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 Thinking and Writing in Psychology   Article Review Psychology 2 pages 550 words due in 5 hours

 article review with shared comments of revision in the word doc.  and work sheet  for premise and hypothesis . this is a peer reviewed assignment .   It is a peer review assignment my job is to point out errors if any and share comments on word document to explain . And then fill out work sheet. 

NAME: _____________________

Peer Review Worksheet

1. Student’s name or ID and title of work to be reviewed:

2. What does the writer want you to believe (if known)? Each of these should be one sentence.

Premise 1:

Premise 2:

H:

3. What supporting research/evidence does the writer provide for each? These should be the supporting statements for number 1 and should include citations.

P1 Support:

P2 Support:

H Support:

4. What areas need improvement and why/how? Be honest, be picky, be detailed.

5. Is the paper well organized? Does it flow easily from one idea to the next, using appropriate transitions? Explain what the author can do to improve.

6. What are this writer’s strengths and weaknesses? Focus mostly on weaknesses. Remember grammar counts!

7. Does the paper follow APA formatting regulations? Be sure to mark the errors on their copy.

Running head: behavioral therapy and asd 1

behavioral therapy and asd 8

Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Student ID: 1191762

Governors State University

Dr. Mercer

Thinking & Writing in Psychology

Fall 2021

Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum disorder is a disability that affects many people in the world around us today. Autism Spectrum Disorder is something we will always continue to see, as there is no cure. Many people know at least one person with Autism Spectrum Disorder if not more. An individual with Autism Spectrum disorder can face many difficult challenges throughout their lifetime. Some of these challenges may include but are not limited to having difficulty with communication and social skills (interacting with others, understanding social cures, etc.), difficulty with how they behave and difficulty with how they learn. Every individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder is completely different and some people with Autism Spectrum Disorder may need more help in other areas. Some individuals on the spectrum may be very high functioning and others may not be able to do a lot without the assistance of others.

Although there is no cure for Autism Spectrum Disorder, there is a lot of research that proves early intervention and treatment can improve how an individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder develops. The earlier treatment starts, the more effective it can be. Not only can treatment improve how an individual on the spectrum develops over time, but treatment may also improve the quality of their life as well. Many people with Autism Spectrum disorder receive multiple different treatments together, rather than just getting one type of treatment.

Although there are many types of treatments one with Autism Spectrum Disorder can receive such as speech therapy, occupational therapy and physical therapy, one form of treatment that many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder receive as well is Behavioral Therapy. Behavioral Therapy may not be discussed nearly as much as some of the other types of therapy there is, but it is proven to be very beneficial, especially when it begins at an early age. There are many different types of behavioral therapy and approaches with their own benefits and effectiveness as well.

Understanding Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral Therapy is a type of therapy that uses many different types, methods and techniques in order to change maladaptive behaviors. For example, some children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are nonverbal. When a child is nonverbal and is in pain or trying to communicate something, they can become frustrated or possibly even physically aggressive. Behavioral Therapy would teach this child more appropriate behaviors to engage in rather than becoming frustrated or aggressive. These alternate behaviors may include different coping strategies such as deep breathes or counting down from five. However, there are endless scenarios.

The great thing about Behavioral Therapy is that each individual receiving it will have their own individualized plan tailored to meet their needs and help them best succeed (Guercio, 2021). These individualized plans are created through assessments completed by parents and/or the individual receiving therapy and highly trained staff members in the field. These plans are constantly updated to always continue meeting the specific needs for that individual (Driscoll, K., Schonberg, M., Stark, M. F., Carter, A. S., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. 2020). The number of hours of therapy and individual receives is also specific to the needs of the individual as well. For example, where one individual may only need five to ten hours of therapy a week, another may need forty hours a week. Not only does behavioral therapy involve one on one direct therapy with the individual receiving it, it may also involve parent training in which a trained individual assists in coaching the family how to most effectively help their child with different behaviors and or situations that may occur (Driscoll, K., Schonberg, M., Stark, M. F., Carter, A. S., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. 2020).

Types of Behavioral Therapy and Approaches

Something that is very important to understand about behavioral therapy is that there are several types of behavioral therapy out there that are used to treat Autism Spectrum Disorder. Many individuals who receive behavioral therapy will see multiple different types and approaches over time. Since behavioral therapy is tailored to fit the needs of the individual receiving it, some types may be more beneficial to others, depending on the individual.

One type that is commonly seen, taught and used is known as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Many kids with Autism Spectrum Disorder have other disorders too, so it is important that there are types of Behavioral Therapy that can touch on those as well. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is great for individuals who struggle with anxiety and stress on top of Autism Spectrum Disorder. What Acceptance and Commitment Therapy does is have the individual uses mindfulness and behavioral change strategies. Acceptance Commitment therapy is a way to focus on one’s values rather than pain in your life (Guercio, 2021).

Another type of approach commonly used during behavioral therapy is a mindfulness bases approach. The mindfulness approach is slightly similar to the Acceptance Commitment Therapy, this method allows individuals to use mindfulness techniques such as mindfulness meditation as a replacement behavior to negative behaviors or responses (Guercio, 2021). Using a mindfulness approach allows the individual receiving therapy to pay attention to their thoughts and feelings. This method really allows an individual to sit and think. For example, when becoming frustrated, an individual’s first instinct may be to reach negatively. With this approach it would allow the individual to reflect on what frustrated them and how they could react in a

different way that is more beneficial to them. With children who have Autism Spectrum Disorder, this is a good method to have them focus on something else when they become upset or engage in any negative behaviors (Guercio, 2021).

Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy

As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of research and data out there showing how behavioral therapy is effective for those who have Autism Spectrum Disorder. It is also proven that the earlier the intervention and treatment starts, the more effective it will be in the long run. One Journal article titled, “Family centered cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in very young children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders” talks about how effective Behavioral Therapy is and the improvement it caused many individuals with not only Autism Spectrum Disorder, but also Anxiety Disorder. The article states, “A meta-analysis of 41 studies including over 1800 participants showed that CBT demonstrated efficacy in reducing anxiety disorders and symptoms compared with non-active control conditions, with an intent-to-treat analysis showing that 58.9% of those treated attained remission” (Driscoll, K., Schonberg, M., Stark, M. F., Carter, A. S., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. 2020). What this means is that the symptoms of the anxiety disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder are not getting worse, they are manageable from receiving this Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. That same article mentions that in another study they conducted, 67% of children were rated very much improved from receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (Driscoll, K., Schonberg, M., Stark, M. F., Carter, A. S., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. 2020).

References

Driscoll, K., Schonberg, M., Stark, M. F., Carter, A. S., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. (2020). Family centered cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in very young children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50(11), 3905–3920. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04446-y

Guercio, J. M. (2021). The importance of a deeper knowledge of the history and theoretical foundations of behaviorism and behavior therapy: Part 3–1986–2021. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000226

Kose, L. K., Fox, L., & Storch, E. A. (2018). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorders and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review of the research. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 30(1), 69–87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-017-9559-8