions can be either real or imag-
ined threats. As a result, the vast majority of CA research has focused on trait CA. For the
remainder of this chapter, when we refer to CA, we are describing trait CA, unless otherwise
noted.

It is important to note that the word “trait” makes it sound as if someone with trait CA is des-
tined to be “burdened” with this issue for the rest of their lives. But, as we know from earlier
chapters in this text, knowledge, skill, and motivation can assist us in being more competent
communicators. Those same ideas can be applied to identifying and adjusting trait CA levels
that are higher than what you want them to be.

Ever yday Communic at ion Challenges: C A and It s
Relat ionship to A SD, P TSD, and TBI
The term communication apprehension may conjure mental images of someone getting the
jitters when talking in front of an unfamiliar audience. But CA is more than that (Spain,
Sinc, Lindera, McMahond, & Happéa, 2018). CA is a lack of willingness to communicate—a
predisposition to avoid initiating or participating in conversations (Perrault, 2017).

Recall that CA is divided into two general categories: state CA and trait CA. When we talk
about CA in the context of ASD, PTSD, and TBI, we are talking about trait CA (Perrault,
2017).

Trait alludes to a quality of someone’s personality. It’s not encoded in one’s genes (like one’s
eye color), nor is it a situational response. It is a generalized response to all verbal forms of
communication (McCroskey, 1984).

People with trait CA are unsettled even in small-group situations and experience more
tension than normal in these circumstances. According to McCroskey, the pioneer of CA
research, “Communication apprehension is indeed a handicap that harms some people in
our society” (McCroskey, 1976, p. 41).

At least 20% of the U.S. population has some level of communication apprehension.
Although it may not incapacitate people, it can keep them from wanting to engage in com-
munication (McCroskey, 1976). That is particularly true when someone has ASD, PTSD, or
TBI. At least 50% of all people on the autism spectrum have CA (Spain et al., 2018). (The
prevalence of CA has not yet been studied formally in PTSD and TBI populations.)

Recall from our discussion of nonverbal communication in Chapter 4 that the nerves in the
brain are akin to complex wiring that constantly sorts, routes, relays, and processes infor-
mation. Visualized that way, when those with ASD, PTSD, or TBI process what they see or
hear, their brains can cause communications to go awry:

ASD = differently-wired connections (rerouted or crossed wires)

PTSD = traumatized connections (frayed or short-circuited wires)

TBI = disrupted/damaged connections (missing or cut wires)

So how does communication apprehension affect people with ASD, PTSD, or TBI?
Sometimes it affects them differently. For example, a person with autism will take what
he or she hears very literally, even if it’s not meant that way. A person who has sustained a
TBI may not understand what’s being said, even if it is meant to be taken literally. A person
with PTSD may not be affected at all, the conversation may disinterest him, or he may per-
ceive something threatening in it that triggers an inappropriate response.

But ASD, PTSD, and TBI share many commonalities regarding communication apprehen-
sion. According to several sources (Bejerot, Eriksson, & Mörtberg, 2014; Carrington et
al., 2014; Denworth, 2018; Craig Hospital, 2008; Bivona et al., 2019; Greenberg, 2018;
Charuvastra & Cloitre, 2008), in general, all three groups

• are not motivated to engage socially, which decreases their communications overall;

• are socially awkward (albeit sometimes for different reasons);

(continued on next page)

© 2020 Zovio Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

Section 5.1Communication Apprehension

Four Forms of Communication Apprehension
There are four different identified forms of CA, and each form is reflective of the various con-
texts in which we can experience CA. These four communication contexts are as follows:

1. dyadic: communication that occurs between two people
2. group: communication that involves three or more people
3. meeting: communication that involves two or more people and occurs in a business

or professional setting
4. public speaking: communication that involves one or more people presenting infor-

mation to a larger group

As we noted above, degrees of each of these forms of trait CA fall along a continuum ranging
from low to high, and an individual with low dyadic CA may have high public speaking CA. A
self-report measure, known as the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension, is pro-
vided in the Self-Test feature and can be used to identify your degree of CA for each of these
four forms. Take the survey and consider your results as you read about each of these forms
of CA, discussed in the next sections.

Ever yday Communic at ion Challenges: C A and It s
Relat ionship to A SD, P TSD, and TBI (cont inued)
• If the person says something unusual, paraphrase what you think they meant (to confirm

you understand what they said).

• If needed, recap or summarize to help solidify “the bigger picture.”

Although a single discussion of this topic cannot cover all the contingencies for the best
way to exchange information in every setting, the intent is to increase awareness about CA
and give concrete suggestions for navigating through it when it poses a potential barrier,
particularly for people who have ASD, PTSD, or TBI. Remember: Effective communication
is everyone’s responsibility!

