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Write a 6-page case study paper (4 pages of content) that contains the following sections (include in-text citations from at least 3 peer reviewed sources):

A. Introduction

B. Respond, with your reaction or opinion, to the following statement from your third reading (titled “Does the Transactional-Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries”):

1. Inspirational Motivation – Leaders articulate an appealing vision of the future, challenge followers with high standards, talk optimistically with enthusiasm, and provide encouragement and meaning for what needs to be done. (Bass, 1997).

2. Include an example of a leader that exhibits or exhibited inspirational motivation qualities; describe how they provided inspirational motivation.

C. Respond, with your reaction or opinion, to the following statement from your fourth reading (titled “Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation”):

1. Transformational leadership becomes the motor and transmitter of innovative culture and of the dissemination of knowledge oriented to seeking the best possible organizational performance. (García-Morales, Jiménez-Barrionuevo, Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, 2012).

2. Include an example of a leader that exhibits or exhibited transformational leadership qualities; describe how they provided transformational leadership.

D. Respond to the following two questions from your fifth reading (titled “Transformational Leadership: The Impact on Organizational and Personal Outcomes”):

1. What is the impact of the transformational leadership style on organizational outcomes?

2. What is the impact of the transformational leadership style on the personal outcomes of the follower? (Givens, 2008).

E. Conclusion

Transformational Leadership: The Impact on Organizational and Personal Outcomes Roger J. Givens Regent University Doctoral Student

Transformational leaders inspire followers to accomplish more by concentrating on the follower’s values and helping the follower align these values with the values of the organization. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the impact of the transformational leadership style on organizational outcomes and the personal outcomes of the follower. This review examines the following organizational outcomes: organizational citizenship behavior/performance, organizational culture, and organizational vision. The review also explores the following personal outcomes of the follower: empowerment, job satisfaction, commitment, trust, self-efficacy beliefs, and motivation. By understanding the impact of transformational leadership on these outcomes, transformational leaders can influence employee behavior so that the behavior has a positive impact on the organization.

Transformational leadership theory has captured the interest of many researchers in the field of organizational leadership over the past three decades. This theory was developed by Burns (1978) and later enhanced by Bass (1985, 1998) and others (Avolio & Bass, 1988; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Tichy & Devanna, 1986). The major premise of the transformational leadership theory is the leader’s ability to motivate the follower to accomplish more than what the follower planned to accomplish (Krishnan, 2005). Transformational leadership has four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Bass, 1985). Burns postulated that transformational leaders inspire followers to accomplish more by concentrating on the follower’s values and helping the follower align these values with the values of the organization. Furthermore, Burns identified transformational leadership as a relationship in which the leader and the follower motivated each other to higher levels which resulted in value system congruence between the leader and the follower (Krishnan, 2002).

Transformational leadership has been associated with the personal outcomes (Hatter & Bass, 1988; Barling, Moutinho, & Kelloway, 1998; Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1996) of the follower as well as organizational outcomes (Boerner, Eisenbeiss, & Griesser, 2007; Zhu, Chew, & Spangler, 2005; Jorg & Schyns, 2004; Barling, Weber, & Kelloway, 1996; Howell & Avolio,

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1993). Research has shown that transformational leadership impacts follower satisfaction (Hatter & Bass; Koh, Steers, & Terborg, 1995) and commitment to the organization (Barling et al., 1996; Koh et al.). Research has also shown that transformational leadership impacts employee commitment to organizational change (Yu, Leithwood, & Jantzi, 2002) and organizational conditions (Lam, Wei, Pan, & Chan, 2002). Due to its impact on personal and organizational outcomes, transformational leadership is needed in all organizations (Tucker & Russell, 2004).

