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A Text/Reader

Second Edition


Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in 1965 to support the dissemination of usable knowledge
and educate a global community. SAGE publishes more than 1000 journals and over 800 new books each
year, spanning a wide range of subject areas. Our growing selection of library products includes archives, data,
case studies and video. SAGE remains majority owned by our founder and after her lifetime will become
owned by a charitable trust that secures the company’s continued independence.

Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC | Melbourne


A Text/Reader

Second Edition

Leah E. Daigle
Georgia State University

SAGE Text/Reader Series in Criminology and Criminal Justice

Craig Hemmens, Series Editor

Los Angeles

New Delhi

Washington DC


Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher.


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Daigle, Leah E., author.

Title: Victimology : a text/reader / Leah E. Daigle, Georgia State University.

Description: Second edition. | Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017009809 | ISBN 9781506345215 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Victims of crimes.

Classification: LCC HV6250.25 .D336 2018 | DDC 362.88—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017009809

Printed in the United States of America

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Miller

Editorial Assistant: Jennifer Rubio

Production Editor: Jane Haenel

Copy Editor: Mark Bast

Typesetter: Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd.

Proofreader: Barbara Coster


Indexer: Robie Grant

Cover Designer: Candice Harman

Marketing Manager: Amy Lammers


Brief Contents


Section I. Introduction to Victimology
Section II. Extent, Theories, and Factors of Victimization
Section III. Consequences of Victimization
Section IV. Recurring Victimization
Section V. Victims’ Rights and Remedies
Section VI. Homicide Victimization
Section VII. Sexual Victimization
Section VIII. Intimate Partner Violence
Section IX. Victimization at the Beginning and End of Life: Child and Elder Abuse
Section X. Victimization at School and Work
Section XI. Property and Identity Theft Victimization
Section XII. Victimization of Special Populations
Section XIII. Victimology From a Comparative Perspective
Section XIV. Contemporary Issues in Victimology: Victims of Hate Crimes, Human Trafficking,
and Terrorism

About the Author


Detailed Contents


Section I. Introduction to Victimology
What Is Victimology?
The History of Victimology: Before the Victims’ Rights Movement
The Role of the Victim in Crime: Victim Precipitation, Victim Facilitation, and Victim

Hans von Hentig
Ripped From the Headlines

Benjamin Mendelsohn
Stephen Schafer
Marvin Wolfgang
Menachem Amir

Focus on Research
Focus on International Issues
The History of Victimology: The Victims’ Rights Movement

The Women’s Movement
The Civil Rights Movement

Contributions of the Victims’ Rights Movement
Early Programs for Crime Victims
Development of Victim Organizations
Legislation and Policy

Victimology Today
The Crime Victim
The Causes of Victimization
Costs of Victimization

Recurring Victimization
The Crime Victim and the Criminal Justice System
The Crime Victim and Social Services

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

Section II. Extent, Theories, and Factors of Victimization
Measuring Victimization


Uniform Crime Reports
Advantages and Disadvantages
Crime as Measured by the UCR

National Incident-Based Reporting System
National Crime Victimization Survey

Extent of Crime Victimization
Typical Victimization and Victim

International Crime Victims Survey
Focus on International Issues
Theories and Explanations of Victimization

Link Between Victimization and Offending
Victim and Offender Characteristics
Explaining the Link Between Victimization and Offending

Routine Activities and Lifestyles Theories
Ripped From the Headlines

Structural and Social Process Factors
Neighborhood Context
Exposure to Delinquent Peers

Box 2.1: Immigration and Victimization: Are They Related?
Social Learning Theory
Control-Balance Theory
Social Interactionist Perspective
Life-Course Perspective

General Theory of Crime
Age-Graded Theory of Adult Social Bonds

Genes and Victimization
Role of Alcohol in Victimization

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

How to Read a Research Article

1. Specifying the Influence of Family and Peers on Violent Victimization: Extending
Routine Activities and Lifestyles Theories
2. An Investigation of Neighborhood Disadvantage, Low Self-Control, and Violent
Victimization Among Youth

