+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

Weissert, W. G. & Weissert, C. S. (2019). Governing health: The politics of health policy (5th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN- 9781421428949

[email protected]


Chapter 6

For this module, read the following:

 Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation. (n.d.). Innovation models. Retrieved from 


In this assignment, you will create a well-structured and detailed Policy Memo that explains and assesses the advantages and challenges of (1) one of the three emerging organizational structures and payment reform approaches featured in this module

1. Accountable Care Organization (ACO’s)

2. Patient-Centered Medical Homes (PCMH’s)

3. Bundled Payment (BP’s)

Your paper must be about 1,500 words minimum and draw upon and cite at least 3-4 high-quality references not included in the Module 3 reading list.

In the paper (Policy Memo), please relate the organizational structures or payment approach to the Saint Leo University core value of COMMUNITY.



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2021 – 2022

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 B29. PETS






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Saint Leo University offers a practical, effective model for life and leadership in a challenging world. As such our

community has adopted six steadfast moral guidelines to help us recognize the dignity, value, and gifts of all people.

We expect all members of our community to use and embrace the following values in their day-to-day lives in order to

strengthen our commitment to each other, our University, and to God.

Excellence – Saint Leo University is an educational enterprise. All of us, individually and collectively, work hard to

ensure that our students develop the character, learn the skills, and assimilate the knowledge essential to become

morally responsible leaders. The success of our University depends upon a conscientious commitment to our mission,

vision, and goals.

Community – Saint Leo University develops hospitable Christian learning communities everywhere we serve. We

foster a spirit of belonging, unity, and interdependence based on mutual trust and respect to create socially responsible

environments that challenge all of us to listen, to learn, to change, and to serve.

Respect – Animated in the spirit of Jesus Christ, we value all individuals’ unique talents, respect their dignity, and

strive to foster their commitment to excellence in our work. Our community’s strength depends on the unity and

diversity of our people, on the free exchange of ideas, and on learning, living and working harmoniously.

Personal Development – Saint Leo University stresses the development of every person’s mind, spirit, and body for a

balanced life. All members of the Saint Leo University community must demonstrate their commitment to personal

development to help strengthen the character of our community.

Responsible Stewardship – Our creator blesses us with an abundance of resources. We foster a spirit of service to

employ our resources to university and community development. We must be resourceful. We must optimize and apply

all of the resources of our community to fulfill Saint Leo University’s mission and goals.

Integrity – The commitment of Saint Leo University to excellence demands that its members live its mission and

deliver on its promise. The faculty, staff, and students pledge to be honest, just, and consistent in word and deed.


Saint Leo University has a strong commitment to principles of equal employment opportunity and equal access to

education. Saint Leo University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, ethnic origin, genetic

information, sex, gender, nationality, race, religion, or veteran status, or any other category protected by federal, state,

or local law in its educational programs, admissions policies, financial aid, employment, or other school administered


For the most up-to-date EEO Statement, please visit saintleo.edu/notice-non-discrimination.

The policy is enforced by Saint Leo University and by applicable laws such as Title IX of the Education Amendments

of 1972, Title VII and Title IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973,

Americans with Disabilities Act, Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992.

Contact Information for the Title IX Coordinator:

Name: Vanessa O’Connell

Title: Title IX Coordinator and HR Investigator

Office Location: Benedictine Hall, 3rd Floor room (by appointment only)

Email Address: [email protected] and [email protected]

Telephone Number: (352) 588-8406

Mailing Address: Saint Leo University Human Resources

ATTN: Vanessa O’Connell, Title IX Coordinator,

33701 SR 52, PO Box 6665, Saint Leo, FL 33574

The Director of Accessibility Services and The Section 504 Coordinator, Michael Bailey, may be contacted at

[email protected]

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When this document went to publication (Last Revised: August 2021), all the information contained in it was updated.

Since this document is prepared in advance of the academic year, changes may be necessary. If this occurs, students

will be notified electronically and the online version will be updated on the University website. Students are

encouraged to reference the online version (saintleo.edu/codeofconduct) for the most up-to-date information.

Students at Saint Leo University are provided a copy of the Student Code of Conduct annually in the form of a link on

the Saint Leo University website. Hard copies for University Campus undergraduate students are available upon

request from the Residence Life Office. Students are responsible for having read and abiding by the provisions of the

Student Code of Conduct.