According to Aarons (2006), “Leadership is associated with organizational and staff performance” (p. 1163). Personal and organizational behavior related to leadership demands a more candid look at the leadership styles which may have a positive or negative impact on these two variables. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the impact of the transformational leadership style on organizational outcomes and the personal outcomes of the follower. This review will examine the following organizational outcomes: organizational citizenship behavior/performance, organizational culture, and organizational vision. The review will also explore the following personal outcomes of the follower: empowerment, job satisfaction, commitment, trust, self-efficacy beliefs, and motivation. By understanding the impact of transformational leadership on the organizational and personal outcomes mentioned above, transformational leaders can influence and motivate the behavior of employees in such a way that the resultant behavior has a positive impact on the organization.

This literature review will investigate the following areas: transformational leadership theory and its relationship to, or influence on, organizational outcomes and the personal outcomes of the follower. Transformational leadership theory will provide the theoretical framework for examining the organizational and personal outcomes. The literature review will provide information regarding the importance of the transformational leadership theory to research and practice and for responding to the following research questions:

1. What is the impact of the transformational leadership style on organizational outcomes?

2. What is the impact of the transformational leadership style on the personal outcomes of the follower?

The literature review will conclude with the implications for further research, theory, and practice in the area of transformational leadership and organizational and personal outcomes.

Theoretical Framework Transformational leadership theory was developed in the late 20th century by Burns (1978) in his analysis of political leaders. Prior to this time much attention had been given to the examination of the approaches of leaders who successfully transformed organizations. Burns characterized transformational leadership as that which “occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality” (p. 20). He believed that transformational leadership could raise followers from a lower level to a higher level of needs which agrees with Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs. Bass (1985) refined and expanded Burns’ leadership theory. Bass said that a leader is “one who motivates us to do more than we originally expected to do” (p. 20). He said that this motivation could be achieved by raising the awareness level about the importance of outcomes and ways to reach them. Bass also said that leaders encourage followers to go beyond self- interest for the good of the team or the organization.

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An expanded and refined version of Burn’s transformational leadership theory has been utilized in organizations since the 1980s (Bass, 1985; Bass, Waldman, Avolio, & Bebb, 1987; Tichy & Devanna, 1986). The use of this theory concentrated on exchanges between leaders and followers inside the organization. Transformational leadership serves as a means to “create and sustain a context for building human capacity by identifying and developing core values and unifying purpose, liberating human potential and generating increased capacity, developing leadership and effective followership, utilizing interaction-focused organizational design, and building interconnectedness” (Hickman, 1997, p. 2). Transformational leaders work to bring about human and economic transformation. Within the organization they generate visions, missions, goals, and a culture that contributes to the ability of individuals, groups, and the organization to “practice its values and serve its purpose” (Hickman, 1997, p. 9). These leaders are reliable leaders who generate commitment from followers which results in a sense of shared purpose (Waddock & Post, 1991). The leader’s ability to inspire, motivate, and foster commitment to a shared purpose is crucial (Bass, Waldman et al., 1987). Several studies have documented important connections between transformational leadership and organizational operation. Transformational leadership has been linked to an array of outcomes, such as employee commitment to the organization (Barling, Weber, & Kelloway, 1996) and job satisfaction and satisfaction with a leader (Koh, Steers, & Terborg, 1995; Lowe & Kroeck, 1996). Bryman (1992) discovered that transformational leadership is positively related to a number of important organizational outcomes including perceived extra effort, organizational citizenship behaviors, and job satisfaction. According to Trice and Beyer (1993) and Schein (1985), leadership can change and sustain the culture of the organization by generating new or reinforcing established sets of beliefs, shared values, practices, and norms within organizations. Trust in the workplace is another outcome that is developed through the organization’s leaders (Creed & Miles, 1996; Shaw, 1997). Literature concerning trust suggests that it is a central feature in the relationship that transformational leaders have with their followers (Butler, Cantrell, & Flick, 1999; Gillespie & Mann, 2000; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Bommer, 1996).

