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Applied Final Project

Alexis Gardner

PSYC 335

University of Maryland Global Campus

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Narcissism

Table of Contents

Component 1: Summary and Analysis Pages 3-4

Component 2: Research Application Pages 5-8

Component 3: Personality Theory Pages 9-14

Theory: Nature-Nurture theory

Theory 2: Psychoanalytic theories

Theory 3: Trait Theory of Personality

Component 4: Personal Reflection Pages 15- 18

References Pages 19-20

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Component 1

Summary and Analysis

Narcissism is based on the Greek Myth Narcissus who feel in love with his own

reflection and was later identified as a personality disorder (Jenkins, 2019). Narcissistic

Personality Disorder or NPD are long term patterns of abnormal behavior, exaggerated feelings

of self-importance, and excessive need for admiration and showing a lack of empathy for other

people. This can only be classified as a disorder if this is more than people would generally

expect to see in standard human behavior.

While most people think a narcissist is just someone who thinks they are the best at

everything, it is exceedingly much more than that. A narcissist is someone who develops a made-

up or false self in order to avoid seeing their real self, which they often believe to be dreadful and

un-loveable (Jenkins, 2019). Someone with narcissistic personality disorder expects to be

recognized as superior even if they do not do anything astoundingly well, they require excessive

admiration, and have a sense of entitlement. They can also take advantage of others in order to

get what they want. People with narcissism do not do things for others unless there is an

immediate gain or recognition for themselves by helping someone out.

In order for an individual to be diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder, or NPD,

they have to preset with at least five of the following characteristics: the need to make-up skills

or talents to help them achieve in their life, they need to have others see their perfect lives, they

belief that they are superior to others around them, they need to be told how wonderful they are,

they believe that they should be treated with the highest respect and given material items when

they go places, they have no problem using someone to get what they want, they cannot relate to

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Narcissism

others, they get exceedingly jealous of others relationships, and they believe that they are the

only one who can solve problem with getting the creating answer to do so (Jenkins, 2019).

Humans have a need for admiration and will have times of self-importance, and will

occasionally lack empathy for others, but as long the characteristics and traits are within the

typical range and not an exceeding amount, there is no need to worry, especially if there are signs

in younger children. Narcissistic Personality Disorder usually develops in adolescence or during

early adulthood. It is not unusual for children or young adults to display signs or traits similar to

those of NPD.

Narcissism is a big deal today due to the increased pressure on kids to achieve greatness.

When we tell adolescents that they need to do better, give too much praise, or belittle them,

adults will start to create narcissistic thoughts about themselves. When parents tell their kids that

achievements are defined by getting good grades, getting into the best college, and getting the

best job, then they the focus of thought is on the ones self and they see will start to see others as

merely objects. If the sole purpose of a child’s life is too building a prolific portfolio of

themselves, then of course a child is going to grow up only looking out for themselves and have

vastly little to no concern for others.

A few things I had wondered when watching Dr. Paul Jenkins video was if there was a

way that we could teach children to get along and help them see from another person’s point of

view and since we start to see the changes in adolescents, does that mean that narcissism can

evolve with age? Babies, young children, and adolescents need us for survival, but it is up to the

parent as the child gets older to be empathetic and think about others around.

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Component 2

Research Application

Adolescents are stereotyped as overconfident, less hardworking, callous, emotionally

unstable, dishonest, and most commonly as narcissistic. In recent years, researches have begun to

reevaluate whether young adults, today, are more narcissistic than older children and adults from

another decade. In a world full of change, why would anyone expect narcissism, to not change

across one’s life span?

Aside from the fact of how narcissism changes within an individual’s own life is whether

people in more recent history report higher levels of narcissism. “People from more recent

history are higher in narcissism, lower in empathy, higher in attachment avoidance, use more

positive self-evaluation statements, and display more problematic or narcissistic behavior”

(Chopik & Grimm, 2019). American culture creates narcissism by the books, songs, magazine

and newspaper articles, and even political debates. It has been speculated by researches that these

differences are coming from different sources, including changes in the way parents raise their

children, how cultural norms have changed, and how the introduction of technology (Chopik &

Grimm, 2019).