A. Absentia – Refers to holding a conduct meeting in the absence of student due to the student’s failure to

schedule a conduct meeting or to the student missing the scheduled conduct meeting on the student’s behalf.

B. Advisor – Most frequently, a full-time faculty or staff member, assists a student by providing support

throughout the conduct process. With prior permission of the Conduct Officer, legal counsel or family

member(s) may be granted permission to attend the conduct meeting but not actively participate and/or

represent the student in the process.

C. Appellate Officer – Means any person authorized by the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs or

designee to consider an appeal from a Conduct Officer’s determination that a student has violated University

policy, procedure, or other reasonable expectations or from sanctions imposed as a result of a Conduct

Officer’s determination.

D. Clery Act – Refers to the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics

Act. This act is the landmark federal law that requires colleges and universities across the United States to

disclose information about crime on and around their campuses.

E. Complainant(s) – Defined as the party who makes a complaint through a university proceeding.

F. Conduct Officer – The University official designated on a case-by-case basis by the Associate Vice President

for Student Affairs or designee to conduct investigations and make determinations about possible infractions.

Nothing prevents the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs or designee from authorizing the same

Conduct Officer to impose sanctions in all cases.

G. E-mail – Refers to the official University E-mail address provided to each student. The University uses E-

mail to conduct official business and, therefore, E-mail containing official business of the University shall be

addressed to the student’s official University E-mail address and shall not be addressed to alternative

addresses. Once E-mailed, such notice is considered delivered.

H. FERPA – Refers to a federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. “FERPA” stands for

the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (sometimes called the Buckley Amendment).

I. Member of the University community – Includes any person who is a student, staff member, faculty member,

or University official.

J. Organization – Means any athletic team, service organization/trip or any group/association of persons who

have complied with the formal registration requirements for the University, as applicable, or any group that

has been recognized by the University as a part of the University’s organization or programming.

K. Policy – Defined as the written regulations of the University as found in, but not limited to, the Student Code

of Conduct, Guides to Residential Living, Other Policies and Procedures, and the Academic Catalog.

L. Preponderance of the evidence – Defined as “more likely than not that an event occurred” and is the standard

used to make decisions in the conduct process in all cases.

M. Residence hall – Defined as any University owned/operated/leased student housing facility.

N. Respondent(s) – Defined as the party who gives response to a complaint in a university proceeding.

O. Student – Defined as any person who is admitted and enrolled at Saint Leo University (University Campus,

Undergraduate, Graduate, Online, and Educational Centers) for any academic period. Persons who are not

officially registered for a particular term but who have a continuing student relationship with Saint Leo

University are considered “students” for purposes of applying this Student Code of Conduct. A person is also

considered a student for purposes of this Student Code of Conduct during any period while the student is

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under suspension from the University or when the person is attending or participating in any activity

preparatory to the beginning of school.

P. Title IX – Refers to a comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any

federally funded education program or activity, as defined in the Title IX Sexual Harassment Grievance


Q. University – Means Saint Leo University (University Campus, Undergraduate, Graduate, Online, and

Educational Centers).

R. University official – Includes any person employed or appointed by the University, performing assigned

administrative or professional responsibilities. This includes but is not limited to a student staff member(s)

acting on behalf of the Division of Student Affairs.

S. University premises – Includes all land, buildings, facilities, web-based platforms, and other property in the

possession of or owned, used, or controlled by the University, or as defined by Clery Act geography.



The Saint Leo University community is committed to fostering a campus environment conducive to academic inquiry,

a productive campus life, and thoughtful study and discourse. The student conduct program within Student Affairs is

committed to an educational and developmental process that balances the interests of individual students with the

interests of the University community.

A community exists on the basis of shared values and principles. At Saint Leo University, student members of the

community are expected to uphold and abide by certain standards of conduct that form the basis of the Student Code of

Conduct. These standards are embodied within a set of core values that include excellence, community, respect,

personal development, responsible stewardship, and integrity.

Members of the Saint Leo University community bear responsibility for their conduct and assume reasonable

responsibility for the behavior of others. When members of the community fail to exemplify these six core values by

engaging in violation of the rules below, campus conduct proceedings are used to assert and uphold the Student Code

of Conduct.

