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What kind of dating will campus couples choose when the campus shut down due to strict covid-19 prevention and control measures?Do couples choose to go to the library for a date?

Research Question

What kind of dating will campus couples choose when the campus shut down due to strict covid-19 prevention and control measures?

Do couples choose to go to the library for a date?

Research Purpose.

The purpose of this study is to determine whether campus lock down or social distancing due to covid-19 affected couples choice of dating place.

Research Theory

Choice theory

Choice theory posits behaviours we choose are central to our existence. Our behaviour (choices) are driven by five genetically driven needs:survival, love and belonging, freedom,fun and power.(Glasser,1998)


Campus shut down is a positive influence, couples can date in the library for longer time, and can motivate them to study.

Campus shutdown is a negative influence, and long-term campus shutdown will make couples feel stale and even lead to breakup.


Independent Variables

social distance,weather, grade

Data type: Categorical data (questionnaire)

Dependent Variables

date place selection


Final Paper Requirements


Following is a road map that briefly outlines the contents of an entire thesis for which you will

model your final paper.


• Your paper is due before the end of our last scheduled class (the week of January 4th).

Submit your research paper on Ketangpai under the “Homework/Operation” tab.

• Your paper must adhere to my requirements for final papers for my class. Any

papers that are not formatted to my specifications will receive a failing grade.

• The entire paper must be APA formatted and double spaced (per APA specifications).

See the APA guide I sent you for help.

• Your paper must be 15 – 25 pages (chapters 1-5); minimum of 6 references, 10 or more


• Have someone edit your paper before turning it in. Also utilize the grammar check (in

Word), Grammarly (online), or other grammar check software to help edit your paper.

Major, frequent errors and sentence fragments will poorly affect your grade.

• Your study may be qualitative, quantitative or a stand-alone comprehensive literature


• If using quantitative data, you must also have the questionnaire and/or code book

included in the Appendix.


•Title page •Abstract

•Acknowledgments (optional)

•Table of contents

•List of tables and figures (only those in chapters, not those in appendices)

1. Title Page

The title gives a clear and concise description of the topic/problem and the scope of the study. The

title page will show the title; the author’s full name (pinyin) and student ID number; class number;

the university; and the date. Margins for the title page and the entire document has 1-inch margins.

Also, the title should be in all capitals.


The title both guides and reflects the purpose and content of the study, making its relevance

apparent to prospective readers.

Quality Markers

A well-crafted title conveys the essence and purpose of the study. The title should include the

type of study (“An Analysis”) and the participants.

Frequent Errors

Frequent title errors include the use of trendy, elaborate, nonspecific, or literary language, and

grandiose or unrealistic expectations (e.g., “Finally, a Solution to . . .”).

2. Abstract

The abstract, limited to 200 words, is a concise summary description of the study, including

statement of the problem, purpose, scope, research tradition, data sources, methodology, key

findings, and implications. The abstract is written after the paper is completed and is written from

the perspective of an outside reader (i.e., not “My paper examines” but “An examination of . . .”).

Quality Markers

Marks of quality include conciseness and accuracy. The abstract should also be written in the third

person (active voice without the personal pronouns I and we). Generally, the first sentence of an

abstract describes the entire study; subsequent sentences expand on that description.

Frequent Errors

Inclusion of irrelevant material (i.e., examples, information extraneous to the paper itself),

exclusion of necessary material (i.e., problem, purpose, scope, research tradition, data sources,

methodology, key findings, and implications), and incorrect format are frequent abstract errors.

3. Acknowledgments (optional)

You may write acknowledgements or provide a short personal statement of thanks here, but it

is not required.

5. Table of Contents

An outline of the entire paper, listing headings and subheadings with their respective page

numbers, the table of contents lists all chapters and major sections within chapters and all back

matter with page numbers.

The table of contents may be followed by any of the following, if needed, and any of these

subsequent lists are formatted in the same manner as the table of contents:

•List of tables

•List of figures

•List of illustrations


The table of contents assists the researcher in organizing the material while promoting accessibility

for the reader.