In the study done by W.J. Chopik and K.J. Grimm they started by looking at other studies

in the past. The data sets that Chopik and Grimm looked at most commonly used the personality

data from the Block and Block Longitudinal Study of Cognitive and Ego Development or

otherwise known as the Block and Block Study. The Block and Block Study examined

personality and cognitive development from childhood to early adulthood for a sample of 128

children (Block and Block Longitudinal Study, 2006). In two samples Chopik and Grimm looked

at, the ages from one study was 43 to 53 and the another was from the ages 34-59. Another

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sample that W.J. Chopik and K.J. Grimm looked at was a data sample from the ages 14-23, but

this sample did not examine rank-order and mean-level change across the assessment points in

concert with other data sets. Chopik and Grimm wanted to examine the longitudinal changes in

four studies of narcissism to draw a picture on how narcissism can change throughout one’s life

and even throughout history.

The first study that W.J. Chopik and K.J. Grimm looked at was the Block and Block

Longitudinal Study from 1968. The study consisted of 107 participants and over 50% of the

partakers were female. The ages collected from this data were 14, 18, and 23, with the ethnic

make-up was “68.3% Caucasian, 24% African American, 4.8% Asian American, and 2.9% other

ethnicities” (Chopik & Grimm, 2019).

The next study Chopik and Grimm examined was the Intergenerational Studies

comprised of 354 individuals and this study consisted of a 53.7% female participants. The

Intergenerational Study was an umbrella study, combining studies from Berkeley Guidance

Study, Oakland Growth Study, and Berkeley Growth Study (Chopik & Grimm, 2019). The three

studies spanned from the years of 1920’s to the 1930’s. The Berkeley Guidance and Growth

Studies collected samples from infants babies in the years spanning from 1928 to 1929, while the

Oakland Growth Study began in 1932 and sampled children in fifth and sixth grade classes.

Participants from the Berkeley Growth and Oakland Growth Study were all Caucasian and only

3% from the Guidance Study were African American.

The third study was from Mills Longitudinal Study conducted in the years of 1958 to

1960. There were 112 participants from the senior class at Mills College in Oakland, California

ranging from ages 21 to 43. The study was predominately composed of Caucasians, while the

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accurate percent of other racial/ ethnic groups were not available. Over 60% of the participants

had earned a certificate or graduate-level education (Chopik & Grimm, 2019).

The last study Chopik and Grimm examined was the Radcliffe College Class of 1964. All

176 participants were female and was collected from Radcliffe College in Cambridge,

Massachusetts. The ages collected from the study were between 42 and 72 and all but one

woman was European American (Chopik & Grimm, 2019). Over 80% of the woman from this

sample had completed a selection of graduate-level education. A combination of the samples

concluded that the average age being sampled was 39 years, over 70% were female, and there

were over 2,282 observations conducted.

In order for Grimm and Chopik to examine whether or not narcissism changes throughout

our life span, they used a growth curve model in the SPSS Mixed command, which was

comprised of hypersensitivity, willfulness, and autonomy. This allowed them to model

intraindividual changes and moderators of these changes (Chopik & Grimm, 2019). Their theory

of if birth cohorts changed in narcissism was addressed in three ways. The first birth cohort was

examining the differences between an exploratory fashion in the context multicultural models.

The second was a contrast between historical time and narcissism while controlling the age. The

final way was to look at birth year differences in other geographical location to spot a detailed

pattern of historical changes in narcissism (Chopik & Grimm, 2019).

As a final result the ages examined for changes in narcissism were from 13 to 77.

Subsequently the results of the analysis were, hypersensitivity was declining across our life span,

mainly seen after the age of 40. Willfulness was declining across our life span, were men are

higher in willfulness than women. “Decomposing this interaction revealed that women

experienced the greatest declines in willfulness during young adulthood; men experienced slight

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increases in willfulness early in the life span before declining in later life” (Chopik & Grimm,

2019). Results of autonomy was increasing over our life span. “Decomposing this interaction

revealed that women had sharper increases in autonomy across the life span, especially after

middle age, albeit this effect was small” (Chopik & Grimm, 2019).