The student conduct process at Saint Leo University is not intended to punish students; rather, it exists to protect the

interests of the community and to challenge those whose behavior is not in accordance with our policies and the core

values. Sanctions are intended to challenge students’ moral and ethical decision-making and to help them bring their

behavior into accord with our community expectations. When students are unable to conform their behavior to

community expectations, the student conduct process may determine that the student(s) should no longer share in the

privilege of participating in this community.

Students should be aware that the student conduct process is quite different from criminal and civil court proceedings

and the University’s Title IX process. Procedures and rights in student conduct procedures are conducted with fairness

to all, but do not include the same protections of due process afforded by the courts or Title IX process. Due process, as

defined within these procedures, assures written notice and a conduct meeting before an objective Conduct Officer who

will make a decision based on the preponderance of the evidence or more likely than not standard. No student will be

found in violation of Saint Leo University policy without information showing that a policy violation occurred. Any

sanctions given will be proportionate to the severity of the violation and to the student’s cumulative conduct history

A. Amnesty

In line with the University’s core value of responsible stewardship, the University maintains an amnesty

policy to protect students (including student organizations) when reporting themselves, friends, or another

member of the University community who is in medical distress. The University has the amnesty policy in

place to encourage students to act responsibly and report emergencies without fear of University-imposed

disciplinary consequences because its primary concern is the health, safety, and well-being of students.

Students who qualify for the following two options (i and ii) may be required to participate in a meeting with

the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs or designee and comply with any/all recommendations

prescribed from them (including any associated costs with those recommendations) to avoid going through

the University Conduct process.

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i. For the Reporting Party
Saint Leo University provides amnesty to the reporting party who may be hesitant to report serious

violations of the Student Code of Conduct to University Officials because they fear that they

themselves may be accused of minor policy violations at the time of the incident. For example, this

would apply to students who are reporting physical abuse, but who have also engaged in underage

alcohol consumption and/or substance use. Educational options will be explored, but no conduct

proceedings or conduct record will result. Records regarding the provision of amnesty, however,

will be maintained.

ii. For Those Who Offer Assistance
To encourage students to offer help and assistance to others, Saint Leo University pursues a policy

of amnesty for minor violations when students offer help to others in need. At the discretion of the

Associate Vice President for Student Affairs or designee, amnesty may also be extended on a case-

by-case basis to the person receiving assistance. Educational options will be explored, but no

conduct proceedings or conduct record will result. Records regarding the provision of amnesty,

however, will be maintained.

The protocol applies only to the Saint Leo University Student Code of Conduct. Law enforcement agencies

may act within their jurisdictions in enforcing the laws enacted by the State of Florida, the United States, or

any other state or nation where jurisdiction may be invoked.

This policy does not apply to other prohibited behavior including, but not limited to, the distribution of illegal

substances, sexual misconduct, or abuse.

B. Disciplinary Records
All conduct records are maintained by the University for seven (7) years from the time of their creation except

those that result in separation (suspension or expulsion, including from housing) and those that fall under Title

IX, which are maintained for a minimum of seven (7) years. Students requesting access to their student

disciplinary/conduct records(s) must do so in writing to the Office of Residence Life. A student may, upon

graduation or permanent separation, submit a written request to the Associate Vice President for Student

Affairs, asking that minor disciplinary actions may be expunged. The decision of the Associate Vice President

or designee for Student Affairs is final.

This policy is subject to the provisions of FERPA.


The Student Code of Conduct and the student conduct process applies to the conduct of individual students, as well as

all University-affiliated student organizations. The Associate Vice President of Student Affairs or designee will serve

as convener and executer of the Student Code of Conduct and retains conduct jurisdiction over students who choose to

take a leave of absence, withdraw, or have graduated for any misconduct that occurred prior to the leave, withdrawal or

graduation. If sanctioned, a hold may be placed on the student’s ability to re-enroll, obtain official transcripts, and/or

graduate; all sanctions must be satisfied prior to re-enrollment, obtaining transcripts, and graduating. In the event of

serious misconduct committed while still enrolled but reported after the respondent(s) has graduated, Saint Leo

University may invoke an investigation that may result in the revocation of that student’s degree.