Quality Markers

The headings and subheadings clearly and concisely reflect the material being presented. Headings

and subheadings are parallel grammatically (i.e., “Introduction,” “Review of Literature” not

“Introduction,” “Reviewing the Literature”). The headings and subheadings in the table of contents

are worded the same as those headings and subheadings in the text.

Frequent Errors

Frequent errors include lack of parallelism in headings and subheadings, as well as wording in the

table of contents that does not match wording in text.


1. Introduction

2. Literature Review (For Literature Reviews, this is the Body of your paper.)

3. Methodology (For Literature Reviews, this includes key words used to search articles/books, databases

utilized, and an explanation as to why certain articles or topics were included and/or omitted.)

4. Results

5. Discussion and Conclusion

Literature Reviews

Sections with a * should be included in a comprehensive literature review.

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter makes a case for the significance of the problem, contextualizes the study, and

introduces its basic components. It should be informative and able to stand alone as a document.

•Introduction*: The introduction includes an overview of the purpose and focus of the study, why it is significant, how it was conducted, and how it will contribute to professional knowledge and practice.

•Problem statement*: The problem indicates the need for the study, describes the issue or problem to be

studied, and situates it in a broader educational or social context. The problem statement includes a

brief, well-articulated summary of the literature that substantiates the study, with references to more

detailed discussions in Chapter 2.

•Statement of purpose*: Describing the research purpose in a logical, explicit manner, the statement of

purpose is the major objective or intent of the study; it enables the reader to understand the central

thrust of the research.

•Conceptual framework: The conceptual framework draws on theory, research, and experience, and

examines the relationship among constructs and ideas. As such, it is the structure or heuristic that guides

your research. In essence, the conceptual framework provides the theoretical and methodological bases

for development of the study and analysis of findings. When appropriate, a graphic depiction of the

model is included, showing the relationships between concepts, ideas, or variables to be studied.

•Research question(s)*: Research questions are directly tied to the purpose. They should be specific,

unambiguously stated, and open ended. These questions cue readers to the direction the study will

take and help to delineate the scope of the study. For this paper, you need only one research question.

•Rationale and significance: Rationale is the justification for the study presented as a logical argument.

Significance addresses the benefits that may be derived from doing the study, thereby reaffirming the

research purpose.

•Researcher assumptions: This section makes explicit relevant researcher assumptions, beliefs, and

biases (if applicable).

•Definition of key terminology*: Some terms may be unfamiliar to readers. Additionally, the meanings

of certain terms can vary depending on the context, conceptual framework, or field of study. Making

terms explicit adds precision and ensures clarity of understanding. These terms should be operationally

defined or explained; that is, make clear how these terms are used in your study.

•Organization of the paper*: This brief concluding explanation delineates the contents of the remaining

chapters in the paper.


The introduction sets the stage for the study and directs readers to the purpose and context of the


Quality Markers

A quality introduction situates the context and scope of the study and informs the reader, providing

a clear and valid representation of what will be found in the remainder of the dissertation.

Discussion is concise and precise.

Frequent Errors

Errors occur when the introduction does not clearly reflect the study and/or its relationship to the

proposed problem and purpose, or it does not stand alone as a document.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This chapter situates the study in the context of previous research and scholarly material

pertaining to the topic, presents a critical synthesis of empirical literature according to relevant

themes or variables, justifies how the study addresses a gap or problem in the literature, and

outlines the theoretical or conceptual framework of the study. Your paper should not merely restate

the available knowledge base of a particular topic but adds to or augments it.

•Introduction: The introduction describes the content, scope, and organization of the review as well as the strategy used in the literature search.

•Review of literature: This section

−−is clearly related to the problem statement, purpose, and research questions;

−−states up front the bodies of literature that will be covered, and why;

−−reviews primary sources that are mostly recent empirical studies from scholarly journals and

publications, as well as secondary sources;

−−is logically organized by theme or subtopic, from broad to narrow;

−−synthesizes findings across studies and compares and contrasts different research outcomes,

perspectives, or methods;

−−notes gaps, debates, or shortcomings in the literature and provides a rationale for the study; and

−−provides section summaries.