Section III. Consequences of Victimization
Physical Injury


Mental Health Consequences and Costs
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Self-Blame, Learned Helplessness, and the Brain

Economic Costs
Direct Property Losses
Medical Care

Ripped From the Headlines
Mental Health Care Costs
Losses in Productivity
Pain, Suffering, and Lost Quality of Life

System Costs
Vicarious Victimization
Fear of Crime
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

3. Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology, and Later Nonsuicidal
Self-Harm in a Birth Cohort
4. The Economic Costs of Partner Violence and the Cost-Benefit of Civil Protective Orders

Section IV. Recurring Victimization
Types of Recurring Victimization
Extent of Recurring Victimization
Characteristics of Recurring Victimization

Time Course of Recurring Victimization
Crime-Switch Patterns and Victim Proneness

Risk Factors for Recurring Victimization
Individual-Level Risk Factors
Neighborhood- or Household-Level Risk Factors

Theoretical Explanations of Recurring Victimization
Ripped From the Headlines
Consequences of Recurring Victimization
Responses to Recurring Victimization
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources



5. The Violent and Sexual Victimization of College Women: Is Repeat Victimization a
6. A Networked Boost: Burglary Co-Offending and Repeat Victimization Using a Network

Section V. Victims’ Rights and Remedies
Victims’ Rights

Common Victims’ Rights Given by State

Box 5.1: Victims’ Rights in Virginia
Participation and Consultation
Right to Protection
Right to a Speedy Trial
Rights Related to Evidence

Ripped From the Headlines
Issues With Victims’ Rights
Federal Law

Financial Remedy
Victim Compensation
Civil Litigation

Remedies and Rights in Court
Victim Impact Statements

Box 5.2: Excerpt From Stanford Rape Victim’s Impact Statement
Victim/Witness Assistance Programs
Family Justice Centers
Restorative Justice
Victim–Offender Mediation Programs

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

7. Delivering a Victim Impact Statement: Emotionally Effective or Counterproductive?
8. Victim Rights and New Remedies: Finally Getting Victims Their Due

Section VI. Homicide Victimization
Defining Homicide Victimization

Excusable Homicide
Justifiable Homicide
Criminal Homicide

First-Degree Murder


Second-Degree Murder
Felony Murder

Measurement and Extent of Homicide Victimization
Homicide Victimization in the United States

Uniform Crime Reports
Supplemental Homicide Reports
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)

Homicide Victimization Across the Globe
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
World Health Organization

Risk Factors for and Characteristics of Homicide Victimization
Sociodemographic Characteristics of Victims and Offenders

Urbanity and Socioeconomic Status
Victim–Offender Relationship

Incident Characteristics
Weapon Usage
Substance Use

Types of Homicide Victimization

Felonious Homicide Risk and the Elderly
Box 6.1: Grandmas at Risk?

Intimate Partner Homicide
Intimate Partner Homicide Followed by Suicide

Box 6.2: Vienna Declaration on Femicide

Honor Killings
Homicides Involving Multiple Victims

Ripped From the Headlines
Victim Precipitation

Victim Precipitation Theories
Indirect or Secondary Victimization

Common Reactions to Homicide


Additional Stressors

Legal and Community Responses to Homicide Victimization
Police Response
Court Response
Community Response
Restorative Justice Efforts

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

9. Victim Lifestyle as a Correlate of Homicide Clearance
10. Co-Victims of Homicide: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Section VII. Sexual Victimization
What Is Sexual Victimization?