Organizational Outcomes

Transformational leaders influence subordinates by motivating and inspiring them to achieve organizational goals (Bass & Avolio, 1995). Transformational leaders also try to help subordinates imagine appealing future outcomes (Bass & Avolio) related to the organization. Research has shown that transformational leaders affect organizational outcomes such as organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, effort, and in- role performance (Nguni, Sleegers, & Denessen, 2006). This review of literature will specifically examine the influence of transformational leadership on the following organizational outcomes: organizational citizenship behavior/performance, organizational culture, and organizational vision. Table 1 presents characteristics of each outcome.

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Table 1: Organizational Outcomes

Organizational outcomes Characteristics Related studies

Organizational citizenship behavior/ performance

1. Positive benefits for organizations and organization personnel

2. Positive, selfless behavior 3. Positive effect on employee

performance

Ackfeldt & Leonard, 2005; Bolino, Turnley, & Bloodgood, 2002; Barksdale & Werner, 2001; Nguni, Sleegers & Denessen, 2006; MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Ahearne, 1998

Culture 1. Influence of leader can be seen in employees who work in organization

2. Impacts commitment, performance and productivity

3. Revision of shared assumptions and values

Denison, 1984; Posner, Kouzes, & Schmidt, 1985; Jones, Felps, and Bigley, 2007

Vision 1. Followers’ frame of reference or thinking is changed so that they see new opportunities that were not noticed before

2. Followers are inspired to reach their potential in the context of the work that needs to be done to achieve the organization’s vision and mission

Mink, 1992; Keller, 1995; Zaccaro & Banks, 2001

Organizational Citizenship Behavior/Performance Organizational citizenship behavior/performance is described as non-obligatory, voluntary behavior by an employee, which exceeds the employee’s normal work duties and is not associated with any type of organizational reward system (Organ, 1990). Research has shown that organizational citizenship behavior/performance has a positive effect on employee performance (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Ahearne, 1998; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000) and produces positive benefits for organizations and organizational personnel (Ackfeldt & Leonard, 2005; Bolino, Turnley, & Bloodgood, 2002; Barksdale & Werner, 2001). According to Schlechter and Engelbrecht (2006), “Organizational citizenship behavior is by its very nature an extremely positive and desirable behavioral phenomenon. It is behavior that the organization would want to promote and encourage” (p. 2). Moreover, organizational citizenship behavior/performance is positive, selfless behavior for organizations because it involves employees giving help to each other without the expectation that those receiving the help will have to give anything back in return (Nguni, Sleegers, & Denessen, 2006).

Past research has demonstrated that transformational leadership has a direct influence on organizational citizenship behavior/performance (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Rich, 2001; Podsakoff, MacKenzie & Bommer, 1996; Koh et al., 1995).

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Transformational leaders are assumed to “stimulate followers to perform beyond the level of expectations” (Bass, 1985, p. 32). Therefore, it seems likely that transformational leaders, by stimulating followers’ organizational citizenship behavior (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990), enhance quality and quantity of follower performance.

Bass (1990) theorized that transformational leadership creates employees who are unselfish, faithful, and connected to the organization. These types of employees often perform beyond what is expected of them (Bass, 1985) in relation to their job descriptions. Several studies have shown a direct connection between transformational leadership and the following organizational citizenship behaviors: virtue, helping, sportsmanship, courtesy, and altruism (MacKenzie et al., 2001; Pillai, Schriesheim, & Williams, 1999; Podsakoff et al., 1990). Based on past empirical research (Zellars, Tepper, & Duffy, 2002; Koh et al., 1995), Schlechter and Engelbrecht (2006) concluded that transformational leadership has a direct and an indirect impact on organizational citizenship behavior.