•Summary: A comprehensive synthesis of the literature review should complete this section.


This chapter provides a strong theoretical basis for the paper by analyzing and synthesizing a

comprehensive selection of appropriate related bodies of literature. The review of literature should

build a logical framework for the research, justify the study by conceptualizing gaps in the

literature, and demonstrate how the study will contribute to existing knowledge. The review serves

to situate the paper within the context of current ongoing conversations in the field.

Quality Markers

A comprehensive and thoughtful selection of resources that cover the material related to the

study’s purpose and background, not the full scope of the field, is considered a mark of a quality

literature review. All relevant primary sources and empirical research studies are cited (these are

preferable to secondary sources, which are interpretation of the work of others). The writer adopts

a critical perspective in discussing the work of others and provides a clear analysis of all available

related research. Relevant literature is critiqued, not duplicated, and there is a clear connection

between the purpose of this study and the resources included. The conceptual framework’s role

and function are clear: The conceptual framework clearly draws on theory, research, and

experience, providing conceptual coherence to the research. Another quality marker is the correct

use of American Psychological Association (APA) format, citations, and references throughout.

Frequent Errors

Frequent errors include insubstantial breadth of review (i.e., insufficient number or range of

resources; failure to include relevant primary sources) and insubstantial depth of review (i.e., use

of non-scholarly material; inability to demonstrate clear understanding of resources). Another error

is that the review reads more like a catalog of sources than a synthesis and integration of relevant

literature. There is also a tendency to eliminate literature that contradicts or questions the findings

of the dissertation’s study. Other errors include incorrect or insufficient citation of sources,

resulting in accidental plagiarism, and presentation of a diagrammatic conceptual framework with

no accompanying narrative explanation.

Chapter 3: Methodology*

This chapter situates the study within a particular methodological tradition, provides a rationale

for that approach, describes the research setting and sample, and describes data collection and

analysis methods. The chapter provides a detailed description of all aspects of the design and

procedures of the study.

•Introduction: The introduction restates the research purpose and describes the organization of the chapter.

•Rationale for research approach: This section describes the research tradition or paradigm (qualitative

research) and the research methodology (correlational, phenomenology, case study, action research,

etc.) with a rationale for their suitability regarding addressing the research questions, and citing

appropriate methodological literature.

•Research setting/context: This section describes and justifies selection of the research setting, thereby

providing the history, background, and issues germane to the problem.

•Research sample and data sources: This section

−−explains and justifies the sample used and how participants were selected (including population and

sampling procedures);

−−describes the characteristics and size of the sample, and provides other pertinent demographic

information; and

−−outlines ethical considerations pertaining to participants, shedding light on how rights of participants

were protected

•Data collection methods: This section describes and justifies all data collection methods, tools,

instruments, and procedures, including how, when, where, and by whom data were collected.

•Data analysis methods: This section describes and justifies all methods and tools used for analysis of

data (manual and/or computational).

•Trustworthiness: This section discusses measures taken to enhance the study, as well as credibility

(validity) and dependability (reliability).

•Limitations and delimitations: This section identifies potential weaknesses of the study and the scope

of the study. Limitations are external conditions that restrict or constrain the study’s scope or may affect

its outcome. Delimitations are conditions or parameters that the researcher intentionally imposes to limit

the scope of a study (e.g., using participants of certain ages, genders, or groups; conducting the research

in a single setting). Generalizability is not the goal of qualitative research; rather, the focus is on

transferability—that is, the ability to apply findings in similar contexts or settings.

•Summary: A comprehensive summary overview covers all the sections of this chapter, recapping and

highlighting all the important points. Discussion is concise and precise.


The study is the basis for the conclusions and recommendations. In many ways, it is what makes

the difference between your research paper and other forms of extended writing. A clear

description of the research sample, setting, methodology, limitations, and delimitations and

acknowledgement of trustworthiness issues provide readers with a basis for accepting (or not

accepting) the conclusions and recommendations that follow.