Sexual Victimization Other Than Rape

Box 7.1: The Case of Genarlow Wilson
Sexual Coercion
Unwanted Sexual Contact
Noncontact Sexual Abuse

Measurement and Extent of Sexual Victimization
Uniform Crime Reports
National Crime Victimization Survey
National Violence Against Women Survey
Sexual Experiences Survey
National College Women Sexual Victimization Study
National Study of Drug or Alcohol Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey
AAU Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct

Risk Factors for and Characteristics of Sexual Victimization
Characteristics of Sexual Victimization

Weapon Use

Responses to Sexual Victimization
Reporting to the Police and Others
Resistance or Self-Protective Action


Consequences of Sexual Victimization
Physical, Emotional, and Psychological Effects
Behavioral and Relationship Effects
Recurring Sexual Victimization

Special Case: Sexual Victimization of Males
Legal and Criminal Justice Responses to Sexual Victimization

Legal Aspects of Sexual Victimization
Violence Against Women Act (1994)
HIV and STD Testing
Sex Offender Registration and Notification
Police Response
Medical-Legal Response
Prosecuting Rape and Sexual Assault

Prevention and Intervention
Ripped From the Headlines
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

11. Alcohol Expectancy, Drinking Behavior, and Sexual Victimization Among Female and
Male College Students
12. The Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs: A Review of
Psychological, Medical, Legal, and Community Outcomes

Section VIII. Intimate Partner Violence
Defining Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse
Measurement and Extent

National Crime Victimization Survey
Conflict Tactics Scale

Box 8.1: Sample CTS-2 Questions
National Violence Against Women Survey
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey

Who Is Victimized?
Gender and Intimate Partner Violence
Special Case: Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence
Special Case: Stalking

Risk Factors and Theories for Intimate Partner Violence


Power and Patriarchy
Social Learning
Disability Status
Neighborhood Context
Risky Lifestyle

Associating With Known Criminals
Alcohol and Drugs

Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence
Negative Health Outcomes
Psychological and Emotional Outcomes

Why Abusive Relationships Continue
Criminal Justice System Responses to Intimate Partner Violence

Police Response
Court Response

Legal and Community Responses
Protective Orders
Domestic Violence Shelters

Ripped From the Headlines
Health Care
Family Violence Prevention and Services Act

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

13. Conflict and Control: Gender Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Violence
14. Intimate Partner Violence and the Victim–Offender Overlap
15. Voices of Strength and Resistance: A Contextual and Longitudinal Analysis of
Women’s Responses to Battering

Section IX. Victimization at the Beginning and End of Life: Child and Elder Abuse
Child Maltreatment

What Is Child Maltreatment?
Measurement and Extent of Child Maltreatment
Who Are Victims of Child Maltreatment?
Who Perpetrates Child Maltreatment?
Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

Familial Risk Factors
Individual Risk Factors


Consequences of Child Maltreatment
Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Effects
Psychological Effects
Effect on Criminality and Other Behaviors
Effect on Adult Poverty

Responses to Child Maltreatment
Criminal Justice System

Elder Maltreatment
What Is Elder Maltreatment?

Box 9.1: Abuse of Durable Power of Attorney: Case Example
Measurement and Extent of Elder Maltreatment

Reports From Adult Protective Services
Estimates Derived From Surveys
Special Case: Elder Maltreatment in Institutions
Special Case: Intimate Partner Violence of Older Women
Special Case: Financial Exploitation of the Elderly

Who Are Victims of Elder Maltreatment?
Ripped From the Headlines

Characteristics of Elder Maltreatment Victimization
Risk Factors for Elder Maltreatment

Perpetrator Risk Factors
Routine Activities Theory

Responses to Elder Maltreatment
Criminal Justice System

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

16. Child Abuse and Neglect, Developmental Role Attainment, and Adult Arrests
17. The Epidemiology of Violence Against the Elderly: Implications for Primary and
Secondary Prevention

Section X. Victimization at School and Work
Victimization at School
Victimization at School: Grades K–12

Who Is Victimized?
Risk Factors for School Victimization


Psychosocial Effects of Bullying Victimization
Violent Effects of Bullying Victimization

Responses to School Victimization
Box 10.1: The Story of Phoebe Prince
Box 10.2: Forida’s Bullying/Harassment, Cyberbullying, and Hazing Laws
Victimization at School: College

Who Is Victimized?
Risk Factors for Victimization at College

Lifestyle/Routine Activities

Responses to Campus Victimization

Ripped From the Headlines
Campus Police and Security Measures

Victimization at Work
Definition of Workplace Victimization
Extent of Workplace Victimization
Who Is Victimized at Work?