Ever yday Communic at ion Challenges: C A and It s
Relat ionship to A SD, P TSD, and TBI (cont inued)
• don’t recognize that they lack certain social skills;

• are less inclined than most to share or make small talk;

• adjust their social behaviors slowly or with difficulty when social contexts change; and

• exhibit social avoidance/social anxiety.

This translates into decreased integration of verbal and nonverbal communications. It also
contributes to poor back-and-forth conversation.

Many circumstances amplify comprehension apprehension in these populations. They
don’t grasp the meaning of figures of speech. They overlook the subtext of speech. They
may grope for words or use them in a nonstandard manner. For example, someone with
ASD may say “it’s darking” when she means “it’s getting dark outside.” In contrast, a person
with TBI may simply not remember certain words. So, he may say “that circular cow thing”
when he can’t remember “leather belt.”

Sometimes people with ASD, PTSD, or TBI may have difficulty staying on topic. The rea-
sons for this vary. TBI is an organic, physiological injury to the brain that can alter its
information-processing abilities. In conversation, people with TBI may give too little or
too much information. People with ASD and TBI may be inordinately interested in a very
narrow topic while disregarding others’ interests in different topics (Craig Hospital, 2008;
Greenberg, 2018). People with PTSD tend to perceive threats when they don’t exist. Such
constant surveillance overrides other thoughts, intruding on communications at hand.
Such “intrusions” impair their ability to assess and regulate their responses to real or per-
ceived threats as well as their responses to “normal” conversation (Greenberg, 2018).

For all those reasons and more, people with ASD, PTSD, or TBI may pick up on key words
in a conversation rather than the whole message (Vicker, 2009). When they default to that
strategy, they may miss the overall meaning of the communication. That can lead to frus-
tration, disinterest in the conversation, or an inappropriate outburst. Sometimes they may
deem it easier to give up on a social interaction if they perceive it’s not going well.

Although studies of people on the autism spectrum have shown that CA is not associated
with restricted or repetitive behaviors (Spain et al., 2018), similar studies have not been
done with people who have PTSD or TBI. Thus, it is difficult to know if symptoms of com-
munication apprehension are a result of that condition or exist independently of it.

When talking with a person who has ASD, PTSD, or TBI, think of how you’d want to be
treated if you were in their shoes. When engaging in conversation with them, follow these
general tips:

• Listen carefully.

• Talk concisely and in concrete terms.

• Avoid using jargon, irony, sarcasm, metaphors, and figures of speech.

• Be patient.

(continued on next page)

Self-Test: Personal Repor t of Communic at ion
Apprehension
This instrument, often referred to as the PRCA-24, is composed of 24 statements concern-
ing feelings about communicating with others. Please indicate the degree to which each
statement applies to you:

1 for strongly disagree
2 for disagree
3 for neutral
4 for agree
5 for strongly agree

(continued on next page)

© 2020 Zovio Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

Section 5.1Communication Apprehension

Four Forms of Communication Apprehension
There are four different identified forms of CA, and each form is reflective of the various con-
texts in which we can experience CA. These four communication contexts are as follows:

1. dyadic: communication that occurs between two people
2. group: communication that involves three or more people
3. meeting: communication that involves two or more people and occurs in a business

or professional setting
4. public speaking: communication that involves one or more people presenting infor-

mation to a larger group

As we noted above, degrees of each of these forms of trait CA fall along a continuum ranging
from low to high, and an individual with low dyadic CA may have high public speaking CA. A
self-report measure, known as the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension, is pro-
vided in the Self-Test feature and can be used to identify your degree of CA for each of these
four forms. Take the survey and consider your results as you read about each of these forms
of CA, discussed in the next sections.

Ever yday Communic at ion Challenges: C A and It s
Relat ionship to A SD, P TSD, and TBI (cont inued)
• If the person says something unusual, paraphrase what you think they meant (to confirm

you understand what they said).

• If needed, recap or summarize to help solidify “the bigger picture.”

Although a single discussion of this topic cannot cover all the contingencies for the best
way to exchange information in every setting, the intent is to increase awareness about CA
and give concrete suggestions for navigating through it when it poses a potential barrier,
particularly for people who have ASD, PTSD, or TBI. Remember: Effective communication
is everyone’s responsibility!

Ever yday Communic at ion Challenges: C A and It s
Relat ionship to A SD, P TSD, and TBI (cont inued)
• don’t recognize that they lack certain social skills;

• are less inclined than most to share or make small talk;

• adjust their social behaviors slowly or with difficulty when social contexts change; and

• exhibit social avoidance/social anxiety.

This translates into decreased integration of verbal and nonverbal communications. It also
contributes to poor back-and-forth conversation.

Many circumstances amplify comprehension apprehension in these …

Week 3 Discussion Video Presentation Training 

In this training, we provide advice about how to approach the week 3 video discussion post.  When you are done, be sure to take the “Week 3 discussion quiz.” 