Grimm and Chopik found that while hypersensitivity and willfulness declined through

life and autonomy increased, they did find that later born cohorts were lower in hypersensitivity

and higher in autonomy, which is agreeable to their theory of narcissism changing throughout

history. “Because gender was associated with narcissism in the current study and in past work,

we concluded it as a covariate and moderating variable of age-related changes in narcissism”

(Chopik & Grimm, 2019). In Chopik’s and Grimm’s updated study there was no consistent or no

variables to operationalize changes in the variables, which left them with simply informative data

on how narcissism can change.

For the future, I would like to see a more recent study and a better ethnical range, age

range, location range, and how the participants grew up. I think a big part of narcissism can come

from how a person grew up and where the person grew up. With autonomy increasing, people

high in autonomy might live in environments that are beneficial to supporting their lifestyle and

have less changes of someone dulling their positions. From my standpoint, if researchers

examined and restudied this theory, they might find some surprising results. We live in the most

advanced time and I can only assume that narcissism has only grown with the progression of

social media.

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Component 3

Theory 1: Nature-Nurture theory

There is a saying out there that some masterminds, whether that be a musician, an artist,

an athlete, or a politician, are “born, not made”. In some ways that leads true, but our DNA

imprints significantly holds what our personalities and even our talents will be. Nevertheless,

some of these traits we not “born” in us, but can be created in us.

Narcissism may be an outcome from the complex interactions between genes and the

environment. The thinking goes that people contrast in their genetic make-up and have a grander

or minor potential to become narcissistic. However, environmental aspects can help influence the

expression of narcissistic tendencies. From this outlook, people who are genetically susceptible

to narcissism will change if, for example, they are raised in a surrounding in which their

caregivers lack sensitivity. People who naturally lean toward confidence or liveliness will

become narcissistic if their caregivers are not in tune to their needs.

Narcissism is based on two beliefs attributed to infants, omnipotence and limitlessness

(Carlson, Vazire, & Oltmanns, 2011). Before birth, we use up the better part of our first year

living in an environment intended to accommodate to our every need. This provides our first year

of life with everything a developing person needs and then we are advanced out of this safe

space, that was created of us, into a world that is extremely different from what we had

previously known before. At no other time in life can the strength or the shortcomings of a

person have so much influence as when a caregiver takes on the role of the sole role model to a

child solely dependent on them for their very need.

A baby cries and their needs are met. With time, babies learn that a quick response may

not come, but that their caregivers will attend to them gradually as seen fit for the situation. This

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cycle can create a bond of trust and acknowledgment between the caregiver and the baby

(Carlson, Vazire, & Oltmanns, 2011). This is healthy and crucial for the development of a healthy

self-worth and the ability to engross in a mutually pleasing adult relationships.

We learn that omnipotence, unlimited or great power, is impossible and that we face

personal limits in our relationships. We are able to recognize that we need others to meet our

needs and that our behaviors must conform to the situations that we are in, in order to getting our

desires met. This is about creating a balance of separateness, togetherness, and mutual support. It

sounds simple, but narcissists have put up solid walls that protect them from absorbing these

realities.

Admittedly, it can be crushing to even the most emotionally well-balanced person to

suddenly be in charge for the survival of another. Some people, however, cannot rise to the

challenge due to the limits of their own emotional development. Thus, when an infant is unable

to develop trust and to accept that her caregiver will meet their needs, unpleasant consequences

can result. Without learning about the limits of power and control within a healthy early

relationship, the desire to control others and command the disbanding of another’s personal

boundaries circumscribes can hinder their efforts at developing successful relationships in

adulthood.