Demographic Characteristics of Victims
Occupations With Greatest Risk

Special Case: Fatal Workplace Victimization
Demographic Characteristics of Victims
Occupations and Workplaces With Greatest Risk

Risk Factors for Victimization at Work
Special Case: Sexual Harassment
Consequences of Workplace Victimization
Responses to Workplace Victimization

Prevention Strategies
Legislation and Regulation

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

18. Traditional Bullying, Cyber Bullying, and Deviance: A General Strain Theory Approach
19. A Multidimensional Examination of Campus Safety: Victimization, Perceptions of
Danger, Worry About Crime, and Precautionary Behavior Among College Women in the
Post-Clery Era

Section XI. Property and Identity Theft Victimization


Property Victimization

Extent of Theft
Characteristics of Theft
Who Are Theft Victims?
Risk Factors for Theft Victimization

Motor Vehicle Theft
Extent of Motor Vehicle Theft Victimization
Characteristics of Motor Vehicle Theft Victimization
Who Are Motor Vehicle Theft Victims?
Risk Factors for Motor Vehicle Theft Victimization
Response to Motor Vehicle Theft

Household Burglary
Extent of Household Burglary
Characteristics of Household Burglary
What Households Are Burglarized?
Risk Factors for Household Burglary

Identity Theft
Extent of Identity Theft Victimization

Box 11.1: Example of Identity Theft Case
Who Is Victimized by Identity Theft?

Ripped From the Headlines
Characteristics of Identity Theft Victimizations
Risk Factors for Identity Theft Victimization
Consequences of Identity Theft
Responses to Identity Theft Victimization

Box 11.2: CAN-SPAM Act of 2003
Box 11.3: Illinois Identity Theft Law
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

20. Linking Burglary and Target Hardening at the Property Level: New Insights Into
Victimization and Burglary Protection
21. Online Routines and Identify Theft Victimization: Further Expanding Routine Activity
Theory Beyond Direct-Contact Offenses

Section XII. Victimization of Special Populations
Victimization of Persons With Disabilities

Defining Persons With Disabilities


Extent of Victimization of Persons With Disabilities
Who Is Victimized?
Ripped From the Headlines

Violence Against Women With Disabilities
Victimization of Youth With Disabilities

Patterns of Victimization
Risk Factors for Victimization for Persons With Disabilities
Responses to Victims With Disabilities
Victimization of Persons With Mental Illness

Defining Mental Illness
Extent and Type of Victimization of Persons With Mental Illness
Why Are Persons With Mental Illness at Risk for Victimization?
Responses to Victims With Mental Illness

Victimization of the Incarcerated
Extent of Victimization of People in Jail and Prison
Who Is Victimized?
Risk Factors for Victimization While Incarcerated

Previous History of Victimization
Mental Illness
Risk Taking/Self-Control
Institutional Factors
Lifestyles and Routine Activities

Special Case: Sexual Victimization of Incarcerated Persons
Who Is Sexually Victimized?
Risk Factors for Sexual Victimization in Prison and Jail

Responses to Victimization in Prison
Inmate Response
Institutional Response

Box 12.1: The Case of Farmer v. Brennan
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

22. Partner Violence Against Women With Disabilities: Prevalence, Risk, and Explanations
23. Mental Disorder and Violent Victimization: The Mediating Role of Involvement in
Conflicted Social Relationships
24. Vicarious Victimization in Prison: Examining the Effects of Witnessing Victimization
While Incarcerated on Offender Reentry

Section XIII. Victimology From a Comparative Perspective


Victimology Across the Globe
Measurement and Extent of Victimization Across the Globe

International Crime Victims Survey
International Self-Report Delinquency Study
British Crime Survey/Crime Survey for England and Wales
International Violence Against Women Survey

Justice System Responses to Victimization
Victims and the United Nations
International Court of Justice
International Criminal Court

Ripped From the Headlines
Ripped From the Headlines
Victims’ Rights and Assistance Programs

European Union
Different Approaches in Different Locales

Box 13.1: Canadian Victims Bill of Rights
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

25. The International Crime Victims Survey: A Retrospective
26. A Systematic Review of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Elder Abuse in Asia

Section XIV. Contemporary Issues in Victimology: Victims of Hate Crimes, Human Trafficking,
and Terrorism

Victims of Hate Crimes
What Is Hate Crime Victimization?
Extent of Hate Crime Victimization
Who Are Hate Crime Victims?

