this is due tomorrow and there is no extra time. Must have done by 7pm California time tomorrow.
This is on child education
Do the following:
Open the first attachment CDECE59 Final
Follow ALL directions in the attachment
For part 1 you may pick 3 concepts from the other attachments to use except for conflict resolution.
For part 2 choose one of the scenarios listed and use the conflict resolution steps attachment and conflict handout copy attachment
Guiding Young Children
This semester you have had the opportunity to learn about guidance and the behavior of young children.
Utilizing your texts, class lecture notes, powerpoints, readings, assignments, class activities and videos , Part 1 of the Final Essay assignment is to evaluate your own learning by completing a 3 (minimum) page typewritten paper (double-spaced/12pt. font) that addresses the following 3 essay prompts:
1. During the semester you have acquired new information, new concepts and new ideas about young children, their development and guidance- Please describe 3 concepts that stand out to you. Make sure your description is detailed- What the information, concept, or idea is and why it stands out as important to you. You must reference in-class experiences to support your statements-
2. How do you imagine that you might use the knowledge you have gained this semester in your personal life and in your future or present career?
3. What you have learned about yourself and young children and their behavior as a result of your participation in this course?
Be thorough and answer each question thoughtfully and completely-
Facilitation and Guidance Scenario
Resources: Film- Supporting Children in Resolving Conflicts (YouTube link)
· Develop and write a strategy to respond to a child’s challenging behavior in an early childhood setting from the scenarios listed:
Choose one and clearly outline and label your Steps/strategies
-Remember to follow all of the steps to conflict resolution!
–Think about what the feelings might be behind the behavior
-Try not to: question, moralize, judge or predict…just follow the process
Two children are in the block area, they have built a structure together, one of them wants to put some farm animals into the structure and the other child is saying “No!” and the other is saying, “Yes!” Their yelling is getting really loud.
You are out on a nature walk with four children. One of the children keeps running up to other children and poking them. All of the other children are saying “No” and “stop it!” but the child waits for a few minutes, does it again and laughs.
Three girls are in the housekeeping area playing family, one is the mom, one is the sister and the other one is the baby, A 4th girl comes along and asks to play, the other girls say “no, there is no one else in our family”. The 4th girl starts crying and comes to the teacher for help.
Outside on the climbing structure a group of boys are playing superheroes when a girl climbs up the slide to join them- one of the boys blocks the way and says; “ Go away! Only boys are allowed in this place!”
Three children are playing at the water table. They each have two sharks. Another child comes and tries to take one of the sharks from another child; they are both tugging on it and begin to push at each other.
Three children are in the sand box- one child is digging with a yellow shovel and another sees this and screams “No! I had it first!” and grabs it away and the other child begins to cry.
Grading Rubric: 25 points possible
Excellent: 5 pts
Good: 4 pts
Fair: 3-2 pts
Poor: 1 pts
Spelling, grammar, punctuation, word use, sentence structure and formatting are accurate. Less than 3 mistakes
Spelling, grammar, punctuation, word use, sentence structure and formatting are accurate. Less than 5 mistakes
Spelling, grammar, word use etc, are somewhat inaccurate but the mistakes do not keep the reader from understanding the content
Spelling, grammar, word use etc are largely inaccurate. Numerous mistakes and formatting problems make the document difficult to understand.
Excellent: 20 pts
Good: 19-15 pts
Fair: 14-8 pts
Poor: 8-0 pts
Part 1: All three prompts are expressed completely. Three concepts are discussed thoroughly- Examples and details are given. Information shows a high level of connection to the topic- In class experiences (Lecture/video/activities) are referenced.
Conflict resolution steps are clearly labeled, Active Listening skills are present, evidence of consideration of the feelings behind the behavior is clear, no judging, moralizing is present- Adult acts as facilitator
Part 1: All three prompts are expressed completely. Three concepts are discussed- Examples and details are given. All information is directly related to the questions asked. Some in class experiences are referenced.