It seems that excessive praise and excessive criticism can both cause a child to develop

narcissistic personality traits once they reach adulthood. “Some people seem to model the

attitudes and behavior of narcissistic parents, while still others react to childhood neglect by

becoming very self-centered and independent in adulthood” (The Ranch, 2017). Mental health

professionals who analyze narcissistic personality disorder causes are unanimous in concluding

that genetics, parental exposures, and other environmental influences combine to produce adults

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who exhibit narcissistic personality characteristics. Erik Turkheimer stated that it is difficult to

find clear-cut answers to the nature-nurture because it takes researchers back to the bigger

question of relationships with the natural world (Turkheimer, 2020). People may be born with

certain predispositions to narcissism, but if they have stable and happy childhoods those potential

traits are far less likely to manifest.

The latest lifespan-based research based on Grimm’s and Chopik’s research on how

narcissism changes from adolescence to older adulthood is noteworthy because, unlike a large

amount of studies on narcissism, Grimm and Chopik did not rely on cross-sectional samples,

which only offer a snapshot of narcissism over a short period of time. Which can only lead me to

believing that the number is much greater than what their research shows us.

Theory 2: Psychoanalytic theories

The psychodynamic model of narcissism is led by two overlapping sets of thought, the

self-psychology school and the object relations school (Narcissism: Psychological Disorder,

Theories, Treatment, n.d.). The self-psychology school suggests that narcissism is a component

of everyone’s psyche. We are all born as narcissists and gradually as we grow up to adults,

narcissism matures into a healthy adult narcissism.

A narcissistic disorder results when this process is somehow interrupted. “By contrast the

object relations school argues that narcissism does not result from the arrest of the normal

maturation of infantile narcissism, rather a narcissism represents a fixation in one of the

developmental periods of childhood” (Narcissism: Psychological Disorder, Theories, Treatment,

n.d.). Specifically, the narcissist is fixated at a developmental stage in which the differentiation

between the self and others is blurred.

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Freud believed that early childhood experiences held high importance on the

development of personality and that analyzing the harms of the past could unlock a person’s

development later in their life (Thompson, 2019). We have seen time and time again that parents

spoil their children and trying to mold the child into someone that the parent could not be. In this

regard, this is making the child responsible for the frustrations and the deepest desires of the

parent’s ego. That is why when Freud talked about the unconscious mind, narcissism and

projections, the parents love becomes more of a love for themselves and how they believe they

were as a child or how they wished they would have been. To the child, this is seen as a normal

loving relationship, they do not know any different.

The father or mother who projects narcissistic tendencies onto their child does not want

their son or daughter to lack what they longed for or desired. In turn, they see in their children

the perfect representation of their ideal self. It is possible that the narcissism that the parent is

unconscious or that at least the parent never explicitly responses on this behavior.

In some scenarios, children may reflect these tendencies in different ways. Sometimes,

they assume the roles that were “assigned” to them, generating disorders that affect them later in

life, and which will make them rebel later because they feel abandoned.

As a result, insecurity in one’s own worth and agency arises. Insecure attachment to a

parental figure can hinder the child to properly navigate through the perilous waters of early

childhood development (Epstein Mind, 2019). The child’s mind will start to feel shame for the

pain they are suffering from. The shameful feelings display an issue with shortage which the

child will struggle to fight off. These feelings of low self-worth torture the child deserting them

feeling “wrong.” The feelings of shame, guilt, and isolation leave them feeling like an outcast as

no one can seemingly relate to their struggle and force them into a very self-protective position.

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This feeling of abandonment is due to the unassuming reason that the relationship between the

child and the parent does not exist. In this regard, the child can set in motion of controlling

others.

Theory 3: Trait Theory of Personality

Narcissistic personality is characterized as showing an overwhelming need for admiration

and attention, lacking empathy, and feelings of grandness (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, n.d.).

Narcissists tend to make friends quickly, but they will have an extremely hard time keeping these

friendships due to the fact that they think they are never wrong. Narcissists tend to be attracted to

leadership positions and it is likely that these characteristics that facilitate a narcissistic

individual can be a leader, which could potentially lead to being a destructive leader. Narcissistic

predispositions make it unlikely that narcissists will successfully engage in leader development.

Narcissists tend to be sensitive to criticism, so having someone with narcissism associated with

a leader position can lead to resistance.

