Which of the following was a component of the Earth's Hadean atmosphere?
Choose one:A. oxygenB. ammoniaC. ironD. ozone
Which of the following statements is true?
Choose one:A. Limestone that contains coral fossils probably developed in a shallow sea.B. A piece of gneiss radiometrically dated as 4.4 billion years old is the oldest whole rock yet found.C. Marine limestone that overlies alluvial fan conglomerate shows that the sea level dropped at that site.D. Shale that contains land plants probably formed in an alluvial fan or a stream channel.
Which of the following refers to fossils of early multicellular invertebrates that are 565 to 620 million years old?
Choose one:A. RodiniaB. stromatolitesC. cyanobacteriaD. Ediacaran fauna
Banded iron formations (BIFs) formed
Choose one:A. beneath the Laurentide ice sheet.B. in the Proterozoic deep ocean.C. in alluvial fans at the base of the proto-Appalachian Mountains.D. during uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.
Geologists believe that the impact of a 13-km-wide meteorite 65 million years ago
Choose one:A. generated 20-km-high tsunamis.B. generated a hot-air blast and blaze that caused worldwide forest fires.C. ejected debris into the atmosphere that produced acid rain.D. ejected chemicals into the atmosphere that caused thousands of years of winter-like night conditions that halted photosynthesis.
The continents that made up Pangaea came together in the early Paleozoic but began to split apart during the
Choose one:A. late Paleozoic.B. Late Triassic/Early Jurassic.C. middle Proterozoic.D. Early Devonian.
We know that the atmosphere became more oxygen-rich around 1.8 billion years ago (Ga) because of geologic evidence such as
Choose one:A. BIFs that occurred prior to 1.8 Ga but disappeared from the rock record after that time.B. abundant fossils of land plants, signifying the start of photosynthesis.C. redbeds that formed after 1.8 Ga.D. the presence of abundant pyrite after 1.8 Ga.
According to this diagram, which shows the stratigraphic record produced when sea level rises and falls over time, which of the following statements is true?
Choose one:A. Shale, covered by limestone and then sand, represents a transgression.B. Unconformities develop when sea level is at its highest point.C. Sand, covered by limestone and then shale, represents a sea-level rise.D. Each sequence represents two cycles of sea-level rise and fall.
Solar storms, like the one in the video, may have caused a dramatic increase in nitrous oxide in Earth's early atmosphere, allowing it to warm enough to support life. What is the earliest life form found in the fossil record?
Choose one:A. trilobitesB. cells from an unknown organismC. cyanobacteriaD. stromatolites
This video discusses how glacial deposits support the theory that Antarctica and North America were once connected. Think back to the Proterozoic Eon and the supercontinent named Rodinia.
On what continents might geologists find rocks shared with North America?
Choose one or more:A.AustraliaB.AfricaC.IndiaD.South AmericaE.Antarctica
A typical reservoir rock, into which oil has migrated and collected, is
Choose one:A. granite.B. shale.C. basalt.D. sandstone.
Oil is most likely to form because
Choose one:A. large sauropod-type dinosaurs decayed in swamps.B. tiny algae and plankton decomposed under conditions of heat, pressure, and low oxygen.C. the decomposition of organic material remained aerobic (lots of oxygen) for a long time.D. leaves, twigs, and tree trunks decomposed under conditions of heat, pressure, and low oxygen.
The first oil well was drilled
Choose one:A. to a depth just short of 1 mile.B. 3,000 years ago by the Babylonians in what is now Iran.C. by Edwin Drake in 1859 in Titusville, Pennsylvania.D. by John D. Rockefeller in 1901 in Texas.
A seismic-reflection profile
Choose one:A. is used even by amateurs looking for oil because it's relatively easy and cheap.B. is created through interpretation of reflected seismic waves.C. shows the shapes but not the depths of underground sedimentary layers.D. is essentially the same as a geologic map.
Choose one:A. is used more extensively than oil.B. burns more cleanly than oil does.C. consists of a mixture of petroleum products with carbon chains that are 10 to 20 carbons long.D. is found layered between oil and water in a drillhole.
Identify the true statement.
Choose one:A. Strip mining can be done economically down to a depth of about 1 km.B. Anthracite coal develops at depth along mountain belt borders, where temperatures reach 600°C.C. Underground coal mining is dangerous because of possible tunnel collapse and possible methane gas explosions.D. Coal began to form on the Earth soon after life evolved in the Precambrian.
In a nuclear power plant,
Choose one:A. pitchblende (U238) is the most common fuel.B. control rods regulate the rate of the reaction by absorbing excess neutrons.C. fusion is happening.D. there must be enough nuclear fuel to equal a critical mass.
The Deepwater Horizon disaster was
Choose one:A. a swarm of earthquakes in Oklahoma due to "fracking."B. the meltdown of a nuclear reactor in Japan.C. the spill of more than 2 million barrels of oil from an oil tanker off the Alaska coast.D. a catastrophic blowout that occurred in April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico.
Which of the following could be consequences of hydrofracking?
Choose one or more:A.earthquakes associated with ground rupture due to subsurface pressurizationB.destabilization of geologic strata due to unintended fractures forming in the subsurfaceC.disposal issues associated with chemical-bearing fracking fluidsD.local contamination of the water table by hydrofracking fluids
What is the "grade" of an ore?
Choose one:A. the nonmetallic residue formed during smeltingB. the concentration of useful metal in an oreC. a compound containing two or more metalsD. the measured quantity of a mineral resource
In which of the following lists does the order of nonmetallic resources match the order of these uses: fertilizer, landscaping, wallboard, roofing shingles, gravel or cement?
Choose one:A. pumice, phosphate, limestone, slate, gypsumB. limestone, pumice, gypsum, slate, phosphateC. gypsum, phosphate, pumice, limestone, slateD. phosphate, pumice, gypsum, slate, limestone
Which of the following metals is both a precious metal and a strategic mineral?
Choose one:A. copperB. goldC. silverD. platinum
Which characteristics are essential to defining a geologic occurrence as an ore deposit?
Choose one or more:A.The ore is easily extractable.B.It contains enough ore to make mining economical.C.It has a high concentration of a metal.D.The ore is visible to the naked eye.