H1: The transformational leadership style will have a positive impact on organizational

citizenship behavior/performance. Organizational Culture Organizational culture influences every facet of an organization (Saffold, 1988) and impacts various organizational outcomes such as commitment, performance, productivity, self- confidence, and ethical behavior (Deal & Kennedy, 1982; Denison, 1984; Ouchi, 1981; Posner, Kouzes, & Schmidt, 1985; Pritchard & Karasick, 1973; Sathe, 1985). Several definitions have been proposed to describe culture. Tichy (1982) defined culture as the “glue that holds an organization together” (p. 63). Forehand and von Gilmer (1964) stated that an organization’s culture is comprised of distinctive characteristics that distinguishes a particular organization from all others. Jones, Felps, and Bigley (2007) proposed a more elaborate definition of organizational culture. These authors described organizational culture in the following manner:

In general, culture is a property of an organization constituted by (1) its members’ taken- for-granted beliefs regarding the nature of reality, called assumptions; (2) a set of normative, moral, and functional guidelines or criteria for making decisions, called values; and (3) the practices or ways of working together that follow from the aforementioned assumptions and values, called artifacts (Geertz, 1973; Hatch, 1993; Pettigrew, 1979; Schein, 1985, 1990; Trice & Beyer, 1984). Organizational culture reflects a sort of negotiated order (Fine, 1984) that arises and evolves as members work together, expressing preferences, exhibiting more-or-less effective problem-solving styles (Swidler, 1986), and managing, at least satisfactorily, external demands and internal needs for coordination and integration (Schein, 1990). In effect, culture represents an aspect of the organizational environment that helps members make sense of their own and others’ behavior (Golden, 1992). (p. 142)

The leadership style of the organization’s leader has a major impact on the development of the organization’s culture. According to Schein (1985, 1995), the leader’s beliefs, values, and assumptions shape the culture of the organization and these beliefs, values, and assumptions are then taught to other members of the organization. Schein also stated that leaders have the power to embed organizational culture through various methods such as mentoring, role modeling, and teaching. Bass and Avolio (1993) provided the following description of transformational culture:

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In a transformational culture, one fitting with the model of the four I’s, there is generally a sense of purpose and a feeling of family. Commitments are long-term. Leaders and followers share mutual interests and a sense of shared fates and interdependence. A transformational leadership culture, like leadership, can build on or augment the transactional culture of the organization. The inclusion of assumptions, norms, and values which are transformationally based does not preclude individuals pursuing their own goals and rewards. (p. 116)

The influence of transformational leaders on organizational cultures can be seen in the employees who work in the organization (Tucker & Russell, 2004). Transformational leaders help subordinates discover who they are and what part they play in helping the organization achieve its mission. By interacting with subordinates in this manner, transformational leaders help subordinates increase their level of commitment to the organization (Tucker & Russell). Transformational leaders also influence the organization’s culture through its impact on organizational productivity. When the values and the culture of an organization are accentuated by transformational leaders, productivity and innovation within the organization improves (Niehoff, Enz, & Grover, 1990). Moreover, transformational leaders influence organizational culture by helping organizations see the world in different ways (Mink, 1992). As the external environment of the organization changes, transformational leaders influence organizational culture by helping organizations adapt to this new environment (Smith, 1990).

Studies in various organizational types such as the military (Bass, Avolio, & Goodheim, 1987), religious organizations (Smith, Carson, & Alexander, 1984), industry (Avolio & Bass, 1987; Hatter & Bass, 1988), technology (Howell & Higgins, 1990), and laboratory settings (Waldman, Bass, & Einstein, 1987) all demonstrate that transformational leaders provide the leadership style which produces effective organizations (Sashkin, 1987). According to Schein (1992), “Organizational culture can determine the degree of effectiveness of the organization either through its strength or through its type” (p. 24). Weese (1995) conducted a study on several university sports programs and the results showed that transformational leaders have organizations with strong cultures and are better than other leaders at providing activities which continue to build culture.

H2: The transformational leadership style will have a positive impact on long-term commitment, a sense of purpose, and the mutual interest of leaders and followers.

