+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Submit Case Study #2/Your Selected Chapter Presentation: Due Sunday of Week 6 by Midnight

Submit your Case Study-Chapter Presentation: Please submit a power point presentation of your selected chapter this week: Due Sunday Midnight Week 6.

CHAPTER PRESENTATION INSTRUCTIONS:

In week 3 this term you selected a chapter of your choice from the textbook.

Prepare a power point presentation with minimum of 5 slides, as your Teaching Contribution to the learning as if you were teaching a class. Be creative and imaginative; include appropriate short clips, photos, arts to convey your message in a professional and fun presentation. Grading criteria includes the areas cited; each team member’s contribution to the presentation is a vital element of the final grade for this assignment.

Clarity of Expression

Logical Organization of Ideas

Elaboration and Detail

Critical Thinking

Effective Use of Research Techniques Where Appropriate

Effective Use of Language and Diction

Mechanics and Usage

Reflection of Internalized Knowledge

Week 6-Chapter Presentation

Submit Case Study #2/Your Selected Chapter Presentation: Due Sunday of Week 6 by Midnight

Submit your Case Study-Chapter Presentation: Please submit a power point presentation of your selected chapter this week: Due Sunday Midnight Week 6.

CHAPTER PRESENTATION INSTRUCTIONS:

In week 3 this term you selected a chapter of your choice from the textbook.

Prepare a power point presentation with minimum of 5 slides, as your Teaching Contribution to

the learning as if you were teaching a class. Be creative and imaginative; include appropriate

short clips, photos, arts to convey your message in a professional and fun presentation.

Grading criteria includes the areas cited; each team member’s contribution to the presentation

is a vital element of the final grade for this assignment.

Clarity of Expression

Logical Organization of Ideas

Elaboration and Detail

Critical Thinking

Effective Use of Research Techniques Where Appropriate

Effective Use of Language and Diction

Mechanics and Usage

Reflection of Internalized Knowledge

,

1

Chapter 3

Patterns of change

2

Some organizations are better at this than others. They are proactive and search out potential threats and opportunities

Others are more reactive and only respond when there is a pressing need to do so.

Patterns of change

© PhotoDisc/Getty ImagesSiede Preis

In order to survive and prosper, organizations need to be able to recognize and respond to changes that can affect the supply of inputs or demand for outputs.

Inputs

Organization transforms inputs into outputs

Outputs

ENVIRONMENT

Feedback

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

2

3

The gradualist paradigm posits that organizations adapt to opportunities and threats by engaging in a process of continuous incremental change.

Adapting to change: the gradualist paradigm

Time

Change in the environment

Continuous incremental adaptation

Change

Over time, the stream of incremental changes can cumulate to transform the organization

Continuous adaptation helps to maintain alignment with the environment

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

3

4

While this response to change (continuous incremental adaptation) may be the ideal, it is the exception rather than the rule.

Adapting to change

Time

Change

Many organizations are slow to adapt because internal forces promote inertia.

The result is strategic drift and a growing misalignment with the external environment.

Eventually misalignment forces the organization to engage is some form of radical transformational change.

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

4

5

Organizations evolve through the alternation of periods of equilibrium, in which persistent ‘deep structures’ only permit limited incremental change,

The punctuated equilibrium paradigm: an alternative view of how organizations change

Time

Change in the environment

Change

Long periods of equilibrium

Short revolutionary periods of radical discontinuous change

and periods of revolution, in which these deep structures are fundamentally altered.

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

5

6

Deep structures are the fundamental choices that determine an organization’s pattern of activity.

Deep structures

Deep structures act as forces for inertia that work to maintain the status quo.

The rules of the game represent deep structures – taken for granted and difficult to change (keep everybody focused on football rather than alternative games).

© GETTY

© ImageSource

The game-in-play describes activity in periods of equilibrium when the coach and players can make changes that will affect team performance

(improve the way they play the football).

Football analogy

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

6

7

How a game of football is played may change over the course of a match, but there is a consistency that is determined by the nature of the playing field and the rules of the game (the deep structures).

Equilibrium periods – focus is improving efficiency and doing things better

Forces for inertia include:

Cognitive biases that restrict attention to thinking ‘within the frame’.

People fail to give sufficient attention to the possibility of doing things differently or doing different things.

Motivational barriers, often related to increasing returns from doing more of the same and a fear of loss, especially with regard to the sunk costs (see Chapter 1).

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

7

8

Organizations do not shift from one ‘kind of game’ to another through incremental steps.

Revolutionary periods

Inertia and deep structures maintain the state of equilibrium until misalignment reaches the point where the only way forward is for the organization to transform itself via an episodes of revolutionary change.

misalignment

Revolutionary change

This episode of revolutionary change realigns the organization with the external environment but, because of forces that inhibit continuous adaptation, the state of alignment is short lived.

realignment

The revolutionary episode is followed by another period of relative stability that triggers yet another episode of revolutionary change, and the process continues to unfold as a process of punctuated equilibrium.

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

8

9

The possibility of anticipating the need to change

They can, but only by making the organisation continuously adaptive over the longer term.

Can organizations break out of this pattern of punctuated equilibrium and avoid the need for urgent transformational change?

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

9

10

The continuously adaptive organization

Continuously adaptive organisations experience the kind of ongoing incremental change that is described by the gradualist paradigm (unconstrained by deep structures).

It involves repeated patterns of:

Translation that involves the editing and imitation of ideas as they travel through the organisation

Learning and new insights which facilitate changes in the way the organization responds to problems and opportunities

Improvisation that leads to a continuous modification of existing work practices

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

10

11

Reactive and proactive responses to change

Firms cannot ignore changes in their external environment forever. Eventually they have to adapt if they are to survive..

But some firms are slower than others to recognise the need for change and/or slower than others to take action. Their response is reactive rather than proactive.

failure

Transformation

or

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

11

12

Lead times and time pressures

It is more difficult to manage change when the need for change is urgent.

There is less time for planning

It is more difficult to involve people in the process

There is less time to experiment and search for creative solutions

©PhotoDisco/Getty Images/Stephen F. Hayes

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

12

13

A typology of change

Combining notions of incremental and revolutionary/discontinuous change with the way an organisation responds to change (proactive or reactive) provides a useful typology for classifying types of change.

Proactive

(Anticipatory)

Reactive

Incremental

(doing things better)

Revolutionary/discontinuous

(doing things differently or doing different things)

Fine Tuning

2. Adaptation

3. Re-orientation

4. Re-creation

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

13

14

Implications of these different types of change for change management practice

1. Focus for change effort

2. Locus for change: who will manage the process?

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

14

15

1. Focus for change efforts

With incremental change the aim is to improve the alignment between existing organisational components in order to ‘do things better’.

Task

Structure

Culture

People

With revolutionary/discontinuous change the aim is to seek a new configuration of organisational components that are aligned to external circumstances. The outcome may be that the firm ‘does things differently’ or ‘does different things’.

OUTPUTS

required by external stakeholders

INPUTS

required to support the transformed business

New ways of transforming inputs into outputs

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

15

16

2. Locus of change

The intensity of change (indicated by the stress, dislocation and trauma associated with change) affects the point in the organization where the leadership for change is located.

Low intensity change

High intensity change

Executive-led change

Change through delegation

(Project managers and

external consultants)

Change managed by

local leaders

Transformational/discontinuous change is more intense than incremental change, and reactive change tends to be more intense than anticipatory change.

Re-creation

Re-orientation

Adaption

Tuning

Least intense

Most intense

© John Hayes (2014), The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 4th ed.

16