Most Conflict resolution steps are clearly labeled, Some Active Listening skills are present, Some evidence of consideration of the feelings behind the behavior is clear, no judging, moralizing is present- Adult acts as facilitator
Part 1: All three prompts are answered and the information is directly related to the questions being asked
Some Conflict resolution steps are clearly labeled, Active Listening skills are not present, No evidence of consideration of the feelings behind the behavior is clear, no judging, moralizing is present- Adult does not act as facilitator
Part 1: Assignment is incomplete or mostly unrelated to the topic.
No Conflict resolution steps are clearly labeled or used, Active Listening skills are not present, No evidence of consideration of the feelings behind the behavior is clear, judging, moralizing is present- Adult does not act as facilitator, uses punitive measures
6 Steps to Conflict Resolution
Remember! -Think about what the feelings might be behind the behavior
-Try not to: question, moralize, judge or predict…just follow the process
Step 1 : Approach the situation calmly.
Observe the situation, approach the children with a calm voice, and sit with them on the floor. Stop any hurtful behavior if necessary,
Step 2 : Acknowledge children’s feelings. ACTIVE LISTEN
Describe the feeling you observe and the details of what you see.
Step 3: Gather information.
Ask open-ended questions, directing your questions to one child, then another.
Step 4 : Restate the problem.
Based on what the children say, clarify the problem and check your statement with the children.
Step 5: Ask for ideas for solutions and choose one together.
Encourage children to talk to each other. Be prepared to give suggestions. When children arrive at a solution, restate it and check with them to make sure they are in agreement.
Step 6: Be prepared to give follow-up support.
Conflict is an unavoidable part of life. It happens within friendships, families, work places, global confrontations/armed warfare, etc. It happens in the school yard, in business negotiations, in dealing with gang violence, global confrontations/armed warfare, etc. Conflict is even a natural and daily occurrence in early childhood programs.
Conflict resolution is a way to deal with confrontations before they escalate into violence. It involves getting to underlying causes and issues, and trying to find a solution that satisfies both parties.
Central to all conflict resolution programs is
· the development of effective communication,
· interpersonal skills
· and problem-solving skills.
Over the past 10 years, a growing number of schools and community groups have incorporated conflict resolution/violence prevention programs into their curricula.
Conflict is a natural and daily occurrence in early childhood programs.
Conflict can be an uncomfortable process for young children, causing one, both, or all children involved uneasiness, fear, or a range of other strong emotions.
It is typical for young children in early childhood programs to experience conflict over:
· incomplete understanding
Through conflict, children learn. Conflict has educational AND social value for young children. In order for the learning to promote positive growth – emotionally, socially, and intellectually – two conditions are recommended:
1) That classroom conflict is kept at an optimal level. Too much conflict is overwhelming and can lead to overstimulation or withdrawal. Too little conflict is under-challenging for children and can lead to educational complacency.
2) That classroom conflict is met with support from adults who facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.
What is peaceful conflict resolution?
Peaceful conflict resolution in the early childhood classroom is working through a problem or conflict in a way that does not physically, emotionally, or socially hurt anyone involved.
Peaceful conflict resolution provides children with opportunities to feel competent in handling situations and relationship. It fosters feelings of respect for the self and other people, as well as respect for new ideas.
What is the teacher’s role in peaceful conflict resolution?
The teacher’s role in peaceful conflict resolution is to
· anticipate that conflict will occur within groups of children
· respond to children as conflict occurs naturally in the classroom.
· support all children in conflict with the intent to promote positive growth
Teachers often find their role in peaceful conflict resolution a challenge. We will discuss several strategies to assist teachers in defining their role and relationship to children and conflict.
· Preparing for conflict
· Knowing about children
· Knowing each child
· Creating a culture of respect
· Making decisions
· Refocusing conflict to teach
Children have opportunities to learn positively when teachers respond to conflict with peaceful conflict resolution strategies.
Preparing for Conflict
A prepared teacher is ready to spend the day with children. A prepared teacher knows that some of the days with children will include child-child conflict.
