+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com

What is it Multicultural Psychology?

How is Multicultural Psychology used, how you can use it?

Describe microaggression- why they are important? See Attachment i included on this topic 

Why do we study multicultural psychology?

What the point of Multicultural Psychology ?

1.5 page microsoft word, and include 5 slide presentation on what is written. No plagiarism. Cite references.


American Psychologist, May-June 2007

D. W. Sue, C.M. Capodilupo, G.C. Torino, J.M. Bucceri,
A.M.B. Holder, K. L. Nadal, M. Esquilin

(Teacher’s College, Columbia University)

Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether
intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults toward people of
color. Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that they engage in such communications when they
interact with racial/ethnic minorities.
A taxonomy of racial microaggressions in everyday life was created through a review of the social psychological
literature on aversive racism, from formulations regarding the manifestation and impact of everyday racism, and
from reading numerous personal narratives of counselors (both White and those of color) on their racial/cultural
awakening. Microaggressions seem to appear in three forms: microassault, microinsult, and microinvalidation.
Almost all interracial encounters are prone to microaggressions; ….

Forms of Racial Microaggressions
Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, and environmental
indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial
slights and insults to the target person or group. They are not limited to human encounters alone but may
also be environmental in nature, as when a person of color is exposed to an office setting that
unintentionally assails his or her racial identity (Gordon & Johnson, 2003; D.W. Sue, 2003). For example,
one’s racial identity can be minimized or made insignificant through the sheer exclusion of decorations or
literature that represents various racial groups. Three forms of microaggressions can be identified:
microassault, microinsult, and microinvalidation.

A microassault is an explicit racial derogations characterized primarily by a verbal or nonverbal attack
meant to hurt the intended victim through name-calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful discriminatory
actions. Referring to someone as “colored” or “Oriental,” using racial epithets, discouraging interracial
interactions, deliberately serving a White patron before someone of color, and displaying a swastika are
examples. Microassaults are most similar to what has been called “old fashioned” racism conducted on
an individual level. They are most likely to be conscious and deliberate, although they are generally
expressed in limited “private” situations (micro) that allow the perpetrator some degree of anonymity. In
other words, people are likely to hold notions of minority inferiority privately and will only display them
publicly when they (a) lose control or (b) feel relatively safe to engage in a microassault. Because we
have chosen to analyze the in intentional and unconscious manifestations of microaggressions,
microassaults are not the focus of our article. It is important to note, however, that individuals can also
vary in the degree of conscious awareness they show in the use of the following two forms of

A microinsult is characterized by communications that convey rudeness and insensitivity and demean a
person’s racial heritage or identity. Microinsults represent subtle snubs, frequently unknown to the
perpetrator, but clearly convey a hidden insulting message to the recipient of color. When a White
employer tells a prospective candidate of color “I believe the most qualified person should get the job,
regardless of race: or when an employee of color is asked “How did you get your job?”, the underlying
message from the perspective of the recipient may be twofold: (a) People of color are not qualified, and
(b) as a minority group member, you must have obtained the position through some affirmative action or
quota program and not because of ability. Such statements are not necessarily aggressions, but context


is important. Hearing these statements frequently when used against affirmative action makes the
recipient likely to experience them as aggressions. Microinsults can also occur nonverbally, as when a
White teacher fails to acknowledge students of color in the classroom or when a White supervisor seems
distracted during a conversation with a Black employee by avoiding eye contact or turning away (Hinton,
2004). In this case, the message conveyed to persons of color is that their contributions are unimportant.

Microinvalidations are characterized by communications that exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological
thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of color. When Asian Americans (born and raised in
the U.S.) are complimented for speaking good English or are repeatedly asked where they were born, the
effect is to negate their U.S. American heritage and to convey that they are perpetual foreigners. When
Blacks are told that “I don’t see color” or “We are all human beings,” the effect is to negate their
experiences as racial/cultural beings. When a Latino couple is given poor service at a restaurant and
shares their experience with White friends, only to be told “Don’t be so oversensitive” or “Don’t be so
petty,” the racial experience of the couple is being nullified and its importance is being diminished.

We have been able to identify nine categories of microaggressions with distinct themes: alien in one’s
own land, ascriptions of intelligence, color blindness, criminality/assumption of criminal status, denial of
individual racism, myth of meritocracy, pathologizing cultural values/communication styles, second-class
status, and environmental invalidation. Table 1 provides samples of comments or situations that may
potentially be classified as racial microaggressions and their accompanying hidden assumptions and

Table 1
Examples of Racial Microaggressions

Theme Microaggression Message
1- Alien in own land
When Asian Americans and
Latino Americans are assumed
to be foreign born

“Where are you from?”
“Where were you born?”
“You speak good English”
A person asking an Asian American
to teach them words in their native

You are not American.