Step 1 – Read the grading rubric, so you know what you will be assessed on: 

Notice that you will be graded on the following: 

1. Cohesive Organization – Introduction, body, and conclusion. 20% 

2. Content – Informative content, shaped by course material.  Be sure to mention Bevan at least three times and highlight specific points from her. 20% 

3. Language – Be clear and compelling. Try to entertain your audience. 10% 

4. Delivery – This involves nonverbal cues such as eye contact, posture and vocal expressiveness.  Sit upright and look at the camera! 10% 

5. Length – This must be 2.5 to 3 minutes.  Instructors will not have to listen after 3 minutes. 10% 

6. Engagement/Participation – Yes.  You still have to reply to others, but it will not be through video.  You still need to meaningfully engage with both your classmate and course material.  Please cite your sources as they influence your ideas. 30% 

Step 2

Be sure you have read Bevan on communication apprehension and have watched the Abrahams video. Reading the recommended article by Dwyer (2000) can be very useful in helping you think through how to overcome the apprehension as well.

Step 3 – Write an outline: 

1. To prepare for the video presentation, please create an outline of what you are going to say.  You will need to copy and paste this outline into your discussion post, along with the video itself.   

2. The outline should prompt you to cover key required elements and then roughly what you plan to say.  If you’re going to use quotes, be sure to copy and paste them into the outline. 

3. The outline will have the following: 

· Introduction – What is it you want to say about communication apprehension?  Preview what you plan to accomplish in your video presentation. For instance, you might say “Hi everyone, I’m here today to share the communication apprehension I experienced during a job interview.  In this presentation, I will address this apprehension as what Bevan calls “public speaking apprehension” and then I will address two strategies that I could have used to overcome the fear.  I will close by addressing what I will gain from overcoming this fear.” (30 seconds) But all you will say in the outline is – introduce myself and explain what I will do in the presentation.

· Body – This is the content area of the paper, where you develop your key points.  Be sure to do the following:

a) Offer details about both the apprehension you experienced and how it felt. (20 seconds)

b) Explain two strategies one can use to overcome the anxiety from Bevan and the videos (30 seconds), and then

c) explain what you will gain from improving in this area. Use the words “Bevan” or “Abrahams” to indicate you are using them, as is required.  (30 seconds)  

· Conclusion – Restate your key points, highlighting why your points and content from Bevan is so important professionally. (20 to 30 seconds) 

Step 4 – Review your plan

When you are done with writing your outline, review the grading rubric again and ensure you have done everything you can to score as distinguished in each area.   

Step 5 – Prepare your space to do the presentation 

1. Avoid any distractions that might be behind you in the screen, such as kids playing or curtains waving in the wind.   

2. Make sure there is enough light on you.  There is more advice on this in the “how to make a good video” document in the “resources” box.  

3. Make sure there is no noise in your environment.   

Step 6 – To do the presentation  

1. Practice several times to test the sound levels and what you look like.  Make sure you are talking directly into your microphone so the audience can hear you.  

2. To access the Canvas recorder, click “Reply” in the forum.  Now, click the icon that looks like a play button.  It is the tenth icon on the second row.

3. Your computer might ask if it can use your webcam.  Say “allow” or “yes.”  You should see your shiny face immediately.   

4. If the camera doesn’t appear when you click the icon above, try restarting your browser and logging into Canvas again.  You can also try a different browser.  If you continue to have issues, contact tech support by clicking “help” in the classroom or calling.  

5. Click “start recording.”   

6. Click “finish” when you are done.  Your browser might say a network is slow.  Just wait it out and, if given the option, click “wait”.  If you are over 3 minutes, record again, as your instructor does not have to watch after 3 minutes. 

7. Click “save.”  It might take some time, but it will save.  Close (x out) the record screen and leave the tab on your screen open until it uploads.  It could take up to 30 minutes but shouldn’t take longer than that.  

8. If you feel you stumbled over your words or didn’t make enough eye contact, re-do the video.  But don’t do it too many times. This is not a public speaking class, so we will be generous in our assessment of your presentation skills! Just make sure you cover all the required elements! 

9. Be sure to look directly into the camera and have yourself positioned so we can see about mid-chest up to at least the top of your head. 

10. If you don’t like what you’ve done you can always erase it by hitting the delete button or simply clicking “cancel” on the discussion box (next to “post reply”). 

11. If you absolutely can’t get the recording to work in Canvas, please record a video through other means and post an MP4 attachment to the video file. 

Step 7 – During the presentation 

1. Avoid reading from a script. Use your “outline” to guide you.  Just use bullet points. 

2. Be confident and have fun! 

Step 8 – After you are done 

1. Copy and paste your outline into the discussion forum box. 

2. Don’t forget to click “post reply.” 

3. After you have “posted,” look at the discussion box to ensure the video is there.