Teachers who unintentionally hinder peaceful conflict resolution may try to avoid classroom conflict, punish children who experience social conflict, fix classroom conflict for children, or let children work out conflict for themselves.
Teachers who consistently respond to typical classroom conflict in any of these ways teach children to comply with the teachers’ expectations at the expense of the child’s development, to withdraw in conflict, to be helpless, or to survive in conflict.
None of these outcomes for children are supportive of peaceful conflict resolution. A prepared teacher approaches child-child classroom conflict by being supportive to children in very intentional ways.
One of the reasons a teacher may hinder peaceful conflict resolution in the classroom is because she has not taken the time to reflect on her personal or professional experiences with conflict. Everyone has experience with conflict – from early childhood days to the present. These experiences produce strong feelings and memories that guide personal and professional responses to conflict.
These feelings and memories can lead teachers to miss the value of classroom conflict and to seek a conflict-free teaching environment. A prepared teacher knows that conflict has educational and social value in children’s development.
Reflection is the professional process of thinking, evaluating, and planning.
Reflection helps one become aware of feelings about conflict.
Reflection is a recommended process for new and experienced teachers. A prepared teacher is reflective about her or his
· and practice in response to conflict in the early childhood classroom.
A prepared teacher is open to learning about peaceful conflict resolution and will seek out resources to support learning. Colleagues, supervisors, classes, professional readings, and discussion group can all provide support to teacher.
Teachers and early childhood programs have choices about what is emphasized in classrooms. When peaceful conflict resolution is a priority, teachers handle conflict as it occurs, without feeling that it interrupts real learning.
How do many teachers deal with conflict in the classroom? Some commonly used methods are at odds with peaceful conflict resolution practice. The following methods do not fit with young children’s development and are not recommended.
· A quick encouragement to “use words”
· An insistence that children in conflict take turns or share
· Telling children how to solve a problem
· Making a child give up a toy to more insistent child
· Sending a child in conflict away to another activity (redirection)
· Removing the sought-after toy
· Time out/punishment
· Asking children to say “I’m sorry” when they are not sorry
In these not recommended disciplinary response:
· children do not have the developmental abilities to do what is being asked (use words, take turns, give up a toy willingly);
· teachers are solving problems for children (insisting children take turns or share, telling how to solve a problem, making a child give up a toy, sending a child away from an activity, removing a toy, insisting children apologize);
· or children are not given an opportunity to learn (all of the above).
Teachers who value peaceful conflict resolution and understand the relationship of conflict and social development will be thoughtful in their response to children in conflict.
When teachers approach conflict prepared to understand children’s current development and developmental sequences, they will be able to challenge and complicate children’s thinking, fostering development and learning.
Seeing conflict through a child’s eyes
Conflict occurs when two people view things differently. One person wants one thing and the other person wants something else.
The ability to take someone else’s perspective, to see things through their eyes, is essential to peaceful conflict resolution. Young children are not able to consistently take another’s perspective until they are close to middle childhood. Therefore, it is the teacher’s role to understand the child’s perspective. When a teacher can take a child’s perspective, step back from that perspective, and respond considering that perspective, children learn peaceful conflict resolution.
Peaceful conflict resolution vs. common disciplinary responses
Teachers successful in supporting children in peaceful conflict resolution will know about:
· The developmental level of the children they teach
· The individual children they teach
· The developmental sequence
Teachers will choose techniques that support children’s development when they understand and consider the ways in which young children think about and approach conflict situations/resolutions.
Ie: teachers know 2 year olds “bite”….3 year olds “hit”, 4 year olds say “you’re not my friend” etc..
Another way a culture of respect is created is through the language a teacher uses. Every teacher has her or his own communication style. Critical aspects of a teacher’s communication style are listening and talking. This means placing a great deal of importance on, and time for, the teacher to listen to the child and for the teacher to help each child to listen to each other. When teachers and children listen to each other respectfully, they are hearing the talking that the child is doing. This takes time and energy. A classroom with a culture of respect is a safe space in which children can say what they mean, and mean what they say.