Quality Markers

A quality study achieves the purposes outlined in the introduction’s research problem and

research questions. The relationship of the research paradigm and type of data collection and

analysis used in this study is clear. All relevant information is clearly articulated and presented.

Narrative is accompanied by clear and descriptive visuals (charts, figures, tables).

Frequent Errors

Errors occur when data are not clearly presented; the study is not applicable to purposes outlined

in the introduction; and methods of gathering and analyzing data and trustworthiness issues are

insufficient or not clearly explained.

Chapter 4: Results

This chapter organizes and reports the study’s main findings or results, including the pre-

sentation of relevant quantitative (statistical) and qualitative (narrative) data. Findings are often

written up in different ways depending on the research tradition or genre adopted.

•Introduction: The introduction provides a summary of and rationale for how data were analyzed. It describes the organization of the chapter according to research questions, conceptual framework, or

thematic categories.

•Findings build logically from the problem, research questions, and design.

•Findings are presented in clear narrative form using plentiful verbatim quotes, and “thick

description.” Narrative data are connected and synthesized through substantive explanatory text and

visual displays, if applicable, not simply compiled. Some tables and figures may be deferred to the


•Headings are used to guide the reader through the findings according to research questions, themes,

or other appropriate organizational schemes.

•Inconsistent, discrepant, or unexpected data are noted with discussion of possible alternative


•Summary: This section explains in summary form what the chapter has identified, and prepares the

reader for the chapters to follow, by offering some foreshadowing as to the intent and content of the

final two chapters.


The challenge of qualitative analysis lies in making sense of large amounts of data, reducing raw

data, identifying what is significant, and constructing a framework for communicating the essence

of what the data reveal. The researcher, as storyteller, can tell a story that is vivid and interesting,

and at the same time accurate and credible. This chapter is the foundation for the analysis,

conclusions, and recommendations that will appear in the next/forthcoming chapters.

Quality Markers

Markers of a quality findings chapter include clear, complete, and valid representation of the

data that have emerged because of the study and effective use of graphs, charts, and other visual

representations to illustrate the data. Findings are presented objectively, without speculation—that

is, free from researcher bias. Presentation and structure in this chapter are neat and precise, and

related to the study’s qualitative tradition or genre.

Frequent Errors

Errors occur when study findings are manipulated to fit expectations from research questions,

or when researcher bias and/ or subjectivity is apparent. Other frequent errors include poor or

invalid use of visual representation, and findings not overly generalized.

Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusions

This chapter synthesizes and discusses the results considering the study’s research questions,

literature review, and conceptual framework. Finding patterns and themes is one result of analysis.

Finding ambiguities and inconsistencies is another. Overall, this chapter offers the researcher an

opportunity to reflect thoroughly on the study’s findings, and the practical and theoretical

implications thereof. This chapter also presents a set of concluding statements and

recommendations. Conclusions are assertions based on findings and must therefore be warranted

by the findings. With respect to each finding, you are asking yourself, “Knowing what I now know,

what conclusion can I draw?” Recommendations are the application of those conclusions. In other

words, you are now saying to yourself, “Knowing what I now know to be true, I recommend that

. . .”

•Introduction: The introduction provides an overview of the chapter’s organization and content.

•Discussion: This section provides an in-depth interpretation, analysis, and synthesis of the


−−Analysis is a multilayered approach. Seeking emergent patterns among findings can be considered

a first round of analysis. Examining whether the literature corresponds with, contradicts, and/or

deepens interpretations constitutes a second layer of interpretation.

−−Issues of trustworthiness are incorporated as these relate to and are applied throughout the

analysis process.

−−Discussion may include interpretation of any findings that were not anticipated when the study

was first described. Establishing credibility means that you have engaged in the systematic search

for rival or competing explanations and interpretations.

−−This section restates the study’s limitations and discusses transferability of the findings to

broader populations or other settings and conditions.