Organizational Vision Transformational leadership has four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Bass, 1985) which involves motivating people, establishing a foundation for leadership authority and integrity, and inspiring a shared vision of the future (Tracey & Hinkin, 1998). Idealized influence and inspirational motivation are connected with the leader’s ability to formulate and articulate a shared vision (Dionne, Yammarino, Atwater, & Spangler, 2004). The leader exudes power and impacts followers through visionary means (Bass, 1985). Developing a transparent vision and inspiring subordinates to pursue the vision is of great importance to transformational leaders (Lievens, Van Geit, and Coetsier, 1997). According to Tucker and Russell (2004),

Transformational leaders emphasize new possibilities and promote a compelling vision of the future. A strong sense of purpose guides their vision. Transforming organizations led

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by transforming leaders appeal to human characteristics that lift their sights above the routine, everyday elements of a mechanistic, power-oriented system. Transformational leaders manifest passionate inspiration (Hersey & Blanchard, 1996) and visibly model appropriate behaviors (Kouzes & Posner, 1987). The goal is change that raises the organizations to new and exciting possibilities. To reach the goal, organizations must receive new energy and vision from their leaders. The process of transformational leadership grows out of this sense of vision and energy. (p. 105)

Several studies (Davidhizer & Shearer, 1997; Keller, 1995; King, 1994; Mink, 1992; Wofford & Goodwin, 1994; Zaccaro & Banks, 2001) have been conducted that demonstrate a positive relationship between transformational leaders and organizational vision. Transformational leaders are necessary in all organizations. The primary goal of these leaders is to change the current structure of the organization and inspire organizational employees to believe in a new vision that has new opportunities (Tucker & Russell) for the individual and the organization as a whole.

H3: The transformational leadership style will have a positive impact on organizational vision.

Summary The transformational leadership theory has been positively linked to a variety of organizational outcomes (Bryman, 1992). The researchers (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Rich, 2001; Podsakoff, MacKenzie & Bommer, 1996; Avolio & Bass, 1987; Hatter & Bass, 1988; Zaccaro & Banks, 2001; Davidhizer & Shearer, 1997) demonstrated that transformational leadership has a positive influence on organizational citizenship behavior/performance, organizational culture, and organizational vision. This literature review has significant implications for transformational leadership research, theory, and practice. From a theoretical perspective, the literature review confirms the assertions of the transformational leadership theory, provides empirical evidence, and strengthens the belief that transformational leadership produces positive results for organizations. From a research standpoint, the literature review opens the door for further research on subordinates’ perception of the transformational leader’s influence on these and other organizational outcomes. Further research should also be performed to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on organizational climate. Organizational culture and climate “have been viewed as being distinct, a function of, or reaction to one another” (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2002). The research should determine whether or not the transformational leader’s influence on organizational climate is congruent with or stands in contradiction to the transformational leader’s influence on organizational culture. From a practical outlook, this review of literature can help transformational leaders identify areas in which their particular leadership style has been proven to be most effective for organizations. This review of literature can also help these leaders better align their leadership skills with the goals and values of the organization so that their influence throughout the organization is greater and produces the highest level of results for the organization.

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Personal Outcomes

Research studies have repeatedly shown that transformational leadership is positively connected to personal outcomes (Dumdum, Lowe, & Avolio, 2002; Fuller, Patterson, Hester, & Stringer, 1996). The relationship between transformational leadership and personal outcomes such as job satisfaction and commitment is well established (Bass, 1998). Bass (1985) declared that transformational leaders inspire their followers to go above and beyond their own self interests for the sake of the organization as a whole. As a result, these leaders are able to bring a deeper insight and appreciation of input received from each member. Bass (1985) further argued that transformational leaders encourage followers to think critically and look for new approaches to do their jobs. This challenge given to followers motivates them to become more involved in their tasks which results in an increase in the degree of satisfaction with their work and commitment to the organization. There is also empirical support for this position. Dvir, Eden, Avolio, and Shamir (2002) showed that transformational leaders had a direct impact on followers’ empowerment, morality, and motivation. In another experimental study, Barling, Weber, and Kelloway (1996) reported a significant impact of transformational leadership on followers’ commitment and unit-level financial performance. Other studies also showed positive relationships between transformational leadership and personal outcomes such as satisfaction, performance, and commitment (Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995; Dundum et al.; Fuller et al.; Koh, Steers, & Terborg, 1995;). By showing respect and confidence in their followers, transformational leaders create a great degree of trust and loyalty on the part of the followers to the extent that followers are willing to identify with the leader and the organization. This trust and loyalty results in followers who trust in and identify with the leader and are willing to commit to the organization even under very difficult circumstances.