Another important element of leader development is that it serves as an opportunity to

develop common assets, principals, and investments, within the organization. It could be possible

that a strong narcissistic personality in the program could hinder the developmental progress of

other program participants. In general, narcissists tend to exploit others to make themselves look

better and react with rage when favors are not returned (Mayo Clinic, 2017). They feel

threatened by the success of others and tend to collect knowledge that may build another

person’s success. “In the workplace, narcissism is combined with counterproductive work

behaviors and past research indicates a relationship between narcissism and supervisor ratings of

interpersonal performance” (Senior, 2019).

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Although there is little research examining the relationship between narcissism and leader

development outcomes, there is at least some evidence that narcissism and similar tendencies

decrease the effectiveness of leader development. There have been observations on the impact of

several dark triad traits, including narcissism, on leader development outcomes. In these

observations, is was theorized that narcissism would reduce the effectiveness of leadership

development, but instead it was found that traits connected to narcissism were confidently related

to leadership development outcomes.

Narcissists also appear to be socially effective due to their charm and personality.

Narcissism might represent alternative routes to social effectiveness with one being beneficial

and the other one being selfish. There is evidence to suggest that humans have evolved a number

of alternative strategies for success in life, and that each of these has its own advantages and

disadvantages. Selfish approaches tend to create resentment in other people, but people with

sharp social influence skills might still be successful in getting ahead in spite of causing

problems for other people.

The underlying basis of personality most likely consists of a number of different

dimensions that combine in a mixture of ways, rather than a specific super-factor with good and

bad extremes. Hence, multidimensional personality models such as the interpersonal circumplex

and the Big Five, which allow for a bigger variety of trait combinations, seem to provide a better

account of complex traits such as narcissism than a one-dimensional general factor of

personality.

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Component 4

Personal Reflection

One of the main reasons I chose to research narcissism is because I work with at my job,

is starting to show more and more signs of having Narcissistic Personality Disorder. There has

been a lot of situations lately to where he has done things, said things, or the lack of emotion for

his wrong doing is becoming blatantly obvious. I have written a well papers in the Psychology

classes I have taken and all of the topics have been something that I have previously searched

and knew about. With this paper, I wanted to challenge myself about something I knew very little

about. So, when I was asking another teacher about topics to write about, she had mention that I

write about narcissism because of the kid that we work with.

So, to touch a little bit on the background of the boy that we help, let’s call him Chase,

for beginners Chase is on an IEP, which stands for Individualized Education Program. There are

a number of reasons on why a child may be placed on an IEP, but for Chase’s reasoning is simply

because he has annual goals he needs to meet along with daily goals. One of Chase’s daily goals

is his attitude towards the teachers and participating in classroom activities. From speculations, it

has been said that his father has never been present at any of the progress meetings to do with

Chase. A few of the faculty members have met his dad and have said that there is something off

putting about his dad and that they think they know where Chase may get a majority of his traits

from. But again, that is only speculation.

Subsequently, the lack of knowledge about narcissism is what lead me to writing my final

project. Upon learning only having a basic knowledge about NPD, I did not know what I was

going to learn and I did not have a certain view about people with NPD. My basic knowledge

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about narcissism was just that they thought very high of themselves and would stop at nothing to

get what they thought they deserved. Though, what I learned was so much more than that.

For people many people they may not know that narcissism is on the rise and that raising

the future generation by nurturing them and morphing them into someone who we wished we

were and how we acted, can cause a rippling affect into how parents and caregivers can be one of

the main causes of narcissism on the rise. Whenever we, me and the sixth grade IEP coordinator,

have talked to Chase about foraging signatures, late assignments, and stealing items, you can

absolutely see it in his face for lack of owning up to what he has done and he will always have

something to say to try and make it seem like it was not him that was doing these things. He a

lack of empathy for doing anything wrong and will not own up to what he has done. After

looking in depth about NPD, his behaviors are textbook, and it is scary to see how advanced this

is for his age.