Analysis is essentially about searching for patterns and themes that emerge from the findings. The

goal is to discover what meaning you can make of them by comparing your findings both within

and across groups, and with those of other studies. Interpretation that is thoughtful and compelling

will provide the opportunity to make a worthwhile contribution to your academic discipline.

Quality Markers

There is no clear and accepted single set of conventions for the analysis and interpretation of

qualitative data. This chapter reflects a deep understanding of what lies beneath the findings—that

is, what those findings really mean. Interpretation is presented systematically, and is related to the

literature, conceptual framework, and interpretive themes or patterns that have emerged. A key

characteristic of qualitative research is willingness to tolerate ambiguity. As such, examining

issues from all angles to demonstrate the most plausible explanations is an indication of high-level

analysis. Integrity as a researcher is given credence inclusion of all information, even that which

challenges inferences and assumptions.

Frequent Errors

Frequent errors include analysis that is simple or shallow. Synthesis is lacking; there is no clear

connection to other research literature, or theory. Credibility and/or plausibility of explanations is

in question. The chapter is poorly structured, presented, and articulated.


•Conclusions are based on an integration of the study findings, analysis, interpretation, and synthesis.

•Concluding statements end the paper with strong, clear, concise “takeaway messages” for the reader.

•Conclusions are not the same as findings; neither are conclusions the same as interpretations. Rather,

conclusions are essentially conclusive statements of what you now know, having done this research,

that you did not know before.

•Conclusions must be logically tied to one another. There should be consistency among your conclusions;

none of them should be at odds with any of the others.

Recommendations* •Recommendations are actionable; that is, they suggest implications for policy and practice based on the

findings, providing specific action planning and next steps.

•Recommendations support the belief that scholarly work initiates as many questions as it answers, thus

opening the way for further practice and research.

•Recommendations for research describe topics that require closer examination and that may generate

new questions for further study.


This chapter reflects the contribution the researcher has made to the knowledge and practice in his

or her field of study. In many ways, it provides validation for the researcher’s entrance into the

ranks of the body of scholars in the field.

Quality Markers

Clearly stated and focused concluding statements reflect an integration of the study findings,

analysis, interpretation, and synthesis. Recommendations must have implications for policy and

practice, as well as for further research, and must be doable. The reasonableness of a

recommendation depends on its being logically and clearly derived from the findings, both content

and context specific, and most important, practical, and capable of implementation.

Frequent Errors

Overgeneralization of importance or relevance sometimes leads to grandiose statements. Other

frequent errors include the lack of a clear link to the review of literature, or recommendations that

have no clear usefulness for practice and future research; that is, they are not “doable.”

Epilogue, Afterword, or Final Thoughts

This final section offers the researcher an opportunity to reflect on the overall process, review the

findings that have emerged, and share any new learning and insights that she or he has developed

over the course of the research and writing process. How do you personally value the research

experience? What are the lessons you have learned from conducting the study? What insights,

knowledge, and inspiration have you derived from conducting this study?



Appendices contain all research instruments (questionnaires) used.


The list of references includes all works cited in the paper in alphabetical order by author and in

proper APA format. All sources that are quoted, summarized, or paraphrased, as well as all other

sources of information (text, visual, electronic, personal, etc.), must be correctly cited using APA

parenthetical citation (or in-text citation) format within the paper. All sources must also be

correctly listed on the references page. Proper citation serves several purposes: It attributes work

fairly to the author, places the dissertation within the context of the literature in the field, and

provides readers with a quick resource for locating and accessing sources that were used. All

references must be in English (translate as appropriate).

Stand-Alone Literature Reviews

The information above will help you to write your individual chapters, however, I

recommend that you follow this order for stand-alone literature reviews:

• Abstract

• Introduction (state the problem and your research question)

• Methodology (how did you find and qualify the literature in your review)

• Body (Your review)

• Results (Be sure to synthesize the literature and present a new idea/perspective)

• Discussion and Conclusions (with recommendations)

Note: There are model stand-alone literature reviews in the Week 12 folder.