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This discussion is an opportunity for you to apply the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in relationship to constructivism and meeting the needs of all students. To prepare for this discussion, aside from reviewing the Week Four Instructor Guidance, you will need to view the video UDL Minimizes modifications for individual students  (Links to an external site.)at the CAST website. To view the video, you will need to sign up for a free CAST account (Links to an external site.).

Initial Post: Create an initial response that addresses the following areas.

  1. Evaluate      how the video has strengthened or otherwise changed your views about      differentiated instruction? Do you have a deeper understanding and      appreciation for differentiated instruction now? Why/ Why not?
  2. Analyze      the benefits for both students and the teacher when instruction follows      the UDL framework when compared to the practice of isolating learners and      planning for specific modifications for individual students.
  3. Discuss      what you learned in the video about setting up a non-threatening learning environment      that does not isolate students. For example, what connections can you make      between this and what you observed when analyzing the lesson during Week      Three and when evaluating the example or resource in the Week Four      Discussion 1.

Guided Response: Respond to at least two peers. As always, consider asking questions of peers about their responses to encourage further conversation. In your replies, you can discuss common themes you shared with your peer about differentiated instruction prior to and after watching the video. Additionally, discuss how the benefits your peer provides help guide learning away from isolation for students who are identified as needing modifications. Finally, consider in your replies what your peers shared regarding their week three lesson and post suggestions to help your peers further identify connections in ways that the lesson supports differentiated instruction. Though two replies is the basic expectation, for deeper engagement and learning, you are encouraged to provide responses to any comments or questions others have given to you to further the conversation. Remember, this continued interaction gives you further opportunities to demonstrate your content expertise, critical thinking, and real world experiences with the topic of UDL and differentiated instruction. See attached document for the full week 4 discussion 2 work

Week 4 Discussion 2 Minimizing modifications for individual students

This discussion is an opportunity for you to apply the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in relationship to constructivism and meeting the needs of all students. To prepare for this discussion, aside from reviewing the Week Four Instructor Guidance, you will need to view the video UDL Minimizes modifications for individual students  (Links to an external site.) at the CAST website. To view the video, you will need to sign up for a free CAST account (Links to an external site.) .

Initial Post: Create an initial response that addresses the following areas.

a. Evaluate how the video has strengthened or otherwise changed your views about differentiated instruction? Do you have a deeper understanding and appreciation for differentiated instruction now? Why/ Why not?

b. Analyze the benefits for both students and the teacher when instruction follows the UDL framework when compared to the practice of isolating learners and planning for specific modifications for individual students.

c. Discuss what you learned in the video about setting up a non-threatening learning environment that does not isolate students. For example, what connections can you make between this and what you observed when analyzing the lesson during Week Three and when evaluating the example or resource in the Week Four Discussion 1.

Guided Response: Respond to at least two peers. As always, consider asking questions of peers about their responses to encourage further conversation. In your replies, you can discuss common themes you shared with your peer about differentiated instruction prior to and after watching the video. Additionally, discuss how the benefits your peer provides help guide learning away from isolation for students who are identified as needing modifications. Finally, consider in your replies what your peers shared regarding their week three lesson and post suggestions to help your peers further identify connections in ways that the lesson supports differentiated instruction. Though two replies is the basic expectation, for deeper engagement and learning, you are encouraged to provide responses to any comments or questions others have given to you to further the conversation. Remember, this continued interaction gives you further opportunities to demonstrate your content expertise, critical thinking, and real world experiences with the topic of UDL and differentiated instruction.

Week Four Instructor Guidance Welcome to Week Four of EDU620: Meeting Individual Student Needs with Technology.  Please be sure to review the Week Four homepage and review the specific learning outcomes for the week, the schedule overview, the required and recommended resources, the introduction to this week’s focus, and a listing of the assessments to be completed. Next, be sure to read the Instructor Guidance in its entirety.

Overview In Week Three, you began building a foundational understanding UDL. This week we specifically analyze the principles of UDL. Moreover, you will analyze UDL in relation to how it can be used to reduce barriers for all students and not just those for students identified formally as having special instructional needs. 

Intellectual Elaboration UDL Three Principles  Recall, UDL is an educational framework and set of principles that maximizes learning opportunities for all learners and it is based on three guiding principles. These principles can be applied to the overall design of a course and/or curriculum as well as to specific instructional strategies.  Recall that each principle has a set of detailed guidelines, which provide an evidence-based approach to understanding how learning can be improved through tools and resources. Each principle is aimed at helping educators improve how information is presented so as to engage students and create inclusive assessments and evaluations. (For a review of these principles, see the resource from CAST, 2007).  

  

(CAST, 2008)

UDL Guidelines For each of the three principles, there are specific guidelines that help direct implementation into the classroom and curriculum.  These guidelines work as checkpoints and are flexible; they must be mixed and matched into the curriculum effectively. It is important to note that UDL checkpoints are not meant to be a prescription for how or what to teach, but a set of strategies that can be employed to overcome the barriers inherent in most existing curriculum that is designed for a one-size-fits-all approach (CAST, 2007). 

Principle 1: Multiple Means of Representation For principle one, multiple means of representation, there are the three supporting guidelines:

1. provide options for perception (giving learners the option of watching a video to learn through listening), 

2. provide options for language and symbols (use of word clouds, line graphs, circle graphs could all be used to provide the same information to learners, just in different formats), and

3. provide options for comprehension (creating a PowerPoint presentation or instructional video on the subject).  