Although the University is not responsible or liable for student off campus events or behavior, it does reserve the right

to respond to behavior off campus that violates University expectations, Core Values, and Policies, in the interest of

protecting students and the academic community from harm, and as part of fulfilling its educational mission. The

University will take action if the continued presence of the student presents a danger to the health, safety, or welfare of

the University Community, or it is disruptive to the orderly processes and functions of the University.

University policies and other expectations govern students participating in Saint Leo University or Saint Leo

University-affiliated study abroad programs or other University-sponsored activities no matter where they occur.

The Student Code of Conduct may be applied to behavior conducted online, via E-mail or other electronic medium.

Students should also be aware that online postings such as blogs, web postings, chats, and social networking sites are in

the public sphere and are not private. These postings can subject a student to allegations of conduct violations if

information about policy violations is posted online. Saint Leo University does not regularly search for this information

but may take action if and when such information is brought to the attention of Saint Leo University officials.

However, most online speech by students not involving Saint Leo University networks or technology will be protected

Last Updated August 2021 7

as free expression and not subject to this Student Code of Conduct, with notable exceptions including, but not limited


A. A true threat, defined as “a threat a reasonable person would interpret as a serious expression of intent to
inflict bodily harm upon specific individuals”;

B. Speech posted online about the University or its community members that causes a significant on campus

C. Speech that the University determines is offensive and not in accordance with the University’s core values.

The Student Code of Conduct applies to guests of community members whose hosts may be held accountable for the

misconduct of their guests. The Student Code of Conduct may also be applied to resident non-students, including, but

not limited to: campers, high school bridge program participants, recruits on official visits, and continuing education

programs by contractual agreements. Visitors to and guests of Saint Leo University may seek resolution of violations of

the Student Code of Conduct committed against them by Saint Leo University student community members.

There is no time limit on reporting violations of the Student Code of Conduct; however, the longer someone waits to

report an offense, the harder it becomes for Saint Leo University officials to obtain information, witness statements and

to make determinations regarding alleged violations.

Though anonymous complaints are permitted, doing so may limit the Saint Leo University’s ability to investigate and

respond to a complaint. Those who are aware of misconduct are encouraged to report it as quickly as possible to

University Safety, Residence Life, and/or to Student Affairs.

Students who withdraw or take a leave of absence/hiatus from the University prior to their conduct meeting will have

their case suspended and a Student Affairs Hold will be placed on their account until the matter is resolved. Students

who withdraw or take a leave of absence/hiatus from the University after the date stated in the letter to schedule a

conduct meeting will have the case heard in absentia if they fail to appear. If the student withdraws following the

conduct meeting, the student will be subject to the findings and sanctions imposed from the process. Should the student

decide to return to the University, the student will be required to have the conduct meeting and/or complete all

sanctions assigned (if found responsible for alleged violations) prior to the Student Affairs Hold being removed from

the student’s account. Please note that this Student Affairs Hold may prevent a student from receiving a transcript in the

event that the student is attempting to transfer or graduate.

Saint Leo University-issued E-mail is the primary means of communication with students. Students are responsible for

all communication delivered to their Saint Leo University-issued E-mail address.


Alleged violations of federal, state and local laws may be investigated and addressed under the Student Code of

Conduct. When an offense occurs over which Saint Leo University has jurisdiction, the Saint Leo University conduct

process will usually go forward notwithstanding any criminal complaint that may arise from the same incident.

Saint Leo University reserves the right to exercise its authority of remedial action upon notification that a student is

facing criminal investigation and/or complaint. Additional grounds for remedial actions are outlined in Section 5A1.

Students are under a continuing duty to report any arrests, pending charge(s) (excluding minor traffic citations), notice

to appear citation(s), or criminal conviction(s), even if the adjudication or sentence has been withheld. This reporting

obligation includes specifying the charge(s), when and where it occurred, and the case number (if any). This

information must be provided in writing (E-mail or letter) to the Associate Vice President or designee within ten (10)

business days following the reportable event as listed above.


A. Core Values and Behavioral Expectations

Saint Leo University considers the behavior described in the following sub-sections as inappropriate for the Saint Leo

University community and in opposition to the core values set forth in this document. Failure to adhere to any

university policy or procedure subjects that person or organization to disciplinary action, including sanctions outlined

in Section 6: Sanctions. Saint Leo University encourages community members to report to Saint Leo University

officials all incidents that involve the following actions.