Individual Characteristics
Type of Hate Crime Victimization Experienced

Special Case: Sexual-Orientation-Bias-Motivated Hate Crime Victimization
Ripped From the Headlines

Characteristics of Hate Crime Victimizations
Risk Factors for Hate Crime Victimization

Box 14.1: Tara’s Story of Experiencing Anti-LGBTQ Victimization
Consequences of Hate Crime Victimization

Consequences for Individuals
Consequences for the Community

Responses to Hate Crime Victimization


Criminal Justice System Response

Victims of Human Trafficking
What Is Human Trafficking?
Extent of Human Trafficking
Who Is Trafficked?
Risk Factors for Human Trafficking

Individual Risk Factors
Country Risk Factors

Consequences for Victims of Human Trafficking
Response to Human Trafficking Victims

International Response
United States Governmental/Criminal Justice Response
Victim Services

Victims of Terrorism
Extent of Terrorism Victimization
Who Are Victims of Terrorism?
Characteristics of Terrorism Victimizations
Risk Factors for Terrorism Victimization
Consequences of Terrorism on Victims
Responses to Victims of Terrorism

Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Internet Resources

27. Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences Among Sexual Minority Adults in the
United States: Prevalence Estimates From a National Probability Sample
28. Challenges to Identifying and Prosecuting Sex Trafficking Cases in the Midwest United
29. Does Watching the News Affect Fear of Terrorism? The Importance of Media
Exposure on Terrorism Fear

About the Author




You hold in your hands a book that is part of a series we have created at SAGE and that we think represents
an innovative approach to criminology and criminal justice pedagogy. It is a “text/reader.” What that means is
that we have attempted to blend the two most commonly used types of books, the textbook and the reader, in
a way that will appeal to both students and faculty.

Our experience as teachers and scholars has been that textbooks for the core classes in criminal justice and
criminology (or any other social science discipline) leave many students and professors cold. The textbooks are
huge, crammed with photographs, charts, highlighted material, and all sorts of pedagogical devices intended
to increase student interest. Too often, though, these books end up creating a sort of sensory overload for
students; they suffer from a focus on “bells and whistles,” such as fancy graphics, at the expense of coverage of
the most current research on the subject matter.

Readers, on the other hand, are typically composed of recent and classic research articles on the subject
matter. They generally suffer, however, from an absence of meaningful textual material. Articles are simply
lined up and presented to the students, with little or no context or explanation. Students, particularly
undergraduate students, are often confused and overwhelmed by the jargon and detailed statistical analysis
presented in the articles.

This text/reader represents our attempt to take the best of both the textbook and reader approaches. It is
composed of research articles on victimology and is intended to serve either as a supplement to a core textbook
or as a stand-alone text. The book includes a combination of previously published articles and textual material
that introduces and provides some structure and context for the selected readings. The book is divided into
sections. The sections follow the typical content and structure of a textbook on the subject. Each section of
the book has an overview of the topic that serves to introduce, explain, and provide context for the readings
that follow. The readings are a selection of the best recent research that has appeared in academic journals, as
well as some essential older readings. The articles are edited as necessary. This variety of research and
perspectives provides students with an understanding of both the development of research and the current
status of research on victimology. This approach gives the student the opportunity to learn the basics (in the
text portion of each section) and to read some of the most interesting research on the subject.

There is also a preface and an introductory chapter on how to read a research article. The preface explains the
organization and content of the book. The introductory chapter provides a framework for the text and articles
that follow and introduces relevant themes, issues, and concepts. This will assist the student in understanding
the articles.