For an overview of principal one, visit the Universal Design for Learning website (Links to an external site.) . Principle 2: Provide Multiple Means for Action and Expression For principle two, multiple means for action and expression, there are three supporting guidelines:

1.  provide options for physical action (students can put on a play or building a diorama to represent learning), 

2. provide options for expressive skills and fluency (offer a variety of multiple media applications such as text, speech, drawing, illustration, design, film, music, sculpture or video to demonstrate learning), and 

3. provide options for executive functions( post goals, objectives and schedules of when assignments are due in the classroom as a visual reminder). 

For an overview of principal two, visit the Universal Design for Learning website (Links to an external site.) . Principle 3: Provide Multiple Means of Engagement For principle three, multiple means for action and expression, there are three supporting guidelines: 

1. Provide Options for Recruiting Interest (provide students the option to participate in the design of classroom activities), 

2. Provide Options for Sustaining Effort and Persistence (provide learning opportunities that allow for active participation, exploration and experimentation, and 

3. Provide Options for Self Regulation (create an accepting and supportive classroom climate, were students are free to take risks and experiment with their learning).  

For an overview of principal three, visit the Universal Design for Learning website (Links to an external site.) . To see UDL and the three principles in action watch the following videos that show the UDL guidelines in practice in a variety of grade levels and subjects. Each video is approximately 10 minutes long

· UDL Guidelines in Practice: Grade 1 Mathematics (Links to an external site.)

· UDL Guidelines in Practice: Grade 5 Language Arts (Links to an external site.)

· UDL Guidelines in Practice: Grade 6 Science  (Links to an external site.)  

 

Minimizing Modifications  A key piece of federal legislation tailored to support students with disabilities and other impairments is the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) enacted in 2004. IDEA ensures that public schools meet the educational needs of students with disabilities and requires that schools provide special education services to students as described in a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). Schools and school districts must also provide a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment (LRE)—two protective rights of every eligible student in the U.S. and U.S. Territories (National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2014). What do you know about  IDEA as it relates to UDL?  Remember, UDL supports providing educational access and opportunities for learning success for all students. UDL does this by minimizing barriers to learning by proactively offering different learning opportunities for all students.  That is, UDL includes students with a disability in a more integrative and less stigmatizing manner, by recognizing that it is not only students with a disability who may be disadvantaged or excluded from learning because of elements of course design, teaching or assessment. 

“Universal design goes beyond accommodations in many respects, making many common accommodations unnecessary because what students with a disability may require is already built into the course” (CAST, 2007).

An example is providing an audio component to a text resource. Students who need the audio component will have it provided and those that will learn better through the use of an audio component also have increased opportunity to learn. Therefore, UDL does not replace the need for IEP’s for some students, what it does is to assist all students learn in the least restrictive environment, regardless of an identified disability. 

Assessment Guidance This section includes additional specific assistance for excelling in the discussions for Week Four beyond what is given with the instructions for the assessments. If you have questions about what is expected on any assessment for Week Four, contact your instructor before the due date. Discussion 1: UDL Guidelines: Examples and Resources This discussion is an opportunity to further demonstrate your mastery of the third course learning outcome; apply the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in the design of instruction and assessment.  In the Week Four Discussion 1 you have the opportunity to gain an authentic view of how lessons can incorporate UDL principles. You will conduct an examination of a particular UDL principle within a lesson making direct associations with the coordinating guidelines and checkpoints; the understanding gained from this activity will assist you in applying the principles into your current or future design of a classroom and curriculum experience! Consider the information you have gathered about UDL in particular in the design of instruction and assessment as you develop a response to the Discussion 1 in Week Three. Here, you will examine one of the principles of UDL from the CAST (2007) website. Be sure to review the instructions for this discussion: you will choose a principle to review based on the first initial of your last name. Choose a checkpoint from the principal that is geared toward the grade level you are currently teaching, have experience in, or intend to teach.  You are strongly encouraged to practice  using digital tools by preparing a presentation using your choice of digital software and creating an audio or visual recording that shares in a way reflective of 21st-century learning, what you have learned about the guidelines and checkpoints associated with the principles of UDL.  Remember to follow the Guided Response prompt for this, and every Discussion each week.  PowerPoint Tips:  It is recommended you use the Purdue Online Writing Lab “Designing an Effective PowerPoint Presentation: Quick Guide” resource provided in the references list below as a guide for designing your presentation this week and in subsequent weeks when a presentation is requested.  Discussion 2: Minimizing modifications for individual students.  This discussion is another opportunity to demonstrate your mastery of the third course learning outcome, apply the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in the design of instruction and assessment.  You will start this discussion by signing up for a CAST account.  (Links to an external site.) (This is required step as to review the videos from the CAST website; you will need to sign up for a free account).  Next watch the video on how UDL minimizes modifications for individual students. Be sure to take notes while watching the video on how the student and teacher benefit from the use of UDL incorporation into teaching and learning, provides options for different types of learning styles. Note how the video demonstrates a non-threatening, all-inclusive classroom. While watching the video think back to your own classroom or a classroom you have volunteered in, was the use of UDL present in the classroom?

References Callison, D. (2001). Constructivism. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 18(4), 35-38. Center for Applied Special Technology. (2007). Principles of universal design. Retrieved from http://www.cast.org/library/UDLguidelines/ CAST (2008). Universal design for learning guidelines version 1.0 Wakefield, MA.  Karagiorgi, Y. & Symeou, L. (2005). Translating Constructivism into Instructional Design: Potential and Limitations. Educational Technology & Society, 8(1), 17-27. National Center for Learning Disabilities (2014). What is IDEA? Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/disability-advocacy/learn-ld-laws/idea/what-is-idea  Scruggs, B. (2009). Constructivist practices to increase student engagement in the orchestra classroom. Music Educators Journal, 95(4), 53-59. UDL CAST Account. Retrieved from http://udltheorypractice.cast.org/login;jsessionid=EB27BE6C79293351E8C2D70A9FBC9C5B