B. Policies

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B1. ABUSE (Physical, Mental, or Verbal)

Values: Community, Respect, Integrity

Physical, mental, or verbal abuse of any person is prohibited. No student shall cause harm to another or aid in

commission of an act that causes physical or emotional harm to others or which intimidates, degrades, demeans,

threatens, or otherwise unreasonably interferes with another person’s rights or comfort. Please note this encompasses

all means of communication, including but not limited to, electronic and social media.


Values: Excellence, Respect, Integrity

Saint Leo University holds all students to the highest standards of honesty and personal integrity in every phase of their

academic life. All students have a responsibility to uphold the Academic Honor Code by refraining from any form of

academic misconduct, presenting only work that is genuinely their own, and reporting any observed instance of

academic dishonesty to a faculty member. Please consult the Academic Catalog for Academic Policies.

Additional information regarding the Academic Honor Code can be found in the following document:



Values: Community, Respect, Personal Development, Integrity

Excessive drinking and intoxication will not be tolerated. Members of the Saint Leo University community who choose

to drink alcohol irresponsibly will be held responsible for their behavior that occurs while under the influence.

A. Any violation of Florida State laws regarding alcohol will be considered grounds for University disciplinary
action. These include:

i. Possession and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages if under the age of 21 (including alcohol-
based drinks, e.g. FourLoko).

ii. Selling, giving, serving alcoholic beverages, or permitting alcohol to be served to persons under 21.
iii. Misrepresenting or misstating one’s age or using altered identification for the purpose of procuring

alcoholic beverages.

iv. Consuming or possessing open containers of alcoholic beverages including secondary containers,
while in municipal parks, playgrounds, sidewalks, streets, or being found in the state of intoxication

on a street or in a public place. This open container law applies both on and off campus. This

includes the consumption/possession of open alcohol in residence hall corridors, lounges, and any

public areas.

v. Common sources of alcohol, including but not limited to, kegs and party balls (empty or full) are
prohibited, except as outlined in the Social Event Guidelines.

vi. Devices and games designed for the rapid consumption of alcohol or any other substance including,
but not limited to beer pong, water pong, funnels and/or beer bongs are prohibited.

vii. Driving with a blood alcohol level of 0.08% or more.
viii. Possession and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages is strictly prohibited on campus before the

start of classes regardless of age. Campus is considered “dry” for new and returning students during

Orientation/Week of Welcome (fall, spring, summer) and for other students who have been

approved to return early. This includes all approved students participating in extended housing.

B. Students who are over 21 years old may complete and submit a Residence Life Wet Room Agreement that
would allow 21 year old students to consume alcohol within that room.

i. Possession of alcohol and/or alcohol containers within any room/suite that is not authorized to be a
“wet room”, regardless of occupant’s age, constitutes a violation of the University’s alcohol policy.

Note: The University considers students to be in possession of alcoholic beverages if the alcoholic beverages

are located in their assigned residence hall room, personal vehicle, …



[Your Paper’s Title: Title Is Centered and Bold, Three or Four Lines Down from Top]


[Your Name]

[Your Affiliation, e.g. Department of Social Work, Saint Leo University]

[Course Number and Name, e.g. SWK 327: Research Methods for Social Work Practice]

[Your Professor’s Name, e.g. Professor Waddell]

[Assignment Due Date, e.g. January 21, 2020]

Graduate Studies in Business Academic Honesty Statement

My signature entered below constitutes my pledge that all the writing in this document is my own work, except for those portions which are properly documented and cited. I understand and accept the following definition of plagiarism:

1. Plagiarism includes the literal repetition without acknowledgment of the writings of another author. All significant phrases, clauses, or passages in this paper which have been taken directly from source material have been enclosed in quotation marks and acknowledged in the text itself as well as on the Reference page.

2. Plagiarism includes borrowing another’s ideas and representing them as my own.

3. To paraphrase the thoughts of another writer without acknowledgement is plagiarism.

4. Plagiarism also includes inadequate paraphrasing. Paraphrased passages (those put into my own words) have been properly acknowledged in the text and in the references.