Sometimes, I do feel bad about getting onto Chase because I do speculate that there is

something more going on at home. It truly does look like he wants to try and be a better person,

but just when you think you are making a break through, he does something or says something

that leads you to believe that it is just a cover. Chase is truly a bright kid, wants to tell stories,

and have more friends, but once you peel away that mask little by little, you begin to see who he

really is. It is truly heartbreaking and I want to show him that I am hear for him, but how can you

do that when you are working with someone who is probably just going to use you to get what

they want?

I expressed earlier that I did not have much of an opinion on narcissism, but know after

doing some research, it is most defienetly concerning. I feel like interacting with a military

community has opened up my eyes and actually makes me wonder if military kids living

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overseas are a little bit more narcissistic at the school age level than kids having never moved

around and going to the same school for their whole life. Helping the kids at the school, and

thinking back on some of what they have all said makes me a little more interesting in seeing

how advanced narcissism has become since some of the later studies. I do realize that all humans

can be a bit narcissistic at times, but I do question if the advancement of technology can or has

played a role on the evolution of narcissism.

Cell phones enable teens to constantly continue contact with peers, and block out

interactions with those they do not want to be in contact with. This progression may distance

teens even further from people and obstruct the process of developing healthy empathy and a

feeling of involvement in a larger community. Right at the moment in human development when

we are supposed to grow up and face reality, mobile phones, tablets, iPads, laptops, and online

gaming may shield us from us creating a healthy relationship with others.

Social networks say that they are means for a way to stay in touch, but they are creating

us to become more anti-social, by relying on the digital connection to able us to talk to someone

rather than face-to-face. If you think about it, the main benefit is limiting out interaction talents.

Thousands of different kinds of websites, from YouTube, to the news article that we read are

allowing everyone to post any sort of comment and “socialize” with other people. But only social

networks enable us to create a me-centered private club, which is what narcissistic If new

technology really does promote narcissism, then younger people would be more narcissistic

thrive off of. They can make their social media look like they live the perfect life. They have the

best job, best relationship, have money, can do what they want when they want, and most

importantly nothing is wrong in their life.

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I think the most concerning thing about the evolution of narcissism is we do not know

exactly how advanced it has become. I would like to think that our advances in technology have

little …


PSYC 335 Applied Personality Project Instructions


DUE: WEEK 7

 Assignment Guidelines

 Prepare your assignment according to the following guidelines:

· Structure your assignment utilizing 
APA style
; this includes title page, heading, subheadings, in-text citations, reference page, and general paper format (1-inch margins, double-spaced, 12-point font, etc.). An abstract is not required.  (Excellent guidance on utilizing APA style can be found in our classroom’s Course Resources -> 


Writing Resources


.)  

· Submit as a single document (do not submit each component of the paper separately) in either Microsoft Word, PDF, or RTF format.

· Utilize the following subheadings to organize the body of your paper:

· Summary and Analysis

· Research Application

· Personality Theory

· Theory 1: (name the theory)

· Theory 2: (name the theory)

· Theory 3: (name the theory)

· Personal Reflection

· Include three to five references (one should be the research article utilized in your analysis).

· Your final paper should be approximately 13 to 16 pages:

· Title page (1 page)

· Body of paper

· Summary and Analysis (2 pages)

· Research Application (3 pages)

· Personality Theory

· Theory 1 (1-2 pages)

· Theory 2 (1-2 pages)

· Theory 3 (1-2 pages)

· Personal Reflection (3 pages)

· Reference page (1 page)

 The Applied Personality Project requires you to critically analyze personality information found in the popular media in relation to empirical research, personality theory, and your own life. You will demonstrate that you are an intelligent consumer of personality research and can think critically about personality theory, assessment, and research in relation to your daily life.

The Applied Personality Project consists of four components:

Component 1:  Summary and Analysis of Popular Media Article or Current Event

You will start by locating a popular media article, video or current event that is relevant to personality psychology. Relevant topics may include personality theory, assessment, use of assessment results, personality disorders, or personality research. Your article or current event must have been published (or occurred) within the last six months. For this component of the assignment, you will use information found in the popular media. This includes articles or events distributed via social media, blogs, videos (e.g., Ted Talks), television shows, newspaper reports, magazines, and similar sources.

For example, the LA Times published a report of identical triplets separated at birth in a secret psychology study to understand the relative influence of nature and nurture in personality development (“The surreal, sad story behind the acclaimed new documentary, ‘Three Identical Strangers’”: 
https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/la-et-mn-three-identical-strangers-documentary-20180702-story.html
). An article such as this would be appropriate for your target article/event.

Provide a two-page summary and analysis of the article/event that addresses the following questions:

· What is the focus of the article/event?

· Why is this article/event relevant now?

· What is the relationship between this article/event and personality psychology?

· What are the key conclusions, questions, or issues relevant to this article/event?

· What questions remain unanswered in relationship to this article/event?

Your summary and analysis should be written as a coherent essay (do not format as a list of answers to these questions). You may include additional insights in your analysis, but you must address these key issues. In addition, you must provide a hyperlink to the article/event that you are focusing on; if the article/event is not online, you must provide a complete citation so that the instructor can view your article/event.

Component 2:  Research Article Application

The next step is to find an 
empirical, primary-source journal article
 that is directly relevant to your article/event. Empirical, primary-source articles are original reports of research published in scholarly journals (such as the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology). You will use the 
UMGC library
 database to find primary-source, empirical research. To find a relevant article, you will use personality terms, ideas or theories discussed in your article/event as key words in your library database search. It is your responsibility to make sure that the journal article you select is appropriate. If you are unsure about the relevance of your article, contact your instructor for approval.  Articles must meet the following criteria:

·
Primary research 
– Articles should report the results of an original research study (no meta-analyses, summaries, editorials or theoretical articles).

·
Refereed
 – Articles must come from peer-reviewed journals found in the UMGC library.

·
Personality focus
 – Articles must be relevant to personality psychology.

·
Recent 
– Articles must have been published within the last 10 years.

For example, the following would be a relevant primary-source, empirical journal article for investigating Five-Factor Model traits as predictors of stress experience.  

Zacher, H., & Rudolph, C. W. (2021). Big Five traits as predictors of perceived stressfulness of the COVID-19 pandemic. Personality and Individual Differences175, Article e110694.  
https://doi-org.ezproxy.umgc.edu/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110694

Write a three-page summary, analysis, and application of the journal article that addresses the following questions:

· What is the purpose of this research?

· How did the researchers investigate their research question?

· Are the conclusions of the study appropriate? Has the author overemphasized or under-emphasized any findings?

· What are the key strengths and weaknesses of this study?

· How does this research add to our understanding of personality or personality theory?

· How does this study inform your popular article/event?

· Do the conclusions of this research align with the message of your article/event?

Your summary, analysis, and application should be written as a coherent essay (do not format as a list of answers to these questions). You may include additional insights in your analysis, but you must address these key issues.

Component 3:  Connection to Personality Theory

The third step is to analyze your popular article/event in relation to three different theories that we explored throughout the course. For each theory, you will want to explore the relevance (or lack thereof) for understanding your article/event.

Write a one- to two-page analysis for each of your three theories that includes the following information:

· Brief overview of theory (up to two paragraphs with appropriate citations)

· Discussion of how the theory either supports and explains your article/event OR how the theory offers an alternate understanding of your article/event

· Analysis of the value of the theory for understanding personality in the context of your article/event

 Component 4:  Personal Relevance

The last step is to reflect upon the popular article/event, research, and personality theory in relation to your own life.

Write a three-page reflection and analysis that addresses the following questions:

· How is the material in this article/event relevant to your life?

· What can you learn from the personality theories or research relevant to this article/event?

· Does the article/event or research challenge any of your old opinions? Or does it challenge you to form any new opinions?

· How can you apply what you have learned about personality research or theory to better understand your life? What is the practical value to understanding personality research or theory?

· What concerns do you have about the article/event, personality research, or personality theory?

Your reflections should be written as a coherent essay (do not format as a list of answers to these questions). You may include additional insights in your reflection, but you must address these key issues.  

Review the scoring criteria set forth in the accompanying rubric.  This will further facilitate your understanding of expectations for successful assignment completion.