Each section also includes a summary of the material covered and a selection of discussion questions. These
summaries and discussion questions should facilitate student thought and class discussion of the material.

We acknowledge that this approach may be viewed by some as more challenging than the traditional


textbook. To that we say, “Yes! It is!” But we believe that if we raise the bar, our students will rise to the
challenge. Research shows that students and faculty often find textbooks boring to read. It is our belief that

many criminology and criminal justice instructors welcome the opportunity to teach without having to rely on
a standard textbook that covers only the most basic information and that lacks both depth of coverage and an
attention to current research. This book provides an alternative for instructors who want to get more out of
the basic criminal justice courses or curriculum than one can get from a basic textbook that is filled with flashy
but often useless features that merely serve to drive up the cost of the textbook. This book is intended for
instructors who want to go beyond the ordinary, basic coverage provided in textbooks.

We also believe students will find this approach more interesting. They are given the opportunity to read
current, cutting-edge research on the subject, while also being provided with background and context for this
research. We hope that this unconventional approach will make learning and teaching more fun. Crime and
criminal justice are fascinating subjects, and they deserve to be presented in an interesting manner. We hope
you will agree.

Craig Hemmens, JD, PhD, Series Editor

Department of Criminology & Criminal Justice

Missouri State University



Although offender behavior and the impacts of crime have long been studied, how victimization shapes the
lives of victims was not similarly studied until recently. Now, policymakers, practitioners, academics, and
activists alike have recognized the importance of studying the other half of the crime-victim dyad. Indeed, it is
an exciting time to study victimology—an academic field that is growing rapidly. Hence, this text fills a void
in what is currently available in the market. As noted shortly, it is a text that includes brief sections covering
the essentials on victimology. Moreover, it uses a consistent framework throughout to orient the reader, while
addressing the latest topics within the field of victimology. Accompanying the sections are up-to-date
empirical articles that highlight key issues raised in each section and have been edited so that students can
easily understand them.

I have attempted to incorporate a general framework in each section—one that examines the causes and
consequences of specific types of victimization and the responses to them. My intent was to create a
comprehensive yet accessible work that examines many types of victimization from a common framework so
that similarities and differences can be easily identified.

Within this framework, I pay particular attention to identifying the characteristics of victims and incidents so
that theory can be applied to understanding why some people are victims whereas others remain unscathed.
Although the earliest forays into the study of victimology were focused on identifying victim typologies,
theory development in this field has lagged behind that in criminology. Aside from routine activities and
lifestyles theories, there are few theories that explicitly identify causes of victimization. This is not to say that
the field of victimology is devoid of theory—it is just that the theories that have been applied to victimization
are largely derived from other fields of study. I have included a section that discusses these theories.
Furthermore, in each section about a specific type of victimization, I have identified the causes and how
theory may apply. Knowing this is a critical first step in preventing victimization and revictimization.

I also wanted to include throughout the text emerging issues in the field of victimology. To this end, each
section discusses current issues germane to its particular topic. For example, same-sex intimate partner
violence is covered in depth, as are cyberbullying, identity theft victimization, and human trafficking. Other
sections wholly address contemporary issues. Specifically, new to the second edition are sections devoted to
recurring victimization, victims of homicide, and comparative victimology. In addition to these new sections,
other contemporary issues such as victims who suffer from mental illness, victims who are incarcerated, and
victims who have disabilities are discussed. I believe that the inclusion of the latest issues within the field of
victimology will expose the reader to the topics likely to garner the most attention in the years to come. This
text covers these topics while highlighting empirical research that ties into an issue from each section. In
addition, each section uses a real-world news example to connect issues in victimology to current events. As
such, the book is appropriate for undergraduate students as a primary text and for graduate students as a
supplement/resource or as a primary text. Its comprehensive nature allows the instructor to focus on the issues
most relevant to him or her and to his or her students. The book is appropriate for classes within criminal


justice and criminology programs (e.g., …