5. Plagiarism includes using another person or organization to prepare this paper and then submitting it as my own work.

6. Plagiarism includes resubmitting my own previous work, in whole, or in part for a current assignment without the written consent of the current instructor.

Saint Leo University’s core value of integrity requires that students pledge to be honest, just, and consistent in word and deed. I fully understand what plagiarism is, and I further understand that if plagiarism is detected in my paper, my professor will follow the procedures for academic dishonesty set forth by Saint Leo University, the Donald R. Tapia College of Business and the Graduate Student Handbook.

Student Signature: [Type Full Name Here]

Abstract (if needed) [replace what is provided in brackets]

[According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), “An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the paper” (APA, 2020, p. 38). The
purpose of the Abstract is to summarize the goals, purpose, findings, conclusions, and any recommendations of the essay. The Abstract allows readers to survey the contents of an article quickly and, like a title, it enables persons interested in the document to retrieve it from abstracting and indexing databases. An abstract may range from 150 to 250 words (APA, 2020). The first line of the abstract should not be indented. An abstract may not be required for all papers; adhere to your instructor’s requirements.]

Title of Your Paper [Centered, Bold]

Begin your paper with the introduction on the next double-spaced line after the title. Do not label the introduction. The introduction serves a very important purpose in an academic paper. The introduction frames the issue being studied; it engages the reader, sets the tone for the essay, and explains the topic or the problem the essay explores. The introduction should also conclude with a clear thesis statement which explains the purpose and focus of the essay (APA, 2020, p. 75).

Remember to indent the first line of all paragraphs by 1/2 inch. The seventh edition of the APA manual advises one character space between sentences (APA, 2020, p. 154).

When writing in APA style, you have two choices for in-text citations: narrative citations or parenthetical citations. According to a fictitious book by Harding and Jiménez (2020), a narrative citation occurs when you include “authors’ names as part of your sentence” (p. 24). Furthermore, Harding and Jiménez (2020) explain that you only need to provide a page number at the end of a narrative citation when directly quoting from the source. If the authors’ names do not appear in your sentence, you will use a “parenthetical citation” (Harding & Jiménez, 2020, p. 24). Similar to the above example, you only need to include a page number when quoting the authors’ original words (Harding & Jiménez, 2020). The APA manual summarizes these rules and related concepts on pp. 261-264.

All Headings Are Bold and Written in Title Case (Level 1, Bold, Centered)

The heading immediately following the introduction should be a Level 1 heading. You can read more about formatting section headings in the APA manual on pp. 47-49. Not included in this template is a level 5 heading, which is virtually identical to a level 4 heading, except it is italicized. According to the APA (2020), “The number of levels of heading needed for a paper depends on its length and complexity; three is average. … [S]hort student papers may not require any headings” (p. 48).

Level 2 Heading (Bold, Left Justified)

You may only need Level 1 headings for your essays. Based on the length and complexity of the essay, it may be appropriate to use additional levels. However, be mindful that you need at least two subsections at each level.

Level 2 Heading (Bold, Left Justified)

There must be at least two subsections at each level.

Level 3 Heading (Flush Left, Italicized, Bold, No Punctuation)

Begin indented paragraph here. A couple of important new rules concerning in-text citations appear in the APA manual. The first pertains to citing works by three or more authors. Instead of writing each author’s name in the first citation, then utilizing the abbreviation “et al.” for all subsequent citations, the APA manual advises writers to use the “et al.” abbreviation for every in-text citation for works by three or more authors. For example, my first in-text citation for a work by three authors would look like this (Harris et al., 2020). This new guideline reduces the amount of clutter created by listing each author’s name. You can read more about the use of “et al.” on p. 266 of the APA manual.

Level 3 Heading (Flush Left, Italicized, Bold, No Punctuation)

The other significant change to in-text citation formatting has to do with repeating narrative citations. For example, if I am writing a paragraph focused specifically on the work of Brown (2016), I would need to provide the year in parenthesis only after the first reference to Brown. As you can see, I could write more about the groundbreaking work of Brown without cluttering my paragraph with multiple in-text citations containing the year. However, if I am referencing more than one work by Brown, I must provide a complete in-text citation after each reference to Brown. That way, my reader won’t be confused. I would also need to provide the year in any parenthetical citation referencing the author (Brown, 2016). This new rule is described on pp. 265-266 in the APA manual.