One common method of teacher-child communication is praise, used both to support children’s self esteem and to change children’s behavior. Teachers often use praise because it is familiar and easy. However, using praise as a communication style is not recommended. Using praise sacrifices the opportunity to have meaningful, respectful, long-term relationships with children, for reliance on an often-empty, always-quick pat phrase.
Both children who are praised and who are not praised in the classroom are, Alfred Kohn says, actually punished. While teachers do not punish children intentionally, children are harmed because they are taught that motivation for everything from sitting still, to creating artwork, to making friends comes from outside to themselves.
Following are some common praise phrases that are used in early childhood classrooms. They are not recommended.
“I love that picture.”
“You did the best work.”
“The way you helped him was great.”
“You are the best!”
“I like the way Sarita is sitting so quietly in our circle.”
When teachers praise as a consistent method of “teaching,” children are robbed of the opportunity to take new paths. Children wonder what praise or motivation from outside is ahead of them on this new path. The child’s goal becomes to get the praise, not to engage in the activity. In addition, it is impossible to praise every child all day long; therefore teachers in a sense withhold praise from some children.
In the respectful classroom culture, children have opportunities to learn self-worth and self-control through meaningful, relevant interactions with other people, materials, and activities. Teachers use their time with children being supportive. When conflict occurs, teachers help children learn and grow from the conflict experience rather than judge children’s behavior through praise or withholding of praise.
Instead of praise, children want, need, and deserve teachers’ attention. A teacher’s attention should supportive a child’s motivation to learn and try new things in order to take hold of new opportunities or engage deeply in familiar opportunities for the pleasure that child receives from that act alone. There are ways to speak with children that supportive their self-control, self-esteem, and peaceful conflict resolution. These recommended communication techniques are:
1) Anticipatory language
2) Descriptive language
3) “I wish” and “You wish” language
4) Open-ended questions
Anticipatory language is using words to help children anticipate what comes next. This helps children know what to expect. It is often changes that causes conflict. When children hear warnings that a change is coming, they are able to plan for a change. Children hear the message that the teacher cares about who they are and what they are doing and respects children’s time, activity, and space.
Some examples of anticipatory language to sue with infants through primary age children are: “I hear you crying, Sarah, and I will come to see you as soon as I am done helping Malika.”
“In just a minute we are going to get out your bottle and sit in the rocker together.”
“In five minutes we are going to pick up.”
“On Wednesday we want you to bring something to class to share about insects.”
“In three days we will all be going on a trip to the grocery store.”
“In two weeks, I am going on maternity leave. That means I will be home getting ready to have my baby, and Rose will be your teacher while I am gone. Everyone, this is Rose. She will be in our class with me for the next two weeks and then when I am at home, she will know how our class works!”
Descriptive language is using words that describe what is happening right now to children. Descriptive language names and validates children’s feelings and experiences. These words help children know that the teacher understands or is trying to understand. Description advocates for all children in conflict. All feelings are respected, even when the behaviors must be stopped and/or modified.
Some examples of descriptive language are:
1) “You two are hitting each other and looking so mad! Please stop!”
2) “I can see your face is really sad, Tom.”
3) “You look frustrated with that toy.”
4) “So, you feel like Charise always gets to choose the game, and you don’t.”
5) “Your diaper is wet. I am getting ready to come change it.”
6) “You used blue and read in your picture.”
7) “I see you have covered the whole page with many different kinds of lines.”
8) “You worked hard on building that structure.”
9) “I see you two are working together. Thank you.”
“I Wish”/”You Wish” Language
“I wish” and “you wish” language is using words that show that you know that the child wishes could happen or words that dhows that you wish the child could have her way, even when you both know she can’t. Acknowledging children’s wishes validates children’s desire and feelings. It implies that the adult will stand by the child whether or not the hope is fulfilled. It lets the child know the adult is on his or her side. It gives the message that “what you want is important to you and to me.”