This review of literature will specifically examine the influence of transformational leadership on the following personal outcomes: empowerment, job satisfaction, commitment, trust, self-efficacy beliefs, and motivation. Table 2 presents characteristics of each outcome.

Empowerment Transformational leaders utilize behavior that empowers followers and intensifies their motivation (Masi & Cooke, 2000). Followers are empowered not only by the vision formed by the transformational leader, but also by the signals the leader sends regarding their capacity to achieve that vision (Eden, 1992). Transformational leaders construct a participative climate and empowered condition that allows followers to respond quickly and with flexibility to change in organizational and environmental demands (Lawler, 1994; Harrison, 1995).

Transformational leadership theory has repeatedly stressed followers’ progress in the direction of independence and empowerment over robotically following a leader (Graham, 1988). Intellectuals consider a critical-independent approach to be a necessary empowerment process among followers of transformational leaders. Bass and Avolio (1990) stated that transformational leaders augment followers’ power to think on their own, develop fresh ideas, and question operating rules that are archaic. Avolio and Gibbons (1988) stated that a major goal of transformational leadership is to develop follower self-management and self-development. Shamir (1991) similarly stressed the transformational impact of transformational leaders on follower independence. The view that empowerment is an outcome of transformational leadership is also consistent with Kelley’s (1992) theory of styles of followership. According to

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Conger and Kanungo (1988), transformational leadership is also connected to empowerment through self-efficacy.

H4: The transformational leadership style will have a positive impact on empowerment.

Table 2: Personal Outcomes

Personal outcomes Characteristics Related studies

Empowerment 1. Followers’ power to think on their own 2. Participative climate 3. Self-efficacy

Masi & Cooke, 2000

Job satisfaction 1. Stems from follower’s perception 2. Responsibility and autonomy in work

tasks

Maeroff, 1988; Nguni, Sleegers, & Denessen, 2006; Emery & Barker, 2007

Commitment 1. Enthusiasm 2. Work experiences, organizational and 3. personal factors serve as antecedents

Allen & Meyer, 1990, 1996; Dee, Henkin, & Singleton, 2004; Nguni, Sleegers, & Denessen, 2006

Trust 1. Essential in relationship …

,

Journal of Business Research 65 (2012) 1040–1050

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Business Research

Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation☆

Víctor Jesús García-Morales 1, María Magdalena Jiménez-Barrionuevo ⁎, Leopoldo Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez 2

University of Granada, Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Business Organization, Campus Cartuja s.n., Granada 18071, Spain

☆ The authors gratefully acknowledge the coope provided by the Spanish Ministry of Education (Proj Andalusian Regional Government (Excellence Research ments by Matías-Reche, University of Granada and Ver Hernandez (Elche) on an earlier draft were helpful in r alone are responsible for all limitations and errors that m paper. ⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 958 24 0937; fax:

E-mail addresses: [email protected] (V.J. García-Morale (M.M. Jiménez-Barrionuevo), [email protected] (L. Gutiérrez

1 Tel.: +34 958 24 2354; fax: +34 958 24 6222. 2 Tel.: +34 958 24 1000×20174; fax: +34 958 24 62

0148-2963/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Al doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.03.005

a b s t r a c t

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history: Received 1 May 2010 Received in revised form 1 October 2010 Accepted 1 March 2011 Available online 31 March 2011

Keywords: Transformational leadership Organizational innovation Organizational learning Organizational performance

This study analyzes the influences of transformational leadershi