You are a foreigner.

2- Ascription of intelligence
Assigning intelligence to a person
of color on the basis of their race

“You are a credit to your race”

“You are so articulate”

Asking an Asian person to help with a
math or science problem.

People of color are generally not
as intelligent as Whites.
It is unusual for someone of your
race to be intelligent.
All Asians are intelligent and
good in math/sciences.

3- Color blindness
Statements that indicate that a
White person does not want to
acknowledge race

“When I look at you, I don’t see color.”

“America is a melting pot.”

“There is only one race, the human race.”

Denying a person of color’s racial/
ethnic experiences.
Assimilate/acculturate to the
dominant culture.
Denying the individual as a racial/
cultural being.

4- Criminality/assumption of criminal

A White man or woman clutching their
purse or checking their wallet as a
Black or Latino approaches or passes
A store owner following a customer of
color around the store
A White person waits to ride the next
elevator when a person of color is on it

You are a criminal.

You are going to steal/ You are
poor/ You do not belong.
You are dangerous.

5- Denial of individual racism
A statement made when Whites
deny their racial biases

“I’m not racist. I have several black
“As a woman, I know what you go
through as a racial minority.”

I am immune to racism because I
have friends of color.
Your racial oppression is no different
than my gender oppression. I can’t
be a racist. I’m like you.


Theme Microaggression Message
6- Myth of meritocracy
Statements which assert that race
does not play a role in life

“I believe the most qualified person
should get the job.”
“Everyone can succeed in this society, if
they work hard enough.”

People of color are given extra un-
fair benefits because of their race.
People of color are lazy and/or
incompetent and need to work

7- Pathologizing cultural values/
communication styles
The notion that the values and
communication styles of the
dominant/White culture are ideal

Asking a Black person: “Why do you
have to be so loud/animated? Just
calm down.”
To an Asian or Latino person: “Why are
you so quiet? We want to know what
you think. Be more verbal.” “Speak
up more.”
Dismissing an individual who brings up
race/culture in work/school setting

Assimilate to dominant culture.

Leave your cultural baggage outside

8- Second-class citizen
Occurs when a White person is
given preferential treatment as a
consumer over a person of color

Person of color mistaken for a service

Having a taxi cab pass a person of color
and pick up a White passenger

Being ignored at a store counter as
attention is given to the White
customer behind you
“You people…”

People of color are servants to
Whites. They couldn’t possibly
occupy high-status positions.
You are likely to cause trouble and/
or travel to a dangerous
Whites are more valued customers
than people of color.

You don’t belong. You are a lesser

9- Environmental microaggressions
Macro-level microaggressions,
which are more apparent on
systemic & environmental levels

A college or university with buildings
that are all named after White hetero-
sexual upper class males.
Television shows & movies that feature
predominantly White people, without
representation of people of color
Overcrowding of public schools in
communities of color
Overabundance of liquor stores in
communities of color

You don’t belong/You won’t
succeed here. There is only so far
you can go.
You are an outsider/You don’t

People of color don’t/shouldn’t
value education.
People of color are deviant.


Figure 1
Categories of and Relationships Among Racial Microaggressions


   

  

Racial Microaggressions
Commonplace verbal or behavioral indignities, whether intentional or unintentional,

which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults

Microinsult – (Often unconscious)

Behavioral/ verbal remarks or comments
that convey rudeness, insensitivity and
demean a person’s racial heritage or


Microassault – (Often conscious)

Explicitly racial denigrations
primarily by violent verbal or nonverbal
attack meant to hurt the intended
victim through name-calling, avoidant
behavior or purposeful discriminatory

Microinvalidation – (Often unconscious)

Verbal comments or behaviors that
Exclude, negate, or nullify the
psychological thoughts, feelings or
experiential reality of a person of color.

Environmental Microagressions

Racial Assaults, insults and invalidations which are
manifested on systemic and environmental levels.

Ascription of Intelligence

Assigning a degree of intelligence to a
Person of color based on their race.

Second Class Citizen

Treated as a lesser person or group.

Pathologizing Cultural values/

Communication Styles

Notions that the values and communication
styles of people of color are abnormal.

Assumption of Criminal Status

Presumed to be a criminal, dangerous, or
deviant based on race.

Alien in own land

Belief that visible racial/ethnic minority
citizens are foreigners.

Color Blindness

Denial or pretense that a white person
does not see color or race.

Myth of Meritocracy

Statements which assert that race plays
a minor role in life success.

Denial of Individual racism

Denial of personal racism or one’s role
in its perpetuation.