Some examples of “I wish” and “you wish” language are:
1) “I wish you had enough milk and make milk shakes for snack today too.”
2) “I wish we had eight of those toys so that you could play with one whenever you wanted.”
3) “You wish you didn’t have to take a nap today.”
4) “You wish you could build all the way over the front door of the classroom.”
5) “You wish your mommy didn’t have to leave today.”
Open-ended questions do not have a “right” answer. They help the teacher gather information. They give the message that teachers want to know what the child is experiencing and that teachers want information from the child’s perspective in a conflict. In addition, open-ended questions extend children’s thinking.
Some examples of open-ended questions are:
1) “What’s happening here?”
2) “What do you think?”
3) “How can I help you?”
4) “Can you tell me about that?”
By utilizing these varied communication techniques, teachers can respond individually, sensitively, and sincerely, to children throughout the daily classroom experience. Praise can be avoided, and honest peaceful conflict resolution communication can be encouraged.
Building a Classroom Community
When teachers encourage children to connect with each other as a community, a culture of respect is created. Every child is important in a classroom. There are a variety of ways children contribute to the classroom community. It is the teacher’s role to assist children in defining the ways in which they can connect and contribute, as well as ways they can respect each other’s contributions.
Using children’s name in songs and fingerplays as well as making connections between children feel a part of the larger classroom community.
In addition, as children explore peaceful conflict resolution, one concept that will arise over and over again is “fairness.” It is important for teachers to identify the difference between a child’s definition of fairness and an adult’s definition of fairness. When teachers do this they are more likely to be prepared to take a child’s perspective during conflict and to be more able to help children talk to one another about their differing perspectives.
When teachers understand the relationship between the environmental messages that are sent to children in the program, the language that is used with children, and the positive effects of building a classroom community, peaceful conflict resolution can become a cornerstone of the daily work done in early childhood education. These three techniques are critical to building a culture of respect.
How do Children get their Social-Emotional Needs met?
- Getting attention from others
(the need for connection)
- Gaining a sense of control
(the need for a sense of control over one’s life)
- Getting frustrated and acting out for their own perceived hurts
(the need for fairness)- “she took my blocks!”
- Removing themselves from frightening or painful situations
(the need to avoid stressful and frightening situations)
Misbehaviors based on Mistaken Goals-
- Children behave the way they do for a reason.
- Adults must step back wonder what motivates a child’s misbehavior.
- Developing a plan for guidance must address the underlying cause of inappropriate behavior.
- As children mature and develop self-awareness, open lines of communication will help them assume greater responsibility for their actions and choices
- By the time children reach adolescence, it is very important that they have conscious awareness of their motives and goals. It is important that open and honest communication has become an accepted and routine part of the child’s daily life.
What can a child’s behavior tell us?
Do not understand what we expect
Cannot do what we expect
Feel bored, tired or miserable
Are desperate for connection
Are overwhelmed by frustration
Are angry or resentful
Feel totally hopeless or helpless
Bursting with energy
The process by which children learn acceptable behavior is called socialization.
Over the first few years of life, children gradually develop self-control and learn how to get along with others and how to follow the accepted rules of their family and community.
Positive child guidance requires that adults gauge their reaction to a child’s inappropriate behavior by looking at the child’s ability level, the severity and intent of the behavior, and possible reasons for the behavior.
What defines Inappropriate Behavior?
At the heart of almost any behavior lies the desire to acquire something (an object, an experience, or a feeling) in order to meet some need.
Psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed that basic needs are arranged in a hierarchy of successive levels of needs.
Un-met needs are a hidden cause of chronic patterns of dysfunctional behavior. In order to act appropriately and responsibly, children must have a strong sense of self-esteem.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Believing in oneself is the basis for all growth…..
High self –esteem comes from the quality of the relationships that exists between children and those who play a significant role in their lives.
When children feel that adults trust their abilities, they are given confidence to try.
Adults are responsible for the psychological atmosphere and must always be conscious of how their interactions can affect the child’s concept of themselves.
Seeing children as lovable, capable, a