Similar Rule. (Level 4, Indented, Bold, Title Case, Punctuated) In a similar vein, if I am writing a long paraphrase of a single work, I need to provide only one in-text citation at the beginning of the paragraph as long as “the context of the writing makes it clear that the same work continues to be paraphrased” (APA, 2020, p. 269). In other words, I could continue to write more about how the manual provides a helpful figure of this rule on p. 270. I would not need to provide a citation when telling you that if the paraphrase is long enough to warrant the creation of a new paragraph, you will need to provide an in-text citation at the top of the new paragraph. As you can see, I am still discussing the APA manual in a specific context, so I am not required to cite the manual again in this paragraph unless I introduce information from a new source. Even so, if you think your professor or reader might question where you found a certain piece of information, it won’t hurt to provide an extra citation or two.

Level 4 Heading. (Indented, Bold, Title Case, Punctuated). Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph. It is not necessary to memorize these settings. Follow the guidelines provided in the APA Publication Manual. Remember that there must be at least two subsections at each level.

Punctuating In-Text Citations

So far, you might have noticed that parenthetical citations typically appear before the sentence’s end punctuation because the parenthetical citation is just another element belonging to the sentence. However, there is one specific instance when the parenthetical citation comes after the end punctuation. In the case of block quotations (a quotation of 40 words or more), you will introduce the quotation and demarcate it using special indentation:

Pretend that this is the beginning of the block quotation. First, notice that this long quotation is not surrounded by quotation marks. It is the only time in your paper where you will quote something without using quotation marks. Next, the entire quotation is indented 1/2 inch from the left, and it is left-justified, meaning that the quote’s left margin forms a straight line up and down. Last but not least, you will provide the parenthetical citation after the end punctuation (and because it’s a direct quotation, you will include the page number). Use block quotes sparingly. Long quotations interrupt the author’s voice and the flow of the paper. (Harding, 2020, p. 49)

If the original paragraph continues after the quotation, begin on the next double-spaced line, making sure that the line is flush left. If you want to begin a new paragraph after the block quotation, you will indent the new paragraph 1/2 inch from the left margin. Finally, if you include a narrative citation when introducing the block quote (i.e. “According to Harding (2020) …”), only include the page number in the parenthetical citation after the block quote. You can read more about these rules on pp. 272-273 of the APA manual.]

References [Centered, Bold]

Hanging indent for all references. To keep this format, simply place the cursor at the front of this line and paste or type your reference material. Then press enter. Remember to organize your references alphabetically. Please delete this line of text and any other template text or notes before submitting your paper. Delete all information in brackets.

Surname, A. A., & Surname B. B. (Year). Reference entry titles are written in sentence case: Sentence case titles for articles and shorter works are plain text and capitalized as if you were writing a sentence. Publication Name, 234(2), 40-190. https://doi.org/12.029303 (Example of journal article with DOI)

Surname, C. C. (Year). This is the title of a book about China and India: Notice that book titles and titles of longer works are italicized. Publisher Name. (Example of book and e-book. Writers are no longer required to identify e-book platform (e.g. “Kindle”) or database (e.g. “EBSCO”). For e-books, provide a DOI or URL if one is available. Read more on p. 321 of the manual.)

Utilize a hanging indent for all references. Click here to watch a tutorial video on how to achieve this indentation. Again, this APA-produced sample paper demonstrates correct reference list formatting on pp. 10-12. Some notable changes to reference entry formatting in the manual’s 7th edition include the following:

1) Publisher location is no longer a required element (APA, 2020, p. 295).

2) Except in certain cases, do not provide “database information for works obtained from most academic research databases or platforms because works in these resources are widely available” (APA, 2020, p. 297). Read more about the exceptions on p. 297 of the manual.

2) The words “Retrieved from” no longer precede a URL (APA, 2020, p. 299).

3) Write a DOI as a hyperlink, e.g. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2373 (APA, 2020, p. 299).

4) Rather than the previous maximum of seven authors, you may provide up to 20 authors’ names in a single reference entry (APA, 2020, p. 286).

5) The updated manual includes reference entry examples for previously undefined source types including social media posts, TED Talks, and YouTube videos (APA, 2020